INTRODUCTION

Today, as in the past, the triad, family, school, and community, is formed by institutions, in which a system of values should be built in order to give legitimacy and viability to the Nation. The school, with its own teaching nature is, without a doubt, the one in charge of guiding the axiological route that allows society to cohesion and build responsible citizens, ready to face the challenges that social, economic, cultural and political changes have brought, and that their participation would be to guarantee a prosperous, pacific and certainly happy country.

The objective of this book oneducating with values, proposed by Tamaulipas Integral Family Development (Sistema para el Desarrollo Integral de la Familia de Tamaulipas, DIF, for its initials in Spanish) is to complement the Tamaulipas Education Ministry’s program of civic education and ethics (SET,for its initials in Spanish). To contribute to the reinforcement school, family and society through education with values is one of the most important tasks of DIF Tamaulipas. School,because of its essence and vocation, because of its function and influence, and because of the time students spend there, becomes the perfect place to reinforce learning values among students, not only in its ethical approach, but also in preparing them as future active citizens participating in their duties with their Nation.

Two sense dimensions in educational systems

There are two dimensions regarding contemporary educational systems that give legitimacy and importance to the formation and preservation of the institutions in society, and to the incorporation of the following generations for their development. The first dimension is stated as the one having the function of transmitting knowledge through appropriate educational models where teaching is the main purpose the second dimension refers to accomplishing the complex process of forming students to integrate them to society as responsible peopleby educating them with values as a unique way of teaching, which prepare them for life, in their development as human beingsand to actively participate in the perfection of their own society.

For both dimensions, teaching and formation, there exists paradoxical situations, which some how limit their application. When teaching, not only does pertinent criteria complicate its functionality, but also –paradoxically- the increasing amount of knowledge that the geniuses of the scientific-technologic revolution constantly generate, and the frequent development of theories on society, culture, economy and politics, which encourages and renews social practice, to the point that school time available for teaching becomes limited. For formation, not only the available time is reduced, but because of its exceptional nature, its teaching becomes somewhat complex, due to the fact that it cannot separate the person who is learning from what has to be learnt, as it happens with other subjects in the curriculum, such as Physics, Chemistry, Biology, etc.

In other words, the aspects of subjectivity, emotions, affections, sensitivity and personal experiences need a different approach from the one who is solely transmitting knowledge. Because of the scarcity of time, it becomes necessary for the student to learn actively, to search for knowledge in available sources: libraries, Internet, cultural sections in the newspaper or magazines, and audiovisual aids from movies, television and theater.

It is clear that a world in constant change needs that the subjects of education become active. The main objective is to encourage and develop own learning, and to develop cognitive (motivational) skills, which prepare them for continuous learning. Simple repetition and memorization, encyclopedic teaching, discipline and textbook centered teaching are not sufficient to achieve new knowledge. This requires knowledge comprehension, giving importance to the significance of processes,students’ organization forms based in self-management of knowledge, the role of libraries as a teaching resource, the qualitative evaluations as well as the quantitative ones, and the careful use of new information technologies in the quest for knowledge.

The formation as an educational dimension doesn’t mean that it is a purely intuitive or reflexive approach. It must rely, the same as other aspects of learning on a group of systematic procedures that could take it to the continuation of a learnt event.

When we talk about the training of students with values, particularly in the first stages of learning, we are referring, not only to the acquisition of certain positive behaviors, butalso to the internalization of a group of values which shall guide them in their life and interactions in all the social areas where they have to be included and participate.

The problem of how to trigger this learning process of values, that becomes affected by the influence of multiple sociocultural behavioral models which are presented to the students on a regular basis, this fact takes us to consider a special way of teaching, that allows us to focus on what must be learnt, and could give them a certain autonomy against the perverse stimuli from other behavioral models. This way of teaching has been explained as learning through competencies.

In the same way that the students will have to learn a number of competencies to obtain a relevant, appropriate and useful education for their lives and their community participation, we must be aware that the teacher must be able to master competencesas well to educate the students with values. This implies the acquisition of a new role as a teacher, that must be not only as a mentor, but also as an adviser, counselor, tutor, friend, and partner in the knowledge construction of students, of course, without trying to replace their learning.

The objective of this book is precisely, not only giving the teacher a group of resources to improve the education with values, but also, to let the teacher work in personal achievement of the group of competencies that are necessary for teaching.

It is evident that the school has been transformed, and together with it, the knowledge that has to be taught to students. The most important actors have changed their roles, some of them for good, and others for worse. However, the school as an institution is still the citizens’ favorite, and also one of the most demanded by them. Its mission of being the place where knowledge is expected to acquirea better position, and opportunities of development within society, all this makes it vulnerable to all the critical situations of the same society. People expect too much from school, and in correspondence, not always has enough resources to satisfy all the demands that education imposes in this new era we are currently living.

Contemporary society imposes growing challenges to educational institutions and to those who are part of them, whether they are principals, teachers, students, or employees. Nevertheless, it keeps on being a niche where the new generations learn how to be part of the change and development of society. To summarize, we could say, that education with values allows us to discover who we are, how to improve, to whom and for whom we do it.

“Tell me which values you have and I will tell you who you are”, as the Stagirite philosopher would say.

The importance of values facing the challenges of contemporary Tamaulipas’ society

Tamaulipas’ society is not isolated from the changes that are happening in all societies in the world. These changes have deeply affected the lifestyles of its inhabitants, their costumes, traditions and rules for living. Having a territory that connects with the United States has brought not only some complications, but economic opportunities as well.

The changes brought by globalization, and particularly by the North America Free Trade Agreement, signed by the United States, Mexico and Canada, caused industrialization to widely develop and social, economic and demographic characteristics of this region radically change. Tamaulipas became a point of attraction to the people in southern Mexico, and also to people in other nations. Its population grew in a way that it affected its previous and well-balanced distribution in its main cities, becoming, an attractive point for employment and economic development. In the south, is the conurbation of Altamira, Tampico and Ciudad Madero, as an effect of the consolidation of oil extraction and petro chemistry industry, as well as for having two of the most important seaports in Mexico. In the north, the bordering region attracted most of the migration motivated by the national and international manufacturing industry implanted there or seeking an opportunity of migrating to the United States.

The speeding process of change in the Tamaulipas’ population to an industrial and service society had noticeable consequences. All this change was not entirely positive. It could be summarized in a relative crisis of values and mistrust towards many of the institutions that regulate daily life.

Education with values is not a simple task. The school has to face the competence of many social agents whose influence is out of proportion because of the resources they have. The media and entertainment have invaded almost all the leisure time of children, teenagers, youth and adults, which contribute to the deterioration of many values and to their extreme relativity. They tend to show habits, costumes and norms that are prone to convert the audience into subjects of consumption, addicts to violent shows, and to the exposition to models of behaviors that are not legally accepted, or they weaken the consolidation of personal social networks.

It is not enough to simply mention that certain examples given in the media, or in neighborhood living, or even in the same family are negative, in order forstudents to avoid them. It is another approach that must be used. The exercise of this axiological teaching proposed covers the need of generating meaningful experiences, involving conditions, necessary reflections, and productive dialogues that result in a conscience of actions and a rationale of their consequences. No one can learn from someone else’s experience. That is, the students have to be able to “make it conscious”, to incorporate it not only to their knowledge background, but also to their everyday behavior when they are faced with conflicts presented in their lives.

Educational investigation has developed several procedures to make more efficient what we can design as complex learning; especially those that can be applied to various vital situations. From this class of transversal learning, values are conformed. Because of this, to make values beunderstood, it is necessary that they are interiorized and become part of the internal norms that control the actions of the person. Techniques that represent relatively complex environments are required, but within a scale that is manageable by the school and classroom environments.

Scenarios have the most versatility, adequacy, and adaptability to accomplish the objectives of an education with values.It is because of this characteristic that this technique has been selected, due to the fact that it allows a process of immersion of students in meaningful situations, in which they can activelysolve problems, dilemmas, and conditions, generating and building their own and shared learning.

The people of Tamaulipas and values.

In a recent study, sponsored by DIF Tamaulipas, onthe values of its states’ population, it was found that persons from Tamaulipas show a strong social orientation to ward traditionalism, which enforces the problems of gender inequality, family violence, child abuse, paternalism, authoritarianism and low civic participation (Moreno Álvarez, 2004).

It was found in other studies from the main cities in Tamaulipas (Cappello, 1993, 1995 y 1996) that the people from this state tend to be passive in their social relationships; in their jobs’ activities, a significant percentage tends to be undisciplined; it is frequent that they avoid making decisions and assuming personal responsibilities. A big part of the population shows a tendency towards magical thoughts, and they blame destiny or bad luck for the failure of their actions. Regarding authority, most of the population shows certain ambivalence, because on one hand, they seem to be submissive in their presence, and on the other, they express hostility when they exercise authority over their subordinates.

They show fear and uncertainty towards the process of change. Their attitude about religion is positive, but often negative concerning church authorities. They love free time, and even though they like to enjoy nature, they don’t show respect for it. In a study conducted in Tamaulipas (Cappello, 1999), the people surveyed surprisingly considered that environmental pollution and destruction of green areas in the state were the least problematic issues.

However, they showed a positive attitude towards industrialization, commerce, and education. They expressed a strong concern about social violence, drug addiction, and organized crime. In general, they grant a low value to personal health.They expose their physical well being to conducts that will surely hurt them, and consider that tobacco, alcohol, and other addictions will cause them relative harm. Preventive health care is not common in many men. Women showed more concern, particularly associated with their roles as mothers, but personally, they consider that loss of health could be fatal.

Referring to ethical universal values, their orientation tends to relativism, where the majority of the population gives them little attention. It seems they are not worried about them.

Education in values must be differenced from teaching of values. In the first case, when students are educated in values, the judgment about men and his nature is the most important thing. We refer to the topics and teaching techniques that are required for the students to be able to systematically guide their behavior with the orientations that society consider as valuable. The teaching of values is focused on the instruction of conceptual, informative, and disciplinary aspects.

With the results of the investigations about values in Tamaulipas, it is seriously considered that education with values should be oriented in a very incisive way towards the formative aspect. It must be focused on the relationship between values and behavior, contextualizing the most conspicuous problems that communities, families, and individuals face.

I. FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATION IN VALUES BASED ON COMPETENCIES

School, education, and values.

Education and values have been considered as an obligated relationship to school since the former doesn’t finish its job in simple transmission of knowledge, but assumes the formation of students as one of its main functions, so that they can successfully face their lives, and maturely participate in a society that will demand from them as committed citizens.

The main aspect of this formation is the learning of values, from individual to collective, which reach their maximum significancefor exercising democratic coexistence.

Concept of values

From a Humanistic perspective, the supreme value is manhood –humanity- and the basic moral foundation of human society is its preservation, development, and perfection. Respect for life would be the value related with that preservation, emanating, extending and transferring to a complex group of facts, experiences, and behaviors pertaining to life, as peace preservation, health, environment, and public safety.

While responsibility to comply norms and obligations that improve the relationships of coexistence, institutions, and jobs, respond to the value of social and material development – the whole society- the quest for a fair and equitable society – in all dimensions of human existence: social, economic, cultural and political- would lead to perfecting human beings as citizens.

The conception of aaxiological pillar, considering the human being as a moral base, lies in three basic dimensions: Respect for life; Vocation for development, and Perfection achievement- Equity and Justice- that allow how to identify the way these values are expressed in different stages of educational development of the individual and society.

The “experienciation” is not achieved with the simple systematic exposition from concepts that integrate the value as a public and specific event represented on a cognitive category. The students should be incorporated with everything involving emotions and affections, in order to experiment what the value means. Education must start from emotions provoked by specific situations when students face dilemmas that offer experiencing values in personal and social life.

Education with values presents serious challenges for the teacher in different school levels. The management of students’ sensitivity implies the comprehension of the degree of emotional and cognitive maturity in the different ages of the students.

During development, children, teenagers and youth, besides absorbing knowledge from everywhere –formal and informal education- have a growing ability to get vital experiences that come from family role models, media, friends and surrounding community, reproducing the behavior of the observed models – consciously and unconsciously- whether good or bad, and interiorizing them as part of their identity and character. Therefore, the simple exposition as a vehicle to model axiological behaviors are insufficient. There must be another way of teaching, and another way of integrating themto the students’ curriculum.

Clyde Kluckhohn (1957), regarding values, considers that the inappropriate conceptions of the relationship between normative and existential propositions come from the disproportioned vision from existing differences and similarities among them. Lepley (1959), rejecting the emphasis that tends to exist between judgment of value and judgment of facts, claims it isa mere extrinsic distinction. According to Thorndike (1932), the judgment of value refers to the consequences of factual situations; and therefore, they are from the same type. The distinction between judgment of value and judgment of facts has a classifying nature; object of the former are the relationships via-end, and the latter, cause and effect relationships.

The integration of values in a system, a major factor in the characterization of particular structures (person, family, institutions), it becomes a necessary condition for the integration of motivations in a determined motivational system, which at the same time acts as a factor of identification of personality.

Finally, integration that forms personality, insofar it confers regularity tosocial behaviors and becomes predictable; becomes a necessary condition for role expectations to be formed around the social actors in interaction. Value integration in the personality system is made by a process of internalization that transforms value in a supplementary motivation of the action. Because of this, we must complement the approach of Kluckhohm with the interpretation that Moscovici gives to this process in the Theory of Social Representations (1986).

In most of contemporary educational systems, the so called values are the ones that are included for learning. And these values are the ones considered to support the proposal of education with the values that we present here.

