INTRODUCTION

Today, as in the past, the triad, family, school, and community, is formed by institutions, in which a system of values should be built in order to give legitimacy and viability to the Nation. The school, with its own teaching nature is, without a doubt, the one in charge of guiding the axiological route that allows society to cohesion and build responsible citizens, ready to face the challenges that social, economic, cultural and political changes have brought, and that their participation would be to guarantee a prosperous, pacific and certainly happy country.

The objective of this book oneducating with values, proposed by Tamaulipas Integral Family Development (Sistema para el Desarrollo Integral de la Familia de Tamaulipas, DIF, for its initials in Spanish)is to complement the Tamaulipas Education Ministry’s program of civic education and ethics (SET,for its initials in Spanish). To contribute to the reinforcement school, family and society through education with values is one of the most important tasks of DIF Tamaulipas. School,because of its essence and vocation, because of its function and influence, and because of the time students spend there, becomes the perfect place to reinforce learning values among students, not only in its ethical approach, but also in preparing them as future active citizens participating in their duties with their Nation.

Two sense dimensions in educational systems

There are two dimensions regarding contemporary educational systems that give legitimacy and importance to the formation and preservation of the institutions in society, and to the incorporation of the following generations for their development. The first dimension is stated as the one having the function of transmitting knowledge through appropriate educational models where teaching is the main purpose the second dimension refers to accomplishing the complex process of forming students to integrate them to society as responsible peopleby educating them with values as a unique way of teaching, which prepare them for life, in their development as human beingsand to actively participate in the perfection of their own society.

For both dimensions, teaching and formation, there exists paradoxical situations, which some how limit their application. When teaching, not only does pertinent criteria complicate its functionality, but also –paradoxically- the increasing amount of knowledge that the geniuses of the scientific-technologic revolution constantly generate, and the frequent development of theories on society, culture, economy and politics, which encourages and renews social practice, to the point that school time available for teaching becomes limited. For formation, not only the available time is reduced, but because of its exceptional nature, its teaching becomes somewhat complex, due to the fact that it cannot separate the person who is learning from what has to be learnt, as it happens with other subjects in the curriculum, such as Physics, Chemistry, Biology, etc.

In other words, the aspects of subjectivity, emotions, affections, sensitivity and personal experiences need a different approach from the one who is solely transmitting knowledge. Because of the scarcity of time, it becomes necessary for the student to learn actively, to search for knowledge in available sources: libraries, Internet, cultural sections in the newspaper or magazines, and audiovisual aids from movies, television and theater.

It is clear that a world in constant change needs that the subjects of education become active. The main objective is to encourage and develop own learning, and to develop cognitive (motivational) skills, which prepare them for continuous learning. Simple repetition and memorization, encyclopedic teaching, discipline and textbook centered teaching are not sufficient to achieve new knowledge. This requires knowledge comprehension, giving importance to the significance of processes,students’ organization forms based in self-management of knowledge, the role of libraries as a teaching resource, the qualitative evaluations as well as the quantitative ones, and the careful use of new information technologies in the quest for knowledge.

The formation as an educational dimension doesn’t mean that it is a purely intuitive or reflexive approach. It must rely, the same as other aspects of learning on a group of systematic procedures that could take it to the continuation of a learnt event.

When we talk about the training of students with values, particularly in the first stages of learning, we are referring, not only to the acquisition of certain positive behaviors, butalso to the internalization of a group of values which shall guide them in their life and interactions in all the social areas where they have to be included and participate.

The problem of how to trigger this learning process of values, that becomes affected by the influence of multiple sociocultural behavioral models which are presented to the students on a regular basis, this fact takes us to consider a special way of teaching, that allows us to focus on what must be learnt, and could give them a certain autonomy against the perverse stimuli from other behavioral models. This way of teaching has been explained as learning through competencies.