The program of education with values, while taken in a general way by the educational institutions,isconsidered a triple axis –Organism, Ethics, and Environment- sometimes adding a module on civics. The program here in develops special treatments designed to address typical problems such as citizen morality -civic participation-, family and child violence -, problems in the environment- pollution, destruction of natural habitat, public gardens, recreational centers, forests, rivers, and coasts-, and public health problems and prevention- diseases, body hygiene, and collective health-, and finally, aspects of social and economic change in current circumstances: employment,business, efficiency, support, science and technology, personal development and collective progress. “Experience, contextualization, and active participation are the means for an education with values”. In other words, to incorporate the values to our behavior we must live by them, feel them, and get excited with them, as an intimate and external experience.

The school’s role in promoting values

The school in the 21st century has been transformed like all other institutions that are part of our current society. It is no longer an isolated element that allowed certain isolation from society problems, so a student, calmly, under the direction of the teacher, could learn norms for the reproduction of culture, for preparation, and complying society’s demands outside of school, as well as, adapting to the conditions that family and community impose.

The current school has moved from its initial isolation to the growing demands of a society moving towards post modernism, to the scientific-technological revolution, to the empire of massmedia, to the diversity of cultures, the socio economic ending of national borders, the growing demand of new roles, the cosmopolitanism of costumes, and to the expanding markets of globalization.

The school is involved in a constant demand. It is no longer a guarantee of school education, but has become somewhat a substitution of the family’s responsibility in forming students with values. School is demanded to be a center of knowledge and acceptance of external institutions to the preceding role, like the ones dedicated to healthcare, justice, politics, environment and new values appearing from the society’s internalization processes.

As Gilbert (2001) has said,student centered education, the integrated curriculum from preschool through high school, the construction of knowledge, the heterogeneous grouping, the cooperative study groups, the school as a community, the recognition of diversity, critical thinking, are all important, but, above all these aspects, education is a process of life.

On the other hand, school must instruct students for a democratic life. Gutmann (2001) advises that all the students must be prepared to participate as politically equal citizens, in the deliberate configuration of the future of society.

To sum up, we can say that students must be instructed in critical reflection. Rollano (2004) claims that school, in education with values must form human beings able to acquire those cognitive and affective skills that, in harmony, could help them coexist with the necessary balance and understanding to integrate themas individuals who belong to society, and also as a unique human being in the world surrounding him/her. We can consider that people and the whole society are in the middle of a crisis, and that, evidently, we are suffering a serious value crisis. This causes schoolto emerge with a very important role as a rescuer.

Ten approaches to develop education with values

In the educational environment and among experts in education with values, it is recognized that they are most frequently acquired through example ratherthan through recommendations, admonitions, punishments and rewards or by mere school instruction. There are several conditions that must be fulfilled by an effective education with values. Also, we have to consider the students’ experience, their context, and the events’ familiarity that are used to reach an axiological education. Outside their direct experience, their everyday context, and unusual conditions, or outside family perceptions, all education with values will have as a result undefiled achievements.

There are no written or specific rules to develop a strategy for education with values. However, we could present, as useful suggestions, a group of approaches that the teacher needs to take into account to teach education with values.

The first approach is to consider that it is not an easy or simple task; so, we have to accept that it is a complex task, of totalizing processes, of rich and diverse situations.

The second approach is to consider that education with values responds to a conception of “integrality” (forgive the neologism). In other words, a value could not be conceptualized as a divisible structure. No one could be considered half honest, or thirty percent honest. You are honest, or you are not honest.

The third approach is the consideration that values have the property of being transversal. This is, they could be applied to a great different number of facts, situations, objects and conditions.

The fourth approach refers to multidimensionality. Values possess the characteristic that, regardless the place where they were learnt, they could be applied to different areas of social interaction. The counter-values also have this characteristic, and that’s why they are considered dangerous.

The fifth approach considers the correspondence between universal and relative as a characteristic of values. This refers to the appropriate areas of application, the same application, and adequacy, and also the interpretation in the sociocultural diversity. For example, tolerance is considered as a universal value, but is restricted by what guides it. It is evident that, even in the culture of a racist group, this cannot be tolerated because it threatens the ethical implications of the same value.

The sixth approach refers to the fact that education with values takes as a foundation the “reality as educational space”. We educate with values, not for a purely abstract instance, but taking into account the real problems that the students face. Because of this, this kind of education goes beyond the purely scholar environments, and seeks to influence the family and proximal and broader community.

The seventh approach emphasizes that education with values must consider the relationship between the students and their development, in the double conception of growth and development skills of the person, and the development of the person as an intelligent, and ethical human being.

Private and public aspects are the main topics of the eighth approach that has to be considered. We can say that education allows the development of an individual personality with an individual values’ system, it is true that the limits between private and public are so narrow, because their relationship with the community is always close, and, each individual fact transcends to public life. That’s the reason why education is interested in preparing students as citizens.

The ninth approach refers to the idea that values are products of learning, but they are influenced by the students’ particularities, their social vocations, and their preferences about knowledge. This has to be considered as a triad of components: personality, vocation, and knowledge.

The tenth approach considers personal life, social realities, and citizenship. This implies knowing who the student is (his/her social reality, existing implications in training him/her to fully exercise his citizenship). An education with values is not complete if these three components are not contemplated, because, eventually, teachers need to consider these factors.

The concept of competencies in education with values.
What are competencies?

The didactic that allows with greater certainty this special type of learning, education with values, is the establishment of competencies.

From this point of view, what could we understand as a competency? The term is a product from formative models initially used in working environments, and, later on, in the world of schooling education, under the idea that it sets an alternative to satisfy the productive requirements in the job and the demands of life.

We are searching, with this procedure, that human actions become more efficient, but at the same time, we look for defining its components based on structures, and characteristics. This takes us to find different definitions that make us wonder, according to Zavala and Arnau (2007): What are competencies good for? Which is their field of involvement? In which situations should they be applied? And also ask: Are they aptitudes or skills? In any of these aspects are there other components? Also, to make clear the difference between competency and competent acting.

Let’s see some definitions about “competence”, and “competency” that let us recognize its basic components, in semantic and structural terms.

In the working area, McClelland (1973) defined competency as “that element that really causes a superior performance in a specific job”. As we can infer,this author implied quality in the results of the work.

Lloyd McLeary (Cepeda, 2005) defines it as “the presence of characteristics, or the absence of aptitudes that make a person qualified to perform a specific task, or to assume a definite role”. As we can observe, this definition pointsto manifested conditions: the existence or absence of aptitudes that make a person qualified to perform a specific task, or to assume a different role.

The Working International Organization (2004) defines competence as “the effective capacity to successfully accomplish a job activity completely identified”. It adds up to the former definitions, the terms of effective and successful capacity.

The Ministry of the Labor and Social Affairs of the Spanish Government (1995) defines competence as: “the capacity to apply knowledge, skills and attitudes to the performance of the correspondent task, including the capacity of response to unexpected problems, autonomy, flexibility, collaboration with the professional environment, and with the job’s organization”. As we can see, this definition adds onto the explicative area of competence, in addition to “applying knowledge, skills, and attitudes to the performance of the correspondent task”. Besides, it increases the capacity of response to unexpected problems, autonomy, and flexibility. This means, that it goes beyond mere semantics to a certain evaluative approach.

In the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2008)), ccompetence is defined as the ability to do something well, meanwhile, it also points out a difference with the word (competency) as an important ability required to perform a job. This suggests that in English, we have two words for two activities that may seem similar, but they refer to two levels of application of ability: to do something well, anything, and the required ability to perform a “task” well. This means, that rules are necessary, to perform a “task”. This second meaning is used in the definition of “competency” in the school processes, and in the external ones as well.

The Larousse Dictionary (2004) also defines competency by the application to commercial and industrial aspects, considering it as “the set of knowledge, qualities, aptitudes and aptitudes that allow to discuss, consult and decide everything concerning a task”. The definition becomes a broad explanation, and considers that the competency has a group of diverse structures whereby is defined what could be demanded in a job, implying that the knowledge could be applied, more than just theoretical.

The Organization for Cooperation and Development (OCDE, its initials in Spanish), which our country is a member, in its project, “Definition and Selection of Competencies” (2002) for the transformation of educational institutions, and educational programs, it explains competencies as “the ability to successfully accomplish the complex demands, through mobilization of psychosocial prerequisite. In this way, the results that the individual gets through his/her actions, selection or behavior according to the demands, are emphasized".

This definition is complemented with the following addition: “each competency is the combination of practical abilities, knowledge (including tacit knowledge), motivation, ethical values, attitudes, emotions, and other social and behavioral components that can be mobilized together so the action in a determined situation could be successful”. (Zavala y Arnau, 2007).

The presented definitions of competencies for educational and working environments have in common two aspects, they refer to three specific components: psychosocial properties of the person (attitudes, abilities, skills, values, etc.), qualitative orientation (success) towards a specific practice, and forms of action and performance procedures which are adequate to the performed task (efficiency and efficacy).

However, we can observe that the definitions and components attributed to “competency”, to the extent that they serve as parameters to accomplish more complex tasks, they become somewhat broader and lose certain specificity.

Actually, it is important not to forget that competency is a person’s attribute, because he/she is the receiver of the competency, the one who has to be competent. This person is the one who then acts following norms and specifications regarding the appointed task. Thus, we could say that in general terms, we could define competency as the possession of a group of abilities, knowledge, and aptitudes to develop a specific task with quality and efficiency, a specialized activity, or a required job subject to defined norms.

The aptitudes could refer to psychosocial aspects suchas attitudes, values, or skills. In educational terms, the competency implies the successful management of knowledge, aptitudes, attitudes and procedures to acquire a clearly specified learning in terms of applicability to problems, and real situations, or the practical accomplishment of the topics in a given curriculum.

When the subject to be learned -in this case, values- specifies competencies that are related with very abstract aspects, the teaching procedure gains more relevance, because it is the fundamental constitution, which should have the ability to facilitate the most generalization of what was learned. Thus, the technique of "scenarios" has been suggested.

Learning competencies through scenarios.

As we have previously mentioned, the challenge of educating with values not only implies the adoption of a theoretical and evaluative approach, but also, implies the didactic strategies from which is intended to form the students.

In this sense, several authors have manifested the suitability of “scenarios” as a teaching strategy to educate with values, due to its versatility, emulation of real situations close to the students’ lives; high motivational level that stimulates sensitivity, and the ability to propitiate the students’ engagement. (Brady, 2011; Noguera et al., 2000)

Therefore, a scenario connotes the use of a space where an action takes place, and an interaction of characters, representing a group of events, and physical and abstract components that grant meaning and certain limits to the events that happen within it, everything joined by a central argument.

Likewise, in its simplest expression, scenarios require from the performance of competencies that mobilize a group of knowledge, procedures and values, for decision making, and resolution of problematic situations that require value’s judgment and ethical reasoning.

It is worth noting that regarding the attitudinal component of competencies, the solutions to said problems, not only promote learning of a specific value, but also present an interrelationship between values due to the complex web of factors, situations, conditions, people, and groups of various interests that are conflicted in each scenario’s resolution.

Consequently, scenarios provide the participants with numerous resources to derive senses and meanings that allow them to understand the values and their importance in human and collective life, thanks to the immersion of mnemonic processes of reconstruction, recollection, evoking, and recognition of values, that facilitate their learning and transference to wider daily lifecontexts (Cappello, 2006).

Building upon the former principles, scenarios propose learning situations according to the students’ social, cognitive and moral level of development, being pre-school level the simplest and superior levels more complex.

Therefore, the topics that are brought up through scenarios have the characteristic of integrating arguments obtained from families’, schools’ and communities’ daily life’s experience.

Finally, it is convenient to point out that the teachers could introduce variations, changes or adjustments in the application of scenarios, depending on the schools’ conditions, the characteristics ofthe students and the group, the degree of participation of their parents, and the community context, as well as, the formation necessities established in the course syllabus. (Cappello, 2006).

Teaching competencies for the teachers when educating with values.

Likewise students, we believe that who intends educating with values should master a number of competencies. This becomes particularly relevant, because the subject that the students should learn does not refer to material aspects or accessible knowledge that could be easily transmitted through an instructional methodology. The teacher must have certain competencies to allow him/her educate with values effectively.

Which competencies are the ones the teacher must have when educating with values? These, according to various authors (García y Puig, 2007:8), are a group of personal and professional attributes whose level of knowledge is improvable. Educating with values presents certain paradox to the teacher. Whoever he/she is and which ever educational level he/she has, as a human being and a citizen, he/she should be prepared for educating with values.

New ways of teaching advocate not for a selective orientation without foundations, but a mostly inclusive ways of teaching, assuringa trueequity of opportunities for everybody. This doesn’t mean stopping the efforts of the students in their academic responsibilities, but to guiding education to a closer teaching that allows teaching adaptation to the students’ characteristics.

This leads us to annul, in the educational community, prejudices against gender, culture, and socioeconomic class. Within the many competencies that the teacher must possess, there will always be seven basic competencies that the teacher must have when educating with values:

  • 1. To have a conscience that it is required a firm and broad education with values as a parallel to an educational revolution.
  • 2. To be himself/herself.
  • 3. To be able to recognize others.
  • 4. To facilitate dialogue.
  • 5. To regulate participation.
  • 6. To work in teams.
  • 7. To contribute to improve the school.

It is important for teachers have in mind that learning through competencies is a clear advance in teaching. However, we must understand that its application requires from a careful analysis, not only of what must be learned, but also, about its nature and components. In as much aswe get closer to topics that involve aspects with psychological and subjective dimensions, we will need a broader teaching demand, and the construction of learning based on more complex competencies. Definitely, when educating with values, success will be related to the level of competencies that the teachers have to form students in the complex world of values.

Evaluation of civic and ethical competencies: principles and instruments.

How do we evaluate the civic and ethical competencies that students learn and develop from the participation in educational processes when educating with values through scenarios?

Without a doubt, answering this question implies, on one hand, to have the characteristics of competencies’ assessment completely clear, and, on the other, to dispose of certain domain of the instruments that can be used to teach it.

In this sense, the strategy of education with values presented here assumes six key principles about the characteristics of evaluation of civic and ethical competencies, considering the orientation that are provided by the current official educational programs in our country, and supported by specialized literature. (Bolívar, 1998; San Martí, 2007; Zabala y Arnau, 2007).

1. Evaluating competencies inside problematic situations.

Learning civic and ethical competencies must be assessed byplacing the students in scenarios which show problematic situations more or less similar to those they can face in real life, that force them to analyze value choices, to perform ethical reasoning, and make decisions about the behavioral schemes more appropriate to solve those situations. That is, it is required to make a contextualized assessment from the experience of attitudes and values.

2. Evaluating competencies from the expected learning outcomes.

Each scenario establishes a group of expected learning outcomes and tasks constituting in the referents that the teachers could use to determine appropriate products and activities to obtain evidence, as well as the types of instruments and indicators of achievement. The foregoing, with the objective of aligning the teaching–learning–evaluating processes, performed in each scenario.

3. Evaluating competencies clearly defining the assessment activities.

This means that the teachers must define the products or evidences that they consider the most appropriate to observe the learning achieved by the students from their performance in each scenario. The assessment activities of competencies could be diverse, depending of the educational level, including written and graphic productions, collective projects, scripts, documentary investigations, records and attitude schemes of students, among others, that could be compiled in portfolios, or activity notebooks on an individual, team, or group level.

4. Evaluating competencies according to the type of knowledge.

Competencies consist of conceptual, procedural and attitudinal knowledge. Therefore, the teachers must specify the type and degree of knowledge they expect studentsto obtain from each of them. Considering that the manner each component learned is different, the teacher must evaluate them through activities and specific instruments, that allow observation and evaluation in the most integrated way possible, that informs of the knowledge students were capable of learning and mobilize in a specific scenario, or context where the performance of competencies are realized.

5. Evaluating competencies through instruments of formative and alternative assessment.

First of all, the assessment of competencies must be a formative evaluation that guides students in their process of learning and gradual development of certain competencies. Onthe other hand, it must be an alternative evaluation, understood as a compilation of evidences on how students process and complete real tasks in a given topic, like in the case of scenarios.

Unlike traditional assessment, alternative assessment allows teachers to perform four important evaluation activities: 1.To inform students of competencies to be evaluated.2. To document the students’ progress at a certain time, instead of comparing them with others. 3. To obtain information to adopt decisions on how to enablea learning environment that contributes in a greater manner developing competencies, attitudes and values, instead of punishing the civic, ethical and moral behavior of students. 4. To use instruments with explicit indicators of achievement and also share them with students, teachers, and parents.

Besides, competencies and values assessment must be placed in agreement with the system of values of the school and social communities in which students participate, trying to observe the consequences in the communities, depending on the way that values are applied and practiced.

6. Evaluating competencies implies assuming that learning and development are different in each student.

This requires understanding that students are not human beings that passively receive the environmental influences just like that; on the contrary, they are social agents that actively construct knowledge, attitudes, and values that are considered important to orientate their behavior.

This means that, at present, students build up their personal biographies beyond the institutionalized rules, through complex processes that allow them to set their own system of values, including values, norms, and roles that are offered by family, school, community, and media. Evidently, this process of construction varies depending on the different ages; on the first years it is focused on habits and norms, and in the teenage years it is based on the acquisition of a more complex ethical and moral reasoning.

Instruments to evaluate by competencies

According to Lopez and Hinojosa (2001), the evaluation of competencies is commonly made through two types of instruments of alternative assessment: observation techniques, and performance evaluation techniques. In our case teachers could perform the evaluation of the established competencies in the scenarios mainly through three observation instruments: comparison list, attitude scale, and rubric.

Here after, are presented, in an orientated mode, definitions, examples and general recommendations, to give some general guidance about the instruments that teachers could use to evaluate students’ competencies in each scenario implemented in class.

Check list

It consists of a list or words, phrases or sentences that, as indicators, allow the teacher to identify expected behaviors in the students’ performance in certain areas.

Such indicators must be based on knowledge, procedures, and attitudes that teachers intend to evaluate in the scenario, and must be written on the record sheet judgment, that will allow the assessment of the observed competencies. The phrases in the checklist must specify the sequence of indicators is considered fundamental for the assessment judgment. In front of each phrase,word or sentence, two value columns are included – Yes/No; Achieved/Not Achieved; Competent/Not Competent; etc – in which the observer will take note of everything addressed there, performed or not, by the observed student or group.

Example of check list; group observation

Recommendations to elaborate a checklist:

  • To identify each knowledge and behavior to be observed and make a list of them.
  • To organize the behaviors in the sequence that they are expected to occur.
  • To have a simple procedure to check what was observed.

Scale of assessment

Even though it is similar to the check list, the appreciation scale allows to detect the extent an individual shows each evaluated trait, from its absence or scarcity to the maximum possibility or certain attitude or behavior through a graphical, categorical, or numerical scale, where grading is polytomous. In other words,it is important that the instrument has a separate scale for each trait, attitude, or behavior that will be evaluated.

Example scale of assessment


Recommendations for elaborating a scale of assessment:

  • To determine the trait to be evaluated.
  • To define the trait.
  • To elaborate indicators – clearly observable – from the elaborated definition.
  • To specify the order or sequence of the indicators (if applicable).
  • To validate the logical relationship between the definition of the trait and the elaborated indicators through an expert’s judgments (content validation).
  • To select the type of scale to evaluate each indicator. The appreciation scales must be polytomous, rather numerical, categorical, or graphical.
  • To diagram the instrument.

Rubric

The rubric is an evaluation instrument based on a criteria scale and performance levels that allow determining the quality of students’ performance on specific tasks.

Regarding format or design, the rubric is characterized by three key elements that are placed on the left side; performance levels, in the upper side, and values or scores by level of performance in each evaluated criteria.

It is important to point out that rubric is an evaluation instrument designed among teachers and students, where in a negotiated and explicit manner, are established criteria and levels of performance that will be useful to evaluate the success of students in each criterion.

Example of rubric, bulletin board.


Recommendations for elaborating a rubric:

  • To select the objectives supporting the task or job that has to be completed.
  • To identify all the possible criteria to represent the behaviors or performances expected from the students while completing the task.
  • To organize criteria by levels of effectiveness.
  • To assign a numeric value according to the level of performance.
  • Each level must have behaviors or performance expected from the students, described.
  • Students should know in anticipation the evaluation criteria. Self-assessment using the rubric is recommended to the student.

II. DIDACTIC AND CURRICULAR ORGANIZATION IN THE SCENARIOS BASED ON CIVIC AND ETHICAL COMPETENCIES.

The presented strategy for education with values, it is supported by the approach based on competencies from the subject of Civic and Ethical Formation, and it is structured in three different sections. In the first one, the scenarios curricular organization is explained for the formation of civic and ethical competencies; in the second section, the teaching strategy suggested for working in the scenarios in the classroom, is presented. Finally, the topics’ organization of scenarios is desribed, according to the purposes and contents of this topic.

Curricular organization of scenarios for the formation of competencies and values.

Scenarios are organized according to two different criteria.

Organization criteria 1: Gradual development of the competency

Scenarios are organized according to the criteria of the gradual development of the civic and ethical competencies, which are established in the Civic and Ethical Formation subject (SEP, 2009).

The competencies by the Curriculum in Secondary Education are:

Competencies for lifelong learning : They involve the ability to learn , accept and manage their own learning throughout his life , joining the writing and mathematical literacy , and to mobilize the various cultural, scientific and technological knowledge to understand reality . Competences for information management : They are related to the search for, evaluation and systematization of information; thinking, think , argue and express critical judgments ; analyze, synthesize and use information ; the knowledge and use of different logics of construction of knowledge in various disciplines and in different cultural areas.

Competencies for handling situations : Those linked with the ability to organize and design life projects, considering various aspects such as social , cultural, environmental , economic, academic and affective , and take initiative to carry them out ; manage time ; promote and address changes that occur ; make decisions and take the consequences ; dealing with risk and uncertainty; pose and to completing procedures or alternatives for solving problems, and handle failure and disappointment.

Competencies for coexistence : They involve relate harmoniously with others and with nature; communicate effectively; teamwork; take agreements and negotiate with others; grow with others; harmonically manage personal and emotional relationships ; develop personal identity, and recognize and value the elements of ethnic , cultural and linguistic diversity that characterizes our country.

Competencies for life in society: They refer to the ability to decide and act with critical judgment against the values ​​and social and cultural norms ; proceed in favor of democracy , peace , respect for legality and human rights ; participate considering ways to work in society , governments and businesses, individual or collective ; participate taking into account the social implications of the use of technology; act with respect to the cultural diversity; combat discrimination and racism , and demonstrate an awareness of belonging to their culture, their country and the world.

Organization criteria 2. Values’ selection according to the Civic and Ethical Formation

Scenarios promote the formation of students in the established values in the Civic and Ethical Formation: respect to human dignity, justice, freedom, equality, solidarity, responsibility, tolerance, honesty, appreciation and respect to natural and cultural diversity (SEP, 2009).

According to the Axiological Model from Integral Education proposed by Gervilla (2000), these values will be part of a greater group of values (with their respective counter values), classified from five dimensions of the person, as bodily values, intellectual affective, individual, esthetic, moral, social, instrumental-economic, and religious (see Seijo, 2009). According to this classification, we can understand, for example, that freedom is an individual and freeing value, meanwhile tolerance and justice are cosindered as moral values.

Values Categorization based on the Axiological Model from Integral Education of Gervilla(2000)

Teaching structure of scenarios

The didactic structure of the scenarios used for the formation of competencies, civic and ethical values is based on key elements concentrated on Scenarios by Competencies Table, expecting that these could guide and facilitate its application to the teachers of the corresponding grades and blocks. This structure is now presented.

Description of scenario

It describes in general terms the group of topics and activities that students should complete through the scenario, and it is useful, therefore, to guide the teacher’s job.

Field

It specifies the name of the field corresponding with the scenario.

Competencies

It details the main and related competencies, whose acquisition is promoted through the scenario.

Expected learning

Enlists the expected learning from the scenario, associated to the expected learning of the field.

Values

Enlists the values in which the scenario is focused on.

Scenario

It consists in dilemmatic situations that students must actively solve, and with the help of teachers, relatives or community members, and who facilitate the construction of their own and shared meaningful learning about certain values. In other words, scenarios consist in problematic situations about personal and social life, in which students have to make decisions involving an ethical position, or a value judgment, through the development and application of civic and ethical specific competencies.

Teaching strategy

The teaching strategy offers a detailed sequence of the initial, developing and closing activities, that, as a suggestion, the teacher could use to implement the scenario in the classroom, including more activities for the practice of competencies in scenarios in school life, and in everyday life of students. The activities are designed to facilitate the evaluation of the conceptual, procedural, and attitud in all learning expected from them, implied ineach scenario. It is important to remember that these activities could be adjusted, according to the teacher’s experience, the contextual conditions and situations of the school and the formative needs of the classroom, with the aim that the scenario be sufficiently flexible for the effective teaching of values.

The teaching strategy of scenario in terms of beginning, developing and closingis designed to be implemented in the classroom lasting approximately 45 minutes; however, the school activities or everyday activities must be completed and checked in later sessions of the same subject of Civic and Ethical Formation, or in other subjects, through transversal job.

Evaluation

The evaluation of civic and ethical competencies learning is made in a formative way through the compilation of evidences related to activities and products such as:

  • The individual participation of students in the starting activities and the developing of the scenario.

  • The production of written exercises derived from the closing exercises of the scenario, both individual and team activities.

  • Products, activities, and individual or collective products established in the scenarios applying the civic and ethical competencies in school or everyday life of students. These products must be evaluated through rubrics or checklists designed by the teacher according to the indicators of performance, or performance criteria depending on their school grade and individual development. Through these rubrics, or checklists, the teacher will be able to determine the necessary concepts, procedures, and values to evaluate the civic and ethical competencies in each scenario.

  • For the follow up and control of group and individual evaluations, the teacher could use the evidence portfolio of each student, and could have a class portfolio, where the teacher gathers the products generated from team and group activities.
Topic organization of scenarios

Scenarios of education with values pretend to form students in the competencies for life, ethical behavior, and responsible citizenship. To fulfill this, the proposed scenarios have topics related with healthcare, accidents prevention, exercise of freedom through responsible decision making, organization and cooperation to complete an activity, protection of public and natural resources, dialogue to face conflict resolution, solidarity, and participation in natural disasters, rights and obligations or children, and youngsters, and democracy as an exercise to reach agreements for welfare.

These topics are adapted to the purposes and contents established in the subject of Civic and Ethical Formation, and they were chosen with the purpose to facilitate the implementation of scenarios in a vinculated and complementary way to the activities of the subject (SEP, 2009). In this sense, it is necessary to point out that for following the model of education with values, the teacher has the freedom to apply scenarios in a flexible manner, adapting, or creating formative activities or procedures different to the ones presented in the section of Teaching Strategy, considering the characteristics of the group, the conditions or the classroom, the timing, and the material resources of the students, and school, among other conditions.

A variety of possibilities is suggested in each scenario, from these, the teachers could choose those ones that could be adapted to the students’ necessities, and interests, with the objective of fulfilling the expected learning of students.

Generally speaking, the scenarios for education with values intendto train secondary students in life skills, ethical behavior and responsible citizenship. To do so, the scenarios proposed for each grade revolve arround topics such as genre equity, life projects, motivation to reach preestablished goals, values in every day life, decision making, internet harrassment, relations based in trust and communication, crime prevention and victim support programs, social pressure, importance for nutrition in life and health, interpersonal relations, dialogue as the way to solve problems, human rights, individuals’ rights and obligations, pollution and global warming.