In the same way that the students will have to learn a number of competencies to obtain a relevant, appropriate and useful education for their lives and their community participation, we must be aware that the teacher must be able to master competencesas well to educate the students with values. This implies the acquisition of a new role as a teacher, that must be not only as a mentor, but also as an adviser, counselor, tutor, friend, and partner in the knowledge construction of students, of course, without trying to replace their learning.

The objective of this book is precisely, not only giving the teacher a group of resources to improve the education with values, but also, to let the teacher work in personal achievement of the group of competencies that are necessary for teaching.

It is evident that the school has been transformed, and together with it, the knowledge that has to be taught to students. The most important actors have changed their roles, some of them for good, and others for worse. However, the school as an institution is still the citizens’ favorite, and also one of the most demanded by them. Its mission of being the place where knowledge is expected to acquirea better position, and opportunities of development within society, all this makes it vulnerable to all the critical situations of the same society. People expect too much from school, and in correspondence, not always has enough resources to satisfy all the demands that education imposes in this new era we are currently living.

Contemporary society imposes growing challenges to educational institutions and to those who are part of them, whether they are principals, teachers, students, or employees. Nevertheless, it keeps on being a niche where the new generations learn how to be part of the change and development of society. To summarize, we could say, that education with values allows us to discover who we are, how to improve, to whom and for whom we do it.

“Tell me which values you have and I will tell you who you are”, as the Stagirite philosopher would say.

The importance of values facing the challenges of contemporary Tamaulipas’ society

Tamaulipas’ society is not isolated from the changes that are happening in all societies in the world. These changes have deeply affected the lifestyles of its inhabitants, their costumes, traditions and rules for living. Having a territory that connects with the United States has brought not only some complications, but economic opportunities as well.

The changes brought by globalization, and particularly by the North America Free Trade Agreement, signed by the United States, Mexico and Canada, caused industrialization to widely develop and social, economic and demographic characteristics of this region radically change. Tamaulipas became a point of attraction to the people in southern Mexico, and also to people in other nations. Its population grew in a way that it affected its previous and well-balanced distribution in its main cities, becoming, an attractive point for employment and economic development. In the south, is the conurbation of Altamira, Tampico and Ciudad Madero, as an effect of the consolidation of oil extraction and petro chemistry industry, as well as for having two of the most important seaports in Mexico. In the north, the bordering region attracted most of the migration motivated by the national and international manufacturing industry implanted there or seeking an opportunity of migrating to the United States.

The speeding process of change in the Tamaulipas’ population to an industrial and service society had noticeable consequences. All this change was not entirely positive. It could be summarized in a relative crisis of values and mistrust towards many of the institutions that regulate daily life.

Education with values is not a simple task. The school has to face the competence of many social agents whose influence is out of proportion because of the resources they have. The media and entertainment have invaded almost all the leisure time of children, teenagers, youth and adults, which contribute to the deterioration of many values and to their extreme relativity. They tend to show habits, costumes and norms that are prone to convert the audience into subjects of consumption, addicts to violent shows, and to the exposition to models of behaviors that are not legally accepted, or they weaken the consolidation of personal social networks.

It is not enough to simply mention that certain examples given in the media, or in neighborhood living, or even in the same family are negative, in order forstudents to avoid them. It is another approach that must be used. The exercise of this axiological teaching proposed covers the need of generating meaningful experiences, involving conditions, necessary reflections, and productive dialogues that result in a conscience of actions and a rationale of their consequences. No one can learn from someone else’s experience. That is, the students have to be able to “make it conscious”, to incorporate it not only to their knowledge background, but also to their everyday behavior when they are faced with conflicts presented in their lives.

Educational investigation has developed several procedures to make more efficient what we can design as complex learning; especially those that can be applied to various vital situations. From this class of transversal learning, values are conformed. Because of this, to make values beunderstood, it is necessary that they are interiorized and become part of the internal norms that control the actions of the person. Techniques that represent relatively complex environments are required, but within a scale that is manageable by the school and classroom environments.