To do this, Competencies Scenario Table to offer teachers a quick and comprehensive overview of the training fields, themes, values and expected learning for the gradual work of a certain competence in secondary education.

Evaluation of Learning

In secondary education, evaluation is a learning process for obtaining evidence and providing feedback on students’ learning achievements throughout their training.Therefore, it is an integral part of teaching and learning "to provide the necessary information about the balanced development of knowledge, skills, values and attitudes in students, in order to ensure the formative work of this subject" (Program Civic and Ethics, 2006: 25).

With this approach, it is suggested to consider students’ daily performance and attitudes such as responsibility, commitment, collaboration, among others. Also, that the different activities allow them to reflect and make decisions about the type of strategies and resources needed to strengthen students’ basic skills for the development of complex learning, and to promote self-evaluation in order to identify strengths and areas of opportunity to establish commitment to their own learning.

With the above, the evaluation will be consistent with the competencies approach, because "it will contribute to students’ personal development and will strengthen their abilities for self-knowledge and self-regulation for independent study and lifelong learning" (Program Civics and Ethics, 2006: 26).


  • Topic:

    Conservation and environmental care.

  • Competencies:

    For permanent learning.

  • Values:

    Respect, Responsibility, Prevision, Conscience, Cooperation.

  • Learning outcome:

    Knows the causes that originate global warming.

    Plans proper use of school supplies and resources to prevent the deterioration of the environment .

  • Field: I

  • Topic: 1/1.3,2/2.3

Scenario 1

A green school

Scenario

Third grade of middle school was in class, and the teacher asked the following question:

“How many hours a day does a student spend in the school facilities? If we make a mathematical calculation, it is an average of 6 to 7 hours a day. And per week? 35 hours, and 140 per month... quite a considerable amount, don't you think?”

The students stared at him and did not understand what he was trying to say...

“That means you spend most of your time in these facilities. Ah! But not only studying; you spend paper, consume food and require energy for the computers you use in class”.

“And what can we do? Not eat or write?” Roberto, one of the students, asked.

Roberto, now I will ask you another question, “How do you contribute in making your school a "Green School" helping in the preservationof the environment?”

  • Purpose:

    To raise awareness of the impact of our actions on our environment.

"Wow! Who knows what happened to the teacher today?" One student tells another.

“No, no. I'm not crazy, just think how much waste is generated every day in this school. There are 1200 students, close to150 teachers and administrative staff and all coexist daily!”.

“Wow! Oh yeah, we are a lot”.

“Just in this group, you are 50, so an average of 50 bottles or cans of soda are thrown away every day, 50 napkins or paper plates… You make use of installations that use at least 50 sheets of paper per hour, also the use of the energy required for computer equipment or workshop machines. If we count them per week, there are 250 bottles, 250 napkins or paper plates, 250 multiplied by 6 times 5 equals 7500 sheets of paper a week. Now, multiply it by 1350 people in this institution…”

“Oh, teacher, now I don’t even want to open my soda, you made me think”.

“That’s what it’s about, Roberto, make you think and become aware of how you can help your school become a “Green School”. Let me see, do you think there is something we can do to lower these numbers I just mentioned?”.

  • Evaluation suggestions:

    Written answers to questions.

    Research to put together the information in the box.

    Conclusions and group reflections.

  • Linking:

    Spanish.

Teaching strategy

Opening

  • Explore student’s prior knowledge asking them the following questions:

    What is the origin of global warming?

    What are the consequences?

Application

  • Ask students to read the scenario "A green school". Use the following questions as a guide for reflection on the topic of the scenario:

    What do you think students can do to turn their school into a green place?

    Have you heard of "green" companies and people?

    Do you think you can be “green” at home and at school?

    How can we contribute to the respect and care for the environment in the context where we live?

    Do you know of a type of environmental pollution in your community?

  • In teams, have students make proposals to reduce the waste generated in their school that contributes to the protection of the environment. Ask them to write them in their workbooks.

Closing

  • Ask students to investigate and make a report on the meaning of sustainable development.
  • Have them investigate the time some materials take to degrade and their impact on the environment, and to write the information in the chart in their workbooks.
  • Topic:

    Conservation and environmental care.

  • Competencies:

    For permanent learning.

  • Values:

    Respect, Responsibility, Environmental care, Awareness.

  • Learning outcome:

    Identifies the contributions of chemical knowledge regarding the satisfaction of basic needs and their impact on the environment.

  • Field: V

  • Topic: 2.1, 2.2

Scenario 2

Chemistry and environment: not intended effects

Scenario

Ana and Karina were walking downtown, playing a bet to see how many cleaning products, sprays and similar things they could each find in different stores. No matter, if they were on sale or for store use, the idea was to see who could make the longest list.

When they got home, they compared their lists, and realized that they were gigantic: floor cleaners, brooms, glass cleaners, wood polishes; small, medium and large water squeegees, soap bars, powdered detergent, and other odd products for body, face, dishes, clothing... the list went on and on.

Their mother, who was close by, asked what was the point of making the list and Ana replied:

“Nothing, we were just playing to see who found the most things”.

“Did you know that the chemical industry has developed rapidly, in different manner and ways and that it has allowed the invention of so many products that with time have had a tremendous impact in people’s lives?”.

“I don’t understand…” Karina said.

“Look, what my mom is trying to tell you is that all those things that scientists have invented are used by us to make the easier what we do on daily basis”, Ana said.

“¡Aaaaah!”

“Hey, Mom, why is it that we should not use so many products because they are bad for our planet?”

“In other words, we should not use products that harm our planet”.

Karina intervened and said: “Why worry? As long as they’re useful, why ask more?”.

Ana and her mother stared at her. Then, Ana’s mom asked Karina: “Can you imagine if we all thought like you? What do you think would happen to our planet?”.

Teaching strategy

Opening

  • Encourage student participation activating their previous knowledge from the scenario’s Topic. For example, ask them to name everyday products (soap, jelly, medicine, and clothes) and indicate what industrial chemical processes were required for their elaboration and what effects do this processes have on the environment. You can assign a previous investigation, to receive more information from students.

Application

  • Ask students to read the scenario "Chemistry and environment: not intended effects."
  • Direct commented reading of the stage using the following questions as a guide:

    What is your opinion about Karina’s way of thinking?

    What do you think Karina answer to Ana’s mom last question was?

    Do you know anything about some cleaning products that are bad for our planet?

  • What do you think community and government should do, to monitor the chemicals that are sold so they won’t harm the planet?

    What can you contribute with to help the environment?

  • Arrange students into teams to answer the questions. Each team will present the results to the rest of the class.

Closing

  • Divide the group into two teams with the same number of members. One team will discuss about the benefits of chemistry in everyday life, and the other on the way this harms the environment. Have them come to conclusions and write them down in their workbooks.
  • Have them in an individual way investigate the composition of chemicals related to the satisfaction of basic needs, such as concrete, steel, glass, etc. (construction); textile fibers, dyes, etc. (dress); medications, toothpastes, soaps, etc. (health); preservatives, flavorings, etc. (food industry); fertilizers, pesticides, etc. (farming); cleaning products, paper, gasoline, purified water, among others. With the information gathered, have them complete the chart in their workbooks.
  • Coordinate the elaboration of a school bulletin board to inform the school community.
  • Topic:

    Characteristics and challenges for living within the framework of new technologies in information and communications.

  • Competencies:

    For information management.

  • Values:

    Responsibility, Ethical behavior, Tolerance, Temperance.

  • Learning outcome:

    Uses new information technologies responsibly (internet, social networks, etc.).

    Fulfills duties given at home and at school that correspond to age.

    Uses the media as resources for studying and learning.

  • Fields: I y III

  • Topics: 1/1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 2.3 y 1/1.1, 2.1, 2.2

Scenario 3

Digital age: responsibility and curiosity

Scenario

“Bored, bored, bored! I’m so bored!”

“But, Paco, why don’t you find something to do with your time?”

“Mom, it’s raining, and there are only soap operas on TV!”

“Oh, son, we have already made the effort to buy your computer and your uncle will pay the internet so you can do your homework; don't ask me now to pay for cable TV for you, because I can’t. Remember that you have to do your History, and Mesoamerican cultures homework.”

Paco took his computer and went upstairs to his room. “What a waste to use the computer to do homework!” He said to himself.

In his room, he sat on his bed and opened the laptop. He quickly logged on to his e-mail and looked to see if he had messages. Like always, greetings from friends. Some of them, asking him if he would like to go to the movies in the evening.Someone else inviting him to go eat ice cream with friends. Another one saying he was going to go bowling later that evening, and invited him to go with him. And many messages like these. Almost at the end, he saw one that said:

  • Evaluation suggestions:

    Written answers to questions.

    Conclusions and group reflections.

    Rubric for suggestions review.

  • Linking:

    Spanish, Geography, History I and II, Technology.

“If you are bored click here and find interesting things”. This message seemed very appealing. Not only did it have the text message, butit also had faces of very attractive women. When he was about to click, two of his best friends entered his room. They were Beto and Ramiro.

“Hi, Paco” Beto said.

“Your mother told me that you were doing homework in the computer.”

“Well, that’s what I was trying to do” Paco answered, “but look, I found this! “Paco told his two friends, pointing at the message of the sexy women faces.

“What do you think about this weird message?” Ramiro questioned.

“It must be an ad to sell something” Beto said.

“Maybe it’s an invitation to one of those prohibited sites”, Ramiro said.

“Well… I don’t know, Paco said in a very low voice, “but I’m very interested on the ad”

“Hey Paco, I came so we could do homework together. You know that I don’t have a computer” Beto said.

“Hold on, bro, let’s see what the ad is about first”, Ramiro said..

“I think that we should do homework first, because it is a lot much, and then, we will see it,” Beto insisted.

“Hey, Beto, we will find lots of information and to know which to choose, we will need more time” Paco said, “then we will not have time to figure out what’s in the ad!”

“But, what if it is one of those things with forbidden content?” Beto said.

“Ok, let’s vote on opening the message or not” Ramiro said.

“This can’t be decided like that, we should discuss it first”, Beto said.

Paco stared at his friends and thought about all the effort his parents had made, in the homework, and how much he wanted to open the ad, he eventually said to his friends: “So, do we open it? …”

Teaching strategy

Opening

  • Explore previous knowledge and experiences of students. Have them answer the following questions:

    What are the uses you give to the computer? Do you use it more for work or for fun?

    What kind of information do you search for online?

Application

  • Open discussion reading of the scenario.
  • Make teams of discussion in class and ask students about the problem presented in the scenario.

    What do you think Paco, Beto and Ramiro did?

    How would you solve the problem?

    What is good and what is bad in this story?

    What are the benefits of using information in electronic media?

Closing

  • Have students discuss the following questions and write their answers:

    Do you think that the use of computers and the Internet will interest more students to learn topics related to what is taught in school?

  • What are the advantages of the school handling information in the electronic media?

    Do you know what an electronic book is? Have you read one?

    Do you think that e-books will replace printed books?

  • Have students write in their workbooks any suggestions on how to use the Internet or e-books correctly.
  • Have all of them answer the following questions:

    Do you know what plagiarism is?

    How do you think computers and the Internet have affected the frequency of plagiarism happening in school projects?

  • Topic:

    Stereotypes promoted by the media that lead to health deterioration.

  • Competencies:

    For information management.

  • Values:

    Responsibility, Self-esteem, Self-respect, Integrity, Identity.

  • Learning outcome:

    Recognizes the risks of indiscriminately accepting beauty role models only by the association with physical appearance.

    Acquires knowledge on maintaining good health.

  • Field: IV
  • Topic: 1.2, 1.3

Scenario 4

Sixteen kilos overweight

Scenario

Lucia is a 16 year-old teenager who went to study abroad. The sedentary lifestyle, and being away from her family, made her find ease in food. It didn’t matter what she ate, as long as it tasted good. This lifestyle made her gain 16 kilos! The day that she would go home to her family, who she missed so much, finally arrived.

“Ernesto, Lucia will finally arrive! We haven’t seen her in a year. She must be divine! She has always been so thin” Lety, his wife said to him.

“Look, Lety, as long as she arrives safe and sound, it doesn’t matter the size she is.

“Oh, you are always looking for ways to annoy me... Let's go to the airport to meet her!” Lety said.

Eager to see Lucy, the family awaited for her arrival. After half an hour, she finally appeared and walked toward them.

“Mommy! Daddy! She exclaimed happily.”

Family surrounded Lucia... everyone wanted to hug her...

  • Purpose:

    Value the body, appreciate it, eradicate discrimination against overweight people and promote self-acceptance.

“My dear, how you have changed! You look very robust... a little out of your weight” her mother said.

“How is it possible, what happened to you, why are you so chubby?” Daniela, Lucia’s sister, asked, “When Fernando sees you, he will be really surprised!”

Lucia didn’t know what to say...

“What's wrong, Daniela? It seems to me that she’s fine, why do you say that?” her father interjected.

“Oh, Dad, I am just saying that she is a little overweight! What will our friends say when they see you, what will they think?” Daniela kept saying.

“Daniela, you're exaggerating. This isn’t the place or the time to say those things to your sister. Come on, Lucia, surely you want to get home” her father said.

From that moment on, Lucia’s life changed. Daniela persuaded her mother to get Lucia on a diet plan, and she forced her to go to the gym. The food she gave her was special; no one else in the house ate it. Lucia agreed to do all this not to disappoint her parents, and Fernando, so she made a great effort to control herself. However, sometimes falling into temptation, she ate too much, and then she went to vomit, because of the fear that all she had eaten would make her fat...

Once, when she was home and about to eat dinner, her dad told Lucia:

“Lucia, we’re going to order pizza, would you like some?”

“No, dad, if my mom finds out, she will be angry with me again”

“But daughter, you are so pretty like this!”

“But she wants me to lose more weight and do a lot of exercise. Just like her, she’s always doing exercise and taking care of her body… and I don’t want to disappoint her… But I crave food so much!” Lucia replied. “I'm starving since I returned from the trip.”

“Well, make up your mind” her father said, “Do we order pizza, or not?”

Lucia imagined how delicious the pizza would be. She also thought that her figure had improved somewhat with the diet, but she still didn’t have the weight she had had before her trip.

  • Evaluation suggestions:

    Written answer to questions.

    Research of the concept, dramatization on discrimination and drafting of the moral.

    Conclusions and group reflections.

  • Linking:

    Spanish, Mathematics, Science I, II y III, Physical education.

“So, Lucia…?” her father asked.

On Lucia’s mind, images of her mother, Daniela and Fernando, whom she hadn’t seen in a long time, started to appear on after the other, she also imagined the smell of pizza… its taste…

Teaching strategy

Opening

  • Ask students:

    How important is your physical appearance to you?

    What does fatness mean to you?

Application

  • Open discussion reading of the scenario using the following questions:

    What does Lucia look for to please her mother?

    What do you think about Lucia’s attitude?

    What do you think about Lucia’s moms’ attitude? Her dad’s? And her sister Daniela’s?

    If you were in Lucia’s place, what would you do?

    How do you think her father could help her with her problem?

    Do you think that being thin is the basis of self-confidence? Do you think it is the same for men as for women?

    Do you worry when you or one of your friends gain weight? Do you because of appearance or health?

    Do you think that only thin people are beautiful and successful?

  • Organize the group into teams and ask each of them to build a scenario ending. Ask them to write in the workbook.
  • Ask for a representative from each team to read the ending the team proposed;choose the most appropriate ending for the story.
  • In teams, elaborate a script using the role-play model, to act a situation similar to that of Lucia’s. They can use the support of other subjects to enrich their work. Reflect on writing the above ideas and discuss in class.

Closing

  • Ask student, to research the medical term (how it is called) of people who reject obesity.
  • Through a dramatization, demonstrate how peopleshow discrimination with prejudice comments that are commonly accompanied by acts of rejection to obese or overweight people.
  • Coordinate the elaboration of a mural, in which the importance of self-acceptance and inner values are not influenced with the idea that size is the most important thing.
  • Topics:

    Historical importance of the different geographical locations.

    Ways of making rational argument for group decision making.

  • Competencies:

    For information management.

  • Values:

    Respect, Tolerance, Openness, Sensitivity, Democratic participation.

  • Learning outcome:

    Recognizes the diversity of locations in the country as examples of different cultures.

    Learns on how to respect different opinions and reach consensus through democratic means.

    Recognizes the importance of the past and present of national populations.

  • Field: III
  • Topic: 1/1.1

Scenario 5

A Magical town

Scenario

In History class, students were talking about their concerns to organize and make a school trip to some place in the country, at the end of the course.

The teacher, listening to them and taking advantage of the topic they had at that time, said: “What do you think if we suggest ideas?”.

“Yeah! Yeah!!” all answered.

“And, where will we go?” Irene asked.

“To the beach! To the beach! To Acapulco!” Jorge and his friends shouted.

Others said: “To a big city!”

“Yes! One that has many clubs to go partying” some answered.

A series of proposals emerged as varied as the preferences of students.

“And what do you think about a magical town?” the teacher said.

The students made a pause, asking: “What is a magical town?

  • Purpose:

    Value cultural diversity as an element of national identity and of belonging to humanity.

The teacher read to them. “A magical town is a town that has symbolic attributes, legends, history, important events, and everyday life. We have Cuetzalan and Zacatlan, in Puebla; Tepoztlan, in Morelos, Tapalpa and Mazamitla, in Jalisco. Well, magic that emanates from each of its sociocultural manifestations, and today represents a great opportunity for tourism development”.

“Oh, teacher, how boring! You’re not thinking about taking us there, huh?” some students said.

The teacher told them “Tomorrow each of you bring your proposals, and we’ll analyze them. We have to organize the trip now, because time goes by very quickly.”

The next day some of them brought proposals to go to a beach that had importance for the country, like Cancún, Acapulco, Mazatlán or Miramar.

A second group suggested going to Monterrey, México City, or San Luis Potosí.

The teacher was surprised that his proposal was not taken into account and asked: “Why weren’t you interested in going to visit any magical town?”

Those who proposed beaches told that trip was more fun, because they could sunbathe, swim, dive, fish, share with foreigners, play beach volleyball, and see the summer fashion for the beach. Instead they said, “Magical towns are so boring! They have nothing to do with us!”

On the other hand, those who asked to go to a big city said that cities are very interesting: their buildings, streets, shops, and places to hangout. In the clubs, you can see how guys and girls dress, how they speak, and what kind of music they like. “We can’t find that in magical towns. We also think they are very boring. It’s like being in class…and we want to have a real and fun vacation, to see what’s new!”.

Maria Luisa, Jacinta and Nemecia, who came from the Huasteca, and were considered as “nerds” in the classroom, suddenly raised their hand and said to the teacher they wanted to talk.

The teacher saw them and said: “Go ahead; what do you want to tell us?”

  • Evaluation suggestions:

    Written answer to the scenario questions.

    Portfolio with exercises from the activities of application and closing.

  • Linking:

    History II and Spanish

Nemecia, a little embarrassedsaid, “We wanted to participate in the group discussion, to decide where to go, but we were not allowed. They said that it was enough studying. That the trip was not for "nerds". That we don’t really know “what’s new”, the fashion, the fun, because we come from a town, like the ones you want us to visit. So we kept quiet. They’re always like that... they don’t know what we have in Mexico”.

Students laughed and made jokes of what Nemecia exposed. One said that they did not know what fun was.

The teacher stared at students with some concern and said: “What is Mexico and Mexican?”

The students looked at each other and one said: “What does that have to do with the school trip? That is for History class!”

The teacher's attitude andNemecia’s comments, made a doubt and concern in the rest of the students.

The teacher intervened again and said “Let’s vote for one of the three proposals. Think carefully about your choice”

Teaching strategy

Opening

  • Activate students' previous knowledge by asking them the following questions:

    What benefits do the end of school year trips have?

    What do you think is the purpose of an end of school year trip?

Application

  • Ask students to read the scenario "A Magic Town". Ask these questions to encourage reflection and debate:

    What do you think of the idea of visiting a magical town?

    Do you think that students will learn something positive by going to any of the suggested places for the end of school year trip?

Complementary activities

  • What is more important to know: our customs and ancestral stories; How people who live in large cities are like or what happens at important beaches?

    What do you think of Nemesia’s comment?

    How do you think the story ends? What results do you think each proposal received in terms of percentage?

    Why did the students have an attitude towards their classmates from the Huasteca?

  • The students will discuss the previous questions and at the end say what was the student’s decision in the scenario in reference to the end of the year school tripand why. Ask them to write in their workbooks their answers.

Closing

  • Ask student to propose and support a place they would like to visit on their end of the year school trip considering the class discussion.
  • Ask for an investigation on magical towns. Ask them to concentrate on magical towns in Tamaulipas.
  • Ask them to write an essay describing the social importance, arts, education and economicsof the cultural expressions that currently exist in their city, region and state (embroideries, paintings, graffiti, and others).
  • Topics:

    Informative quality of channels and networks of communication.

    Production and validity of the information from different media.

  • Competencies:

    To foster management of situations.

  • Values:

    Responsibility, Caution, Self-esteem, Family Communication.

  • Learning outcomes:

    Acquires prevention methods to avoid risks in the use of new information technologies, particularly social networks.

    Learns on how to select and discerning formation in the media.

  • Field: V

  • Topic: 2/2.2

Scenario 6

Facebook

Scenario

Mariana was just 12 years old; she was anxiously waiting for September because for her birthday. Her older sister, Frida, had told her that at age 13, she would be able to create her account on the "feis".

The day that “Las Mañanitas” woke her up, she turned on the computer, and after entering data, searching for friends, uploading a profile picture, and everything else, finally she had a "feis" (Facebook) account!

Every time she came home from school, she was impatient to check her account. She felt a little uncomfortable having only 15 friends, a few classmates from school, a neighbor, and some of her sister’s friends.

Irritated, she decided to add people despite of not knowing them. After all, she thought, Facebook was made for that, to meet people and, why not, even to get a boyfriend. In a short time she had 100 contacts.

She felt so proud! But now she wanted to have 200. So, she began accepting all the friend requests she received. That’s how she met Rodrigo, a boy who was several years older than her, and would.

  • Purpose:

    Identify the quality of information found on social networks to have safe virtual communication with others.

He told her some really nice things that nobody had told her before. So after much thought, she accepted an invitation to the movies. He would pick her up at school. Surely, her friends would envy her when they saw his car, and how handsome he was.

It was Wednesday, and the last school bell rang. All her friends crossed over to the park. Some of them waited for their parents, others for transportation and Mariana for Rodrigo.

A black car parked. It was Rodrigo. He was not as handsome as his profile picture, and seemed much older than he had said, but the car was enough to make her friends die of envy.

Rodrigo greeted her and opened the door. He started the engine, and left.

That was the last time that Mariana was seen. The last status on her wall, from the previous night, and read: "Tomorrow will be a great day".

  • Assessment suggestions:

    Written work about the reflection obtained from the questions.

    Case analysis.

    Presentation of conclusions.

  • Linking:

    Spanish

Teaching strategy

Opening

  • Begin from previous knowledge. Use the following questions as a guide to start a first reflection about the scenario topic:

    What is the real importance of using new communication technologies?

    What is the use to be given to social networks?

Application

  • Ask students to read the “El feis” scenario.
  • Guide the reflection of students on the contents of the scenario using the following questions:

    What do you think about Mariana’s attitude?

    If you were in Mariana’s place, how would you have acted?

    Do you think that Frida was responsible? Why?

    Do you know people Mariana’s age that have an account on a social network?

    What would you say to Mariana’s parents?

  • Organize teams to discuss the above questions and raise new questions that allow them to start building conclusions about the proper use of social networks. The following can serve as examples:

    Do you really think you have more than two hundred friends, only having them online?

    Do you need to connect to the Internet to find out if it’s your best friend birthday?

    What are the advantages and disadvantages of organizing a plan with friends or classmates by posting an event in a social network?

  • Can you fall in love without being face to face with the other person?

    What kind of photos do you upload to the network and which you don’t?

    Do you think you can be addicted to the Internet?

    Mariana’s case has occurred in many parts of the world and even in Mexico. What do you think about this problem?

    What information do you consider belongs to a person’s private circle and what information is of the public domain? Which do you post on your social networks?

    How long do you use the computer for communicating with other people?

    What do you think about what appears online in social networks?

    What would you propose to avoid cases like Mariana’s?

  • Ask the teams to develop a written reflection on the use of social networking nowadays and the risks they represent if they are used used improperly. Ask them to write it in their workbooks.
  • Have a representative from each team to share their reflections with the group. Obtain conclusions.

Closing

  • Ask the students to discuss with experts and give them some tips and advice to be safe when using social networks. Ask them to write it in their workbooks.
  • Topics:

    Rational use of resources according to social and economic priority.

  • Competencies:

    To foster management of situations

  • Values:

    Responsibility, Rationality, Tolerance, Friendship, Self-esteem, Prevision

  • Learning outcome:

    Learns about taking decisions evaluating the best option.

    Discriminates between the necessary and dispensable.

  • Field: V

  • Topics: 1 /1.2

Scenario 7

The prom dress

Scenario

Erendira is a teenager who is about to leave secondary school. She is very excited, because in her group, students are making preparations for the prom. In her school proms are great events; they usually make a great celebration, and dress up elegantly. Erendira's mother talked about all this with her friend and “comadre”.

“Oh, 'comadre', Erendira graduates this year. There will be a party at school, and I don’t have enough money for my girl. I have to save for the payment of the registration next year, school supplies and books. As you know, every year it is more expensive!”

“Oh, Norma, don’t worry! Buy her all she needs for the prom. God will help us next year!”

“Do you think so, friend? Erendira is going to be happy, but what about tomorrow?”

“But it is her graduation, and that only happens once! Trust me!”

Later, Erendira arrived home, with her friends, Sandra

  • Purpose:

    To value the importance of setting priorities and address the truly important, obviating dispensable.

and Celia. Her mother, following her comadre’s advice, said:

“Daughter, I have here two thousand pesos for your prom. With this money, you can buy your dress, and everything you need. But next year I don’t know how I'm going to get the money for books and school supplies. Remember that in high school, they always ask for more things. I don’t know what I'll do to pay that!”

“Don’t worry Mom, thank you, really! We will buy things for the prom in the afternoon.”

Sandra turns to Celia, and muttered: “Oh, wow! I think we have a problem.”

“What is the problem?” Celia said. “The most important thing is the present.”

“What if they don’t have money to enter high school? Then, what will be more important?

Sandra told Celia that she should talk to Erendira. There could be other solutions. Celia replied: “But which one?”

“We can find other options during the conversation” Sandra argued.

Celia took her index finger to her temple, making signs that Sandra was crazy, but agreed to go with Erendira to talk.

When Sandra and Celia exposed that buying all the necessary things to enter high school was also very important, Erendira full of anger, snapped:

“And you say to be my best friends? I want to go to the prom!”

“Don’t get mad, friend! Think about the two situations that must be solved. There is not only a single option to solve the problem”.

Erendira told her friends to leave, to leave her alone.