Scenarios have the most versatility, adequacy, and adaptability to accomplish the objectives of an education with values.It is because of this characteristic that this technique has been selected, due to the fact that it allows a process of immersion of students in meaningful situations, in which they can activelysolve problems, dilemmas, and conditions, generating and building their own and shared learning.

The people of Tamaulipas and values.

In a recent study, sponsored by DIF Tamaulipas, onthe values of its states’ population, it was found that persons from Tamaulipas show a strong social orientation to ward traditionalism, which enforces the problems of gender inequality, family violence, child abuse, paternalism, authoritarianism and low civic participation (Moreno Álvarez, 2004).

It was found in other studies from the main cities in Tamaulipas (Cappello, 1993, 1995 y 1996) that the people from this state tend to be passive in their social relationships; in their jobs’ activities, a significant percentage tends to be undisciplined; it is frequent that they avoid making decisions and assuming personal responsibilities. A big part of the population shows a tendency towards magical thoughts, and they blame destiny or bad luck for the failure of their actions. Regarding authority, most of the population shows certain ambivalence, because on one hand, they seem to be submissive in their presence, and on the other, they express hostility when they exercise authority over their subordinates.

They show fear and uncertainty towards the process of change. Their attitude about religion is positive, but often negative concerning church authorities. They love free time, and even though they like to enjoy nature, they don’t show respect for it. In a study conducted in Tamaulipas (Cappello, 1999), the people surveyed surprisingly considered that environmental pollution and destruction of green areas in the state were the least problematic issues.

However, they showed a positive attitude towards industrialization, commerce, and education. They expressed a strong concern about social violence, drug addiction, and organized crime. In general, they grant a low value to personal health.They expose their physical well being to conducts that will surely hurt them, and consider that tobacco, alcohol, and other addictions will cause them relative harm. Preventive health care is not common in many men. Women showed more concern, particularly associated with their roles as mothers, but personally, they consider that loss of health could be fatal.

Referring to ethical universal values, their orientation tends to relativism, where the majority of the population gives them little attention. It seems they are not worried about them.

Education in values must be differenced from teaching of values. In the first case, when students are educated in values, the judgment about men and his nature is the most important thing. We refer to the topics and teaching techniques that are required for the students to be able to systematically guide their behavior with the orientations that society consider as valuable. The teaching of values is focused on the instruction of conceptual, informative, and disciplinary aspects.

With the results of the investigations about values in Tamaulipas, it is seriously considered that education with values should be oriented in a very incisive way towards the formative aspect. It must be focused on the relationship between values and behavior, contextualizing the most conspicuous problems that communities, families, and individuals face.

I. FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATION IN VALUES BASED ON COMPETENCIES

School, education, and values.

Education and values have been considered as an obligated relationship to school since the former doesn’t finish its job in simple transmission of knowledge, but assumes the formation of students as one of its main functions, so that they can successfully face their lives, and maturely participate in a society that will demand from them as committed citizens.

The main aspect of this formation is the learning of values, from individual to collective, which reach their maximum significancefor exercising democratic coexistence.

Concept of values

From a Humanistic perspective, the supreme value is manhood –humanity- and the basic moral foundation of human society is its preservation, development, and perfection. Respect for life would be the value related with that preservation, emanating, extending and transferring to a complex group of facts, experiences, and behaviors pertaining to life, as peace preservation, health, environment, and public safety.

While responsibility to comply norms and obligations that improve the relationships of coexistence, institutions, and jobs, respond to the value of social and material development – the whole society- the quest for a fair and equitable society – in all dimensions of human existence: social, economic, cultural and political- would lead to perfecting human beings as citizens.

The conception of aaxiological pillar, considering the human being as a moral base, lies in three basic dimensions: Respect for life; Vocation for development, and Perfection achievement- Equity and Justice- that allow how to identify the way these values are expressed in different stages of educational development of the individual and society.