Her friends left, but ideas came to Erendira’s mind and made her worry. The ceremony, the prom and the gala dress. She also thought about high school. Her mother came and said:

“It’s four o’clock, Ere, let’s go shopping”.

  • Evaluation suggestions:

    Exchange of arguments between the teams.

    Construction of agreements.

    Writing an argumentative essay.

  • Linking:

    Spanish

Teaching strategy

Opening

  • Promote student participation activating previous knowledge about the scenario’s topic.

Application

  • Ask students to read the scenario “Prom dress”. Ask them to make two teams, one to discuss Erendira’s position, and the other her mother’s role, Norma.
  • Lead a debate using the following questions as a guide:

    What do you think of the “comadre’s” recommendation?

    What would be more important to consider with the scenario’s problem?

    What would you do if you were in Erendira’s place?

    What do you consider are the responsibilities of a mother to her children?

    What then would the obligations of children be to their parents?

    What do you think of the efforts of Norma, Erendira’s mother?

    How do you think the story ends?

    If something like this happened to you, what would you do?

  • Together, get conclusions from the debate based on the questions above.
  • In teams, ask the students to make up an ending to the story in which the two main characters end up happy. Ask for endings to solve the following question:

    What solutions can achieve both, going to the prom and having the money for books and supplies?

  • Ask students to write the ending in their workbooks.

Closing

  • Ask for a document describing the values that should be implemented to solve the conflict presented in the scenario.
  • Topic:

    Responsible decision making for health care.

  • Competencies:

    For situation management.

  • Values:

    Responsibility, Respect for life, Physical integrity.

  • Learning outcome:

    To critically rate self-prescription of drugs and contrast them with other addictive substances uses.

  • Field: I

  • Topics: 2.1, 2.2

Scenario 8

Good for one, good for all?

Scenario

Alicia overheard her parents when they commented that the medication to treat her brother’s ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) was causing him to lose his appetite. Since Alicia was worried about her weight she secretly began taking one of her brother’s pills every so often. One day, she met a friend who had the same problem and took advantage of the opportunity, so her parents would not know.

“Raul, do you know what ADHD is?”

“Sure! I take pills for that, doctor says they help me pay attention and concentrate better in school.”

“Really? Could you give me a few? My brother has the same problem and my parents haven’t been able to buy the medicine.”

“Yes, of course! I don’t think there is a problem, there are many in the jar, and I only take one a day.”

“Thanks, Raul!”

  • Purpose:

    Avoid self-medication in young people as a form of health care.

When he gave her the pills she was looking for, they entered to the classroom to wait for the teacher. There, they found Joseph, who had a sore throat, and said to Alicia:

“My throat hurts a lot, and my mom has no money to take me to the doctor.”

“If you want, I can help you, my dad is a lot better now and left some pills that I can give you to make you feel better. His doctor prescribed them to him, so I don’t think they could harm you.”

“Oh cool! Great, thank you, friend!”

Emilia, who heard what they were talking about, told them both:

“It’s not cool at all! Don't be silly! You should consult someone to see if the medicine that Alicia will give you won’t actually hurt you.”

Two other friends who heard the discussion approached them. One of them, Andrés, interceded for Alicia and told her to ignore Emilia.

Emilia was obviously upset with what Andres had said, replied:

“But what do you know about medicine?”

Then another friend, Antonio, intervened and told Emilia:

“And do you know anything?”

Alicia, surprised by the discussion, told the two friends:

“I think it's good giving Jose the medicine that my dad used for a sore throat. If his mom has no money to pay for it, this is how he can get well!”

Emilia replied that on the contrary, it was pretty bad.

“Ask the teacher” she proposed.

Antonio called the teacher and told him about the discussion. So, he called them all over and suggested they look at the pros and cons of self-medication. They did and the class contributed with many opinions.

At the end of the class, Alicia told Jose: “Come with me to my house”

  • Evaluation suggestions:

    Written answer to questions.

    Conclusions and group reflections.

    Rubric for the cartoon’s evaluation.

  • Linking:

    Spanish, History, Science III

Teaching strategy

Opening

  • Ask students:

    What do they do when they have a pain or illness?

    What do you know about the consequences of medication without medical supervision?

Application

  • Open discussion reading of the scenario using the following questions as a guide:

    Why do some drugs cannot be purchased at the pharmacy if a prescription is not presented?

    What do you think of Alicia's position? What would you be willing to do to lose weight? What consequences would your decision have?

    What do you think about the help that Alicia offers Jose?

    Would you lie like Alicia to get a drug?

    What do you think about Joseph’s attitude?

    How do you think the story ends?

  • Organize the group into teams. Ask them to write an ending for the scenario. A representative from each team will read their endings to the group. Once read and discussed, the group will choose the one they consider to be the best solution.

Closing

  • In teams, have students discuss the pros and cons of self-medication and support their point of view. Ask them to complete the table presented in their workbooks.
  • Request seeking information about the risks of self-medication. Have students answer the following questions:
  • Why it is said that self-medication abuse can be compared to using drugs?

    Do you consider that people who sell medical prescriptions to get medicines commit a crime? Why?

  • Coordinate the elaboration of a cartoon where the consequences of the indiscriminate use of drugs and the importance of preventing self-medication are emphasized.
  • Topics:

    Bullying.

    Respect for ethnic and cultural diversity.

    Search of conditions and guarantees for a full personal and social development..

  • Competencies:

    For coexistence.

  • Values:

    Identity, Respect, Diversity, Equity.

  • Learning outcome:

    Recognizes the existence of prejudice resulting from interactions between different ethnic groups.

    Recognizes the contribution of each culture to national pride.

    Rejects bullying caused by ethical and social issues.

  • Fields: I y II

  • Topics: 3/3.1 y 2/2.2,2.3

Scenario 9

Respect Luis

Scenario

Manuel is a truck driver who works transporting fruits and vegetables. In Oaxaca he met a young Zapotec widow, whose son, Luis, studies first grade of Middle school. When they got married, they came to live to Tamaulipas.

In Secondary School, Luis had to face many challenges to continue there.

The first day he attended school, he found a slightly different atmosphere to the one in Oaxaca. He arrived greeting one of his classmates:

“Hello, what is your name? I am Mary”

“Hi, I am Luis. Nice to meet you, miss.”

“Ha, ha, ha! You talk funny! But don’t worry, I’m not making fun of you, it’s just that you talk weird”.

“Funny! Ha, ha, ha! That Indian cannot speak”.

“Shut up, Miguel! Don’t say that.”

“Indian, Indian!” Everyone started yelling.

  • Purpose:

    To reflect on the need to prevent discrimination on cultural or social differences.

“Hey, boys!” The teacher interrupted...

“Teacher, this Indian should go to the jungle, to be with those who are like him”.

“Miguel! Enough! Let’s go to the principal’s office”

The teacher called Luis’s mother, and asked her to come and get him. This situation began to occur more often. Luis’s classmates didn’t stop bothering him, for his complexion, his features, and his speech. Even because of his customs, and his personality.

“Mom, I don’t want to go to this school, don’t send me anymore, please.”

“Oh, "m’ijito", we don’t want lazy boys here”.

“I'm not lazy ma, what happens is that they don’t leave me alone!”

“You have to take it!”

The next day, Luis went to school very sad. He could no longer tolerate insults and abuse from his peers.

That day, the teacher asked students to research on native languages, and to translate a short text into Spanish.

Some students alleged,they did not know how that assignment could be used for. It would be better to find something in English, French or languages spoken in countries that are more advanced.

Luis told them he could help if they wanted to know something in Zapotec. Some young ladies were interested in Luis’s help. Their classmates laughed at them. A student, Moises, approached Luis and said:

“Hey, how has speaking Zapotec helped you?”

“It has helped me communicate with my family, the people, and my friends in Oaxaca” Luis replied.

“Has it helped you to study in this school?” Moises asked.

“No, I had to learn Spanish,” Luis said.

“So, do you realize your language has many limitations? However, Spanish opens you all the doors; you can even talk to us”.

Delia, one of the girls who was being helped by Luis, said to Moises:

  • Evaluation suggestions:

    Written answers to questions.

    Answers about discriminatory attitudes.

    Illustrations and collage.

    Group conclusions and reflections.

  • Linking:

    Spanish, History II

“Hey Moises, if you go to Germany, France, or here across to the US, how much does Spanish help?”

“Well, but they're other countries that speak other languages” Moises said, “That are not required to know my language.”

“Do you think you’ll be rejected because you don’t know their language?” Laura replied

Well... I don’t know, but I think we are alike in other aspects, so that makes it easier for them to accept me”.

“Tell me, Moises, are you Mexican?” Laura asked.

“Obviously!” Moises said.

“And what is Luis’s nationality?” Laura insisted.

“Well, he is a Zapotec” Moises said.

“Aren’t Zapotecs Mexican, Moises?”

“Well yes, but different” Moises emphasized

“You also are different to Luis, and not because of that he is bothering you all the time” said Laura, and continued: “What I think is that you are ignorant and you don’t really know what Mexicans are like. Not your family, not your friends, but other nationals of Mexico, so that’s why you bother Luis”.

“Yes, I can’t stand him! I can’t help it” Moises said.

“Come on Luis, Let's go learn about your language” Laura said to him.

The other girls followed, while the rest of them looked at each other. Someone from the group told Moises “I think you blew it!”.

Most of the students went to do their class work. The others stayed around Moises, somewhat confused and troubled, Moises said “Oh yeah! The ticks barking at the German Shepherds! We must tell the teacher to give us another assignment…”

Teaching strategy

Opening

  • Ask students how informed are they about states in the country with different cultures and native groups, and the different languages spoken.You can ask them to previously research in order to have more information during this activity.
  • Ask students:

    Do you think cultural differences can be a cause of discrimination in Mexico?

    Have you ever participated or have witnessed discrimination against someone?

Application

  • Ask students to read the scenario “Respect Luis”.
  • Open discussion reading of the scenario using the following questions as a guide:

    Which were the causes that kept the group from accepting Luis?

    How do you think Luis has felt in this situation?

    Do you think the assignment the teacher asked for can help them integrate Luis to the group? And how?

    Do you agree with the Moises’ way of thinking about Luis mother tongue?

    What do you think of the final attitude of Moises?

    What do you imagine the teacher will tell Moises to his request to change the assignment?

    What do you think of Miguel’s attitude? Do you think he received some punishment from the school principal for his behavior?

    What kind of learning can we receive from people like Luis?

    Do you know what is the policy of protection of pluralism in Mexico?

  • How do you think the story ends? What do you think all students learned about this?

Closing

  • Ask for examples of discriminatory attitudes towards some minorities or people with specific physical characteristics. Some examples are listed below:

    Trying to get artistries and traditional crafts at a lower price.

    Consider obese children as "ugly, lazy and dumb".

    Not respecting parking spaces for people with disabilities.

  • Illustrate the above examples with drawings, newspaper clippings or magazines. In the collage, add one or more phrases rejecting discrimination.
  • Ask them to investigate what cultural groups of other states in Mexico have established,in the north and south of the state of Tamaulipas, and why. Have them inquire about the characteristics of the cultures (language, clothes, traditions) and write the results of their research in the workbook.
  • Topics:

    Importance of healthy family relationships.

    Health care.

  • Competencies:

    To foster social relationship.

  • Values:

    Responsibility, Self-esteem, Integrity, Self-respect.

  • Learning outcome:

    Values the importance of a proper diet.

    Recognizes the risks of overeating and inappropriate solutions.

  • Field: V

  • Topic: 1/1.2,1.3

Scenario 10

A healthy mind in a healthy body

Scenario

Fernanda and Ivanna are sisters; the first is 14, and the second nearly 13. They’re surrounded by many more young and adult women: their mother, aunts, cousins, friends of their mother, and friends of friends. They have always heard conversations related to the female figure: being overweight, dieting and exercising.

Fernanda is naturally slim, but Ivanna is overweight. She looks a little plump. Fernanda is serious, while Ivanna is nervous, compulsive, and restless. She also likes to tell lies to get food to eat: candies, chocolates, ice cream, cakes, etc.

“Hey, Fernanda, let's go to the store, I am craving for something”.

“I told you, that if you keep eating junk food you’re going to look like a piggy”.

“Well I don’t care what you say to me, I want to eat something”.

“All right, but don’t say I didn’t warn you”.

  • Purpose:

    Reflect on the need to change eating habits and exercise to stay healthy.

Their mother was always worried about her body. She thought that at forty she looked older, so she followed every diet recommended to her, she read in newspapers, or saw on TV.Obviously she was very thin, in addition to the diets, she had 3 liposuctions.

When they came out of their bedroom, there was a group of women gathered with her mother in the kitchen. They were commenting on a particular case:

“The Garcia’s daughter just died”

“But she was only 13 years old!”

“Well, the sad thing is that her mom had her on diets, pills, teas and belts to lose weight… She bought everything she saw on TV so her daughter could lose weight… The girl secretly ate junk food, drank sodas and candy that kids eat nowadaysand when she finished, she would take laxatives or induce vomiting”.

Fernanda's and Ivanna’s mother said it was ok, try making her lose weight, perhaps what happened was just a mistake, only that, a simple mistake… That wouldn’t happen to her.

“Did you hear Ivanna? wouldn’t it be better if they let you gain weight, so you don’t have to worry about the things you eat? Really, I don’t think getting chubby will make you look bad” Fernanda said.

“I think we shouldn’t worry if we eat too much or too little. Not everyone can look like a television celebrity!” Ivanna exclaimed.

“But you will fill the entire TV screen!” Fernanda replied. “I don’t think I’ll go with you to buy something. It’s up to you if you want to be fat!”.

“Don’t be mean, Fernanda. You were just as chubby as me and see, now you're thin, without weight problems,” Ivanna told her.

The mom’s friends were still commenting:

“Her mother wanted to keep her underweight, but never consulted anyone, and didn’t let her have activities outside home. Practically she never exercised, she was always watching TV and she didn’t have a good relationship with peers and teachers”.

  • Evaluation suggestions:

    Written answer to the questions and chart.

    Conclusions and group reflections.

    Rubric for the review of collage.

  • Linking:

    Spanish, Mathematics, Science I, II y III, Physical education

She always told everyone that her daughter was tranquil, well behaved and never caused problems, except, of course, her weight.

“See?” A friend of the sisters’ mother said. Consider the case of Ivanna, don’t let things get out of control, and have a sad ending.

Ivanna and Fernanda stared at each other. Then Ivanna asked Fernanda:

“Do I really look that bad?”

Fernanda smiled and said:

“You're not so bad, in a supermarket you could compete with the watermelons!”.

Ivanna replied: “I don’t want you to come with me anywhere! If you are ashamed of my appearance, I can go by myself to buy what I want to eat. If mom asks where I'm going, I'll tell her I’m going to buy a book, or anything else, for that matter it’s the same thing”.

Fernanda thought about that and called her mother to come. At that moment she saw Ivanna, and scolded her, “But girl, look at you, can’t you see you keep gaining weight? Look at your sister, she's thin. Or look at me, I’m in my forties!”

At that moment, when Ivanna was about to cry, her mother’s friends called to say that the cosmetic surgeon was on the phone “You should consult a psychologist” one of her friends said, laughing loudly. Then she added:

“Ignore me, don’t feel bad, it’s a joke!”

Teaching strategy

Opening

  • The teacher will ask them to make an initial reflection starting from the following questions:

    Who do you think is the right person to guide young people about their weight?

    What is the name of the behavior of those who want to be extremely thin?

    Where do young people get role models, basing on appearance and attractiveness?

  • Ask students about the opinion they have of their own body:

    Do you feel thin or overweight? How does your weight affect your relationships with others?

    What kind of food do you consume inside and outside of school?

    What health benefits do you think the practice of exercise has?

    What kind of exercise do you practice?

Application

  • Ask students to read the scenario “A healthy mind in a healthy body”.
  • Next, divide the class into teams to discuss the problem that occurs in the scenario, taking into account the following questions:

    What do you think about the attitude shown by Ivanna and Fernanda’s mother?

    Do you think Ivanna should worry so much about her weight?

    What do you think Ivanna and Fernanda did after listening to her mother talking with her friends?

  • How do you think the story of the scenario ends?

    How much do you think television, movies and magazines influence young people to make decisions about their weight?

  • After discussing, each team suggests the two opinions that promote a better solution to Ivanna and her mother’s problem.
  • As a team, the whole class will say which ideas they found best, because they solve well Ivanna and her mother’s situation.
  • Among all, give an ending to the scenario to reinforce the values of self-esteem and self-care.

Closing

  • Ask students for a homework assignment in which they answer the following questions:

    What impact does media have in our eating habits?

    What image does the media sell currently?

    Why do women compare their physical appearance with great models?

    What do you think of the phrase "We live in fat free world, but we’re worth more than a picture"?

  • Ask them to make a list of junk food and sweets they eat regularly and to investigate the risks that its consumption bring their health. Have them write results in the chart in their workbooks.
  • Guide the whole group to reflect about the abuse in the consumption of these products.
  • Direct the analysis of the messages the media uses to sell dietary food products, exercise equipment, creams, pills and miracle diets.
  • Ask them to make a collage of newspaper and magazine cut outs onthe previous messages with phrases that warn students from believing them. Ask them to share the collages in the school community.
  • Topics:

    The need of young people of recognition.

    Search of originality that can lead to extravagance

  • Competencies:

    To foster life in society.

  • Values:

    Self-respect, Tolerance, Self-esteem, Autonomy.

  • Learning outcome:

    Recognizes the inherent risks in the indiscriminate imitation of stereotypes about physical appearance (clothing, cosmetics, accessories, tattoos).

  • Fields: III y V

  • Topic: 1/1.2 y 1/1.1

Scenario 11

In search of identity or sense of belonging?

Scenario

Leticia is in third grade of middle school. She is an egocentric and rebellious girl who lives with her aunt Rosy, who spoils her, and lets her do anything she wants.

Leticia is always aware of how her aunt dresses and what she buys, because she’s young, and into fashion, wearing all the novelties that young people use.

One day she saw her aunt wearing a piercing, and even knowing that there are school rules and regulations that don’t allow the use of these objects, Leticia decided to get a piercing and took the risk of being expelled from school.

Later, after finding out that her aunt and a group of friends had gotten body tattoos, she decided to imitate them. She chose a design that identified one of the most popular bands in the city. She felt cool and fashion.

Leticia started changing. School didn’t seem important to her. She was adding more piercings and tattoos. At school she had been disciplined several times. She continued like that.

  • Purpose:

    State the difference between accepting one's personality or imitate role models in search of a false originality.

Her classmates got together and talked about Leticia’s behavior.

Juan, who had always been shy, looked at her with envy and admiration. He liked that she was rebellious, and sometimes he thought about imitating her. He didn’t dare fearing the reactions of his parents and friends.

Francisco, the smartest boy in class, felt Leticia’s behavior was foolish, but everyone could ruin their lives if they wanted to.

Renato told his classmates Leticia was ugly but now she’s even more. Maria, who had been a good friend of Leticia, believed that she was going crazy. Violeta told them, what Leticia was doing was leading her to serious problems. Fernando felt it was necessary to discipline her, because she was a bad example for everyone.

The month of July was approaching and with it, graduation. Days earlier, the principal of the school required the presence of Leticia to express her concern about her attitude and lack of academic interest, which led her to have very low grades. For this reason, she was thinking about not including her in the graduation ceremony. However, as it was a ceremony organized by the student council she would ask them to discuss such sanction.

The students met. Raul, the president of the student council, presented the case to the members. In the meeting were Juan, Francisco, Renato, Maria and Violeta were.

“Classmates” Raul said, “I want to present Leticia’s situation and the principal requested it. The principal asked us to come to a decision. So tell me what you think and your decision?”

  • Evaluation suggestions:

    Elaboration of the portfolio with the conclusions obtained from each of team.

  • Linking:

    Spanish and Science III

Teaching strategy

Opening

  • Ask students the following questions to start reflection on the scenario topics:

    What do you think of people who get tattoos?

    What do you think of people who use an unconventional way of dressing?

Application

  • Ask students to read the scenario "Looking for identity or membership?”.

    What do you think of Leticia’s conduct?

    What do you think of Leticia’s aunt’s attitude?

    Do you think that the Principal’s decision was good?

    What is your opinion on the consequences of Leticia’s behavior?

    What do you think of the people who tattoo on their body symbols and images?

    Do you think it’s necessary for people to suffer a significant loss to react or to change their attitude?

    What do you think about what each member of the student society said?

    How do you think the story ended?

  • Organize the group into teams and ask them to make different endings for the scenario. Ask each team to discuss why they think the proposed ending is the one that best resolves the arising conflict.

Closing

  • Investigate causes and consequences of the use of piercings and tattoos on his/her body. Fill the box that appears in the Workbook.
  • Topics:

    Problems related to the irrational acceptance of superficial fashion standards.

  • Competencies:

    For life in society.

  • Values:

    Responsibility, Friendship, Identity, Honesty, Tolerance, Self-esteem.

  • Learning outcome:

    Thinks about the difference between consumption practices and consumerism.

    Recognizes the existence of prejudices towards different social and economic status.

  • Fields: V

  • Topic: 1/1.2

Scenario 12

The habit does not make the monk

Scenario

Patty and Marta are two girls who met in the Secondary School. They are attending the third year, and they work together as a team, because the teacher had said so. Both come from a different socioeconomic level. Patty is middle class, and Martha comes from a wealthy family.

The difference between the two is that, while Martha does not care about how she dresses, Patty, as a middle class girl, loves to dress well and buy fancy clothes. Although this represents a major expense for her parents, to whom she demands an obligatory prize for her good grades, no matter what they have to do to give this to her.

Both are regular students. However, Patty’s parents consider normal to reward their daughter with whatever she likes; preferences that usually come from television ads. She likes everything that is fashionable. Even her teammates call her "La Chica Palacio”, which she loves to hear, as well as when they tell her how good she looks, and how nice she dresses.

Martha, on the other hand, is an extroverted girl, she likes to be with her friends, and she is a light hearted person. However, she always keeps a distance from those that she doesn’t like. Her characteristic is to be a little awkward when it comes to fashion. She pays no attention to detail nor combines colors, and clothing styles. Paty dislikes her, although she envies her social position, she prefers to interact with her popular group of girlfriends, and ignores Martha. Martha does not care at all what Paty thinks about her. And in public, she doesn’t care if she doesn’t greet her. She considers Paty a snob, somewhat unauthentic, trying to use her appearance, and what she wears to hide her middle class economic status.

The homework they have to do together is about differences in access that children of different economic levels have to different education levels. They must try to explain why these differences occur.

The first day, when trying to agree, Paty told Martha that she didn’t understand what the teachers were thinking about, making them work together. Martha stared at her and said:

“Surely, what they think is that on your own you couldn’t do this assignment!”

“That's what you think. Every piece of clothing I wear has cost me my good grades. They must think you’ll do a sloppy job because of your sloppy way of dressing” Paty replied.

“Ok, Paty, Martha answered. I don't care about what you think. I don't think that dressing fashionably guarantees doing good homework. It speaks of an air head who has no personality, and is a slave of advertisements”.

“You dress so carelessly because you feel guilty to exhibit what others cannot have” Paty told Martha.

MIss Gertrudis, noticed them arguing heatedly, she said to them:

“It’s good that you had the opportunity to work together. I see the passion in your work. Anyway, remember that you don’t have all day to do the homework.”

“We’ll get started teacher” said Paty and Martha in at the same time.

Martha and Paty left and went to the most far-off table; they sat down and began to see to how they would work. Martha opened her laptop, and searched the Internet about the distribution of enrollment in different levels of education. As she saw it was a lot of data, she proposed the following to Paty:

“There are many levels of education, we choose one level with its grades Paty, do you agree?”

Paty, thinking about all the work they had to do if they investigate all the levels of education, nodded.

After a good time researching, about two hours, they saw that in Mexico, the higher the level in middle school the more students drop out. They also realized that there is a strong relationship between income and level of education achieved.

“How can we fix this problem?” asked Paty to herself.

“Easy” Martha answered”, without money you cannot afford education.

“Yeah, but look, not all who have low incomes drop out, how can we explain this contradiction?

Surely, some of them are knuckleheads who are not interested in studying” suggested Martha “neither if they are poor. You Patty, why do you want to finish your secondary studies?

“Well, to find a good match to marry” she answered “someone who is intelligent and has a good income so I would not have to worry about what I want to buy. And you, Martha, if you already have everything, why to study?

“Well, I study to spend time. It would be very boring to spend all my time doing nothing at home. My dad did not study much. He did not finish his studies of trading, and has done very well. He did not require much study. What I want to do in the future is to travel, to visit other countries, and then to find a good match. There are many among my family’s connections”.

“Do you believe that many of those who leave school can do well in life? “Patty asked Martha.

“Of course, the smartest ones!” Martha said.

“I don’t think so. Then you would not be studying.” Patty said.

“I don’t need to study to do well in my social life” Martha said snobby.

They were still in the discussion when they heard the teacher’s voice:

“Students hand in your jobs now!

Paty and Martha were stunned. They spent the time arguing. They were both thinking about the answer to the question for the assignment. The two approached the teacher and asked for a more time. Apparently, they had found a way to finish.

The teacher answered: “you had a maximum time to finish, and it's over. It's time to give me your sheets”.

“But, teacher, we finally agreed! Give us ten more minutes, please?

The teacher thinks...

  • Evaluation suggestions:

    Written answers to questions of the reflection stage.

    Group conclusions.

  • Linking:

    Spanish

Teaching strategy

Opening

  • To promote student participation activating their previous knowledge about the scenario: Ask the following questions:

    What do you understand for conventionalism?

Application

  • Ask two students to represent the characters mentioned in the reading by a dramatization.
  • Gather students into teams to discuss the following:

    What is your opinion of Patty’s behavior?

    What do you think of Martha's behavior?

    Do you think that one of the girls is more valuable than the other?

    Which do you consider the students’ responsibilities are?

    What do you think teacher Gertrudis decided? Do you think that she will give them more time to finish the assignment?

    What responsibilities do parents have with their children?

    What do you think of Paty’s parents’ attitude? Do you consider that it is their obligation to buy everything she wants as a reward for good grades?

  • Arrange the group into teams. Ask them to create an ending for the scenario. A representative from each team will read their ending to the group. Once all endings are read and discussed, one will be chosen by the whole group which considers that best solves the problems.
  • Ask students to complete the chart in their workbooks. The idea is to collect all the opinions and ways of thinking of Martha and Paty on different aspects: ways of dressing, study objectives, personality, etc.

Collect all the information. When they finish, make the students write an essay in which they state with which of the both they are in most agreement with and why.

Closing

  • Have students write in their workbooks a message to Paty and one for Martha, to give advice to change some positions and attitudes that would improve their relationship with others.
  • Request an essay describing the values that should be implemented to resolve the conflict for the scenario.

Appendix 1

Glossary for education in values

Citizenship: It comes from the Latin voice civitas. It is defined in terms of responsibility, in the sense of corresponsabilization.

Citizenship is the belonging to a political community and it is constituted in several terms in different societies. It is linked to freedom (taken as a part of natural right, in other words, universal), or justice, or one and the other, and in this sense, it is identified with the exercise of three classes of human rights:

  • 1. Civil rights. For example: to life, to expression, to property.
  • 2. Political rights. For example: to electoral decision, to political party and union association.
  • 3. Social rights. For example: to work, to education, to health.

Currently, the idea of citizenship covers rights and duties/obligations: considered as coessential for being members of a community. More precisely, we could say that the new citizenship gathers the rights of freedom and equality, with the rights of solidarity. In this sense, the concept of citizenship joins the one of democracy andis characterized by the need of reconciling the demands of participation, on one side and on the other, the ones of justice with the ones of the market.

Civic: Respectful behavior of citizens about the norms of public coexistence.

Competency: Ability to successfully achieve the complex demands through mobilization of the psychosocial prerequisites, in a way that the individual results, reached through action, selection, or behavior according to the demands, are emphasized. Similarly, we can say that it refers to a successful intervention in a concrete problem-situation through actions in which attitudinal, procedural and conceptual actions are mobilized.

Democracy: : It is derived from the Greek word demos, which means “town” and kratos that means “town’s government and authority”. Nowadays, the concept of democracy is not limited to a determined form of government; it refers to a set of norms for social and political coexistence.

Democracy as a lifestyle is a form of life based on the respect to human dignity, freedom and rights of each and all of the members of a community.

Democracy as a form of government implies the participation of the people ingovernment action through suffrage and the exercised control over what is done by the State.

Human rights:Set of prerogatives, which are inherent to a person’s nature, indispensable for the integral development of an individual who lives in a society legally organized. These rights, established in the constitution and laws, must be recognized and guaranteed by the State.

We are all obligated to the respect human rights of others. However, according to the constitutional mandate, the ones with greater responsibility in this sense are the government authorities, that is, men and women in public office. The duty of protecting human rights represents for the State, the demand of providing and maintaining the necessary conditions, in justice, peace and freedom, so that people could really enjoy all their rights. The common welfare supposes that public power must do everything it takes to, gradually, overcome inequality, poverty and discrimination.

Dialogue: It comes from the Latinso dialogues and the Greek διάλογος. Currently, it still has an eminent normative value. The dialogue implies to talk, discuss, ask and answer between associated people in a common interest of investigation. The principle of dialogue implies philosophical and religious tolerance, in a positive and active sense and therefore, not the kind of tolerance where different points of view exist, but the one where equal legitimacy and good will to understand reasons. A growing appreciation of dialogue is accompanied by a growing appreciation and thanks to in that atmosphere dialogue concretely lives and persists.

Human dignity: "The principle of human dignity" enunciated by Kant means the requirement as a second formula of the categorical imperative: "Act so as to treat humanity, whether in your person or in the person of another, always as an end and never merely as a means".

Education with values: Process to induce civic education in scholars, based on the active participation of their insertion in the social, cultural, political and economical contexts of their community, their province (states) and their nation.

Values education must be understood, from the constructivist perspective, as a set of natural situations and scenarios, assisted by the experience of teachers, allowing students to build their civic personality in interaction with their peers, their teachers and own sociocultural context of the institution and the social group they belong to.

Equity: It comes from the Latin aequitas, from aequus, equal; from the Greek επιεικεία, virtue of justice in a concrete case.

It is customary beneficial temperance. It is a propensity to be guided, or to fail, for the feeling of duty, or awareness, and the rigourous prescriptions of justice and the strict text of law.

It is the appealing to justice to correct the law that expresses justice. The same nature of equity is the correction of law when it is shown to be insufficient by its universal character. The law necessarily has to have a general character, and, because of this, sometimes shows to be imperfect, or with a difficult application to particular cases. In such cases, equity intervenes to judge, not from the law, but from justice and that the same law is conducted to do. Justice and equity are not the same things; equity is superior, not to justice per se, but what is formulated in a law that by reason of universality is subjected to error.

Ethics: Science of behavior. There are two fundamental concepts of this science, namely: 1) the considered end science directed to behavior of mankind and the means to achieve and to deduce such end, both end and means of mankind's nature; 2) the considered impulse science of human behavior and intends to determine it with the aim to direct or discipline behavior itself.

Honesty: Attribute of human quality that consists in behaving and expressing with sincerity and coherence (tell the truth) according to the values of truth and justice.

Identity: National identity is manifestedmainly through language, traditions and customs, common history, general values, aspirations as a people, the ethnic composition of the population, the specific culture they have generated, etc.

National identity is manifested mainly through language, traditions and customs, common history, general values, aspirations as a people, the ethnic composition of the population, the specific culture they have generated, etc.

Equality: Principle that grants all citizens equal rights.

You can describe the moral and legal equality as that by which an individual who is subject to certain conditions or privileges has the same possibilities as another in the same conditions.

Justice: It originates from the Latin termiustitia and allows denominating one of the four cardinal virtues, one inclined to give everyone his belongings.

It is a value determined by society. It was born from the necessity of keeping peace among the members of a community. It is the group of rules that establish an appropriate frame for people and institutions, authorizing, prohibiting and allowing specific actions in individual and institutional interactions.

Moral: Pertaining or related to the actions or characters of a person, from the perspective of good and evil.

Libertad: Comes from the Latin libertas, -atis, of equal meaning. Capability mankindpossess to act according to own will, throughout life; therefore, responsible for own actions.

Reciprocity: It comes from the Latin reciprocitas and it refers to the mutual correspondence of a person or thing with another. It is the principle of universal relationship of things in the world, principle by which a community is formed, an organized whole.

Respect: From the Latin respectus, it means attention, consideration. The term refers to moral and ethical issues. The recognition of self-dignity or someone else’s dignity is a behavior originated in this acknowledgment.

Commonly, respect is known by the endeavor of recognizing others, or himself/herself; a certain dignity that is required to be protected.

Respect is the consideration that someone has a value in itself and is set to reciprocity, mutual respect and mutual recognition.

Responsibility: It is the virtue or habitual disposition to assume the consequences of people’s own decisions, responding for them. It is the ability to respond for their own acts. It is all that concerns me in an exclusive way and that I can’t humanly reject.

Solidarity: The root refers to conduct in-solidum, that is, that the destinies of two or more people join. Therefore, to show solidarity is not only to help, but involves a commitment to that to which you are given the solidarity. In the most basic sense, solidarity is supposed to be practiced without distinction of gender, race, nationality, religion, or political affiliation. Solidarity is moved only by the conviction of justice and equality.

Tolerance: Respect for the ideas, beliefs or practices of others, when they are different, or contrary to the ones we have.

Values: Principles that allow us to guide our behavior in function of self-realization. They are fundamental beliefs that help us prefer, appreciate and choose some things instead of others, or one behavior instead of another. They are also a source of satisfaction.

Truth: It comes from the Latin veritas. It is the validity or effectiveness of cognitive processes. By means truth generally the quality by which a cognitive procedure is effective or any succeeds. Truth, in general, is understood as the quality through which a cognitive procedure is efficient or successful.

Virtue: Designates any capability or Excellency that belongs to any thing or being. Its specific meanings could be reduced to three: 1)general capability or potential, 2) Capability or Human potential; 3) Capability or potential, of moral nature.

Appendix 2

Resources to learn more about education in values
Bindé, J. (2004). ¿Hacia dónde se dirigen los valores?, México, Fondo de Cultura Económica

Currently, there is a weakening and a crisis of values, which has been mainly produced by globalization only worried by technical progress; which in essence, has led to an increased materialism that has proven to be incapable of guiding actions and remains indifferent to the strength of values. This value crisis is manifested in the use of terms such as “nihilism”, “loss of meaning”, “values’ disappearance”, or “civilization shock” and values which are supposedly irreducible.

Cappello, H. (2004). El caso de los Congresos Internacionales sobre la Familia del DIF Tamaulipas: Construcción de políticas sociales, identidad colectiva y ciudadanía, Tamaulipas, DIF Tamaulipas

Analyzes the case of International Conferencesof DIF TamaulipasFamily, explaining how the institutions in the State-Nation are a fundamental part of the process to create a common collective identity, a civic-political consistent character and an awareness of the most important problems and virtues in the community.

Chávez, M. (2010). Formación cívica y ética. Oferta de actualización para maestros, México, Instituto Nacional de Evaluación Educativa (INNE)

Document that presents the conceptual frame and the results of the documental analysis of the course materials, workshops and strategy notebooks for teachers of civic and ethical formation. The study was conducted with the purpose of exploring at what extent these materials satisfy the needs of teaching formation to teach that subject. http://www.inee.edu.mx/archivosbuscador/2009/04/INEE200904118-formacioncivicayeticacompleto.pdf

Cortés, M. (2004). Una mirada psicoeducativa a los valores, España, Prensas Universitarias de Zaragoza

Theoretical and practical contents about moral development and its educational side that are seeking empowering personal, moral andethical growth in students and, at certain point, to point out criteria and ethical education strategies for the professional development in the educational environment with the new technologies.

Education in values and Education for Development

International organization dedicated to education with values. Multiple educational resources (videos, documents) in human rights education, for the citizenship, for peace, among other key topics linked to education with values is offered in website. http://www.educacionenvalores. org/spip.php?rubrique8

Hoyos, G. et al. (2001). La educación en valores en Iberoamérica, Madrid, Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos (OEI)

Different Latin American experts present their perspectives about education with values. Among the analyzed topics, the role of education with values for the construction of democratic societies facing the society of knowledge, are the highlighted topics; in addition, it makes an interesting introduction of some teaching strategies and specific evaluation of education with values.

Luengo, F. y Moya, J. (2008). Escuela, familia, comunidad: Claves para la acción, España, Wolters Kluwer España, S.A.

Democratic education is not the onlysole responsibility and competence of the teachers; but involves all citizens in different levels and with complementary activities: education professionals, family, municipalities, civic associations, trade unions and democratic schools.

This work gathers ideas, resources and experiences that have been used to fight for that final objective since project Atlántida: close collaboration betweenschool, family and society, all together.

Martín, X. y Puig, J.M. (2007). Las siete competencias básicas para educar en valores, Barcelona, Graó

To educate with values, we need certain domain in seven competencies; to be one-self; to recognize others, to facilitate dialogue, to regulate participation, to work in teams, to form a school community and to work in a network. The work proposes that education with values is an essential occupation that teachers suggestfor mastering certain competencies.

Moreno, A. y Méndez, P. (2004). Familia y sociedad: Un estudio sobre los valores de los tamaulipecos, Tamaulipas, DIF Tamaulipas

The prevalent Cosmo-vision in the state of Tamaulipas is analyzed and interpreted, as well as the social manifestations that will be more common in the upcoming years. It reflects ideas, attitudes and values of Tamaulipas’ people in a way that these are known, appreciated and prepared for facing a new century.

Mota, G. (2006). Educación cívica y ciudadana: una visión global, México, Santillana

Proposes the need of strengthening dignity, identity and indispensable civil participation in the social construction of new democratic societies, based on jointly agreed upon and informed decisions. Because of the importance of this topic, this is a book of interest for the teachers of any level and also for scholars, academic, researchers and concerned citizens andbetter said, busy, with the development and consolidation of democratic life, that each day is more rooted in our country and some other Hispanic ones.

Navarro, G. (2000). El diálogo. Procedimientos para la educación en valores, España, Desclée de Brouwer, S.A.

Adolescence is a critical stage in the formation of adult personality and in morality consolidation. It is the critical moment when the individual discovers rationality and autonomy, but at the same time, s/he uses this wonderful capability of thinking by him/herself against traditional thinking, authority and morality. This often results in a crisis of values, whose uncertain culmination could leave their personality and moral judgment rooted in mere conventionalism void of principles. For them, it becomes necessary to elaborate strategies that propitiate and develop the fondness for rational thinking as a means to elaborate norms and discover values to facilitate coexistence and the solution of conflicts through dialogue.

Ochoa, A. (2010). La formación del docente para la asignatura de Formación Cívica y Ética: el caso de Querétaro, México, Congreso Iberoamericano de Educación, Metas 2021

The article reports the opinion of the teachers on the formation to teach the subject Civic and Ethical Formation and it points out some suggestions from the same teachers to improve these processes of formation. http://www.chubut.edu.ar/descargas/secundaria/congreso/DOCENTES/R1223_Ochoa.pdf

Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos (OEI), Valores

This is a web site with several publications of investigations, programs and educational resources on education with values, developed in Latin America. http://www.oei.es/valores.php

Rollano, D. (2004). Educación en valores. Teoría y práctica para los docentes, España, Ideas Propias

It gives a guide about the basic contents of education with values and mentions the very important role values have in the personal and social development of the individual. It presents an approach for education with values and it also covers the need for an integral education.

SEP (2011). Encuentro Educación y Valores para la Convivencia en el siglo XXI, 4-9 abril, México

Experts and international leaders encounter with the Mexican educational community to analyze in a critical way the civic and ethical values required for the Mexican citizen formation in the XXI century. The website grants access to the interesting lectures of the conferences’ keynote speakers and the different panels of discussions and forums analyzingwhat has been made. http://www.educacionyvalores. mx/estructura/actividades-academicas

UNESCO, Valores para vivir

International initiative supported by UNESCO, dedicated to the promotion of education with values. The web page in Spanish contains references to the programs, educational materials and formation courses. http://www.valoresparavivir.org/ index.php?lang=spanish

References

Bolívar, A. (1998). Educar en valores. Una educación para la ciudadanía, España, Consejería de Educación y Ciencia de la Junta de Andalucía.

Brady, L. (2011). “Teacher Values and Relationship: Factors in Values Education”, Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 36(2):56-66.

Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2008). Cambridge University Press.

Cappello, H.M. (1993). “Variaciones de la identidad nacional. Un estudio empírico de la identidad y el carácter en seis regiones de la nación mexicana”, Pensar es Cultura, CONACULTA, México.

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Table of Contents

Book of Values

VALUE EDUCATION | Middle School Third Grade 25