The “experienciation” is not achieved with the simple systematic exposition from concepts that integrate the value as a public and specific event represented on a cognitive category. The students should be incorporated with everything involving emotions and affections, in order to experiment what the value means. Education must start from emotions provoked by specific situations when students face dilemmas that offer experiencing values in personal and social life.

Education with values presents serious challenges for the teacher in different school levels. The management of students’ sensitivity implies the comprehension of the degree of emotional and cognitive maturity in the different ages of the students.

During development, children, teenagers and youth, besides absorbing knowledge from everywhere –formal and informal education- have a growing ability to get vital experiences that come from family role models, media, friends and surrounding community, reproducing the behavior of the observed models – consciously and unconsciously- whether good or bad, and interiorizing them as part of their identity and character. Therefore, the simple exposition as a vehicle to model axiological behaviors are insufficient. There must be another way of teaching, and another way of integrating themto the students’ curriculum.

Clyde Kluckhohn (1957), regarding values, considers that the inappropriate conceptions of the relationship between normative and existential propositions come from the disproportioned vision from existing differences and similarities among them. Lepley (1959), rejecting the emphasis that tends to exist between judgment of value and judgment of facts, claims it isa mere extrinsic distinction. According to Thorndike (1932), the judgment of value refers to the consequences of factual situations; and therefore, they are from the same type. The distinction between judgment of value and judgment of facts has a classifying nature; object of the former are the relationships via-end, and the latter, cause and effect relationships.

The integration of values in a system, a major factor in the characterization of particular structures (person, family, institutions), it becomes a necessary condition for the integration of motivations in a determined motivational system, which at the same time acts as a factor of identification of personality.

Finally, integration that forms personality, insofar it confers regularity tosocial behaviors and becomes predictable; becomes a necessary condition for role expectations to be formed around the social actors in interaction. Value integration in the personality system is made by a process of internalization that transforms value in a supplementary motivation of the action. Because of this, we must complement the approach of Kluckhohm with the interpretation that Moscovici gives to this process in the Theory of Social Representations (1986).

In most of contemporary educational systems, the so called values are the ones that are included for learning. And these values are the ones considered to support the proposal of education with the values that we present here.

The program of education with values, while taken in a general way by the educational institutions,isconsidered a triple axis –Organism, Ethics, and Environment- sometimes adding a module on civics. The program here in develops special treatments designed to address typical problems such as citizen morality -civic participation-, family and child violence -, problems in the environment- pollution, destruction of natural habitat, public gardens, recreational centers, forests, rivers, and coasts-, and public health problems and prevention- diseases, body hygiene, and collective health-, and finally, aspects of social and economic change in current circumstances: employment,business, efficiency, support, science and technology, personal development and collective progress. “Experience, contextualization, and active participation are the means for an education with values”. In other words, to incorporate the values to our behavior we must live by them, feel them, and get excited with them, as an intimate and external experience.

The school’s role in promoting values

The school in the 21st century has been transformed like all other institutions that are part of our current society. It is no longer an isolated element that allowed certain isolation from society problems, so a student, calmly, under the direction of the teacher, could learn norms for the reproduction of culture, for preparation, and complying society’s demands outside of school, as well as, adapting to the conditions that family and community impose.

The current school has moved from its initial isolation to the growing demands of a society moving towards post modernism, to the scientific-technological revolution, to the empire of massmedia, to the diversity of cultures, the socio economic ending of national borders, the growing demand of new roles, the cosmopolitanism of costumes, and to the expanding markets of globalization.

The school is involved in a constant demand. It is no longer a guarantee of school education, but has become somewhat a substitution of the family’s responsibility in forming students with values. School is demanded to be a center of knowledge and acceptance of external institutions to the preceding role, like the ones dedicated to healthcare, justice, politics, environment and new values appearing from the society’s internalization processes.

As Gilbert (2001) has said,student centered education, the integrated curriculum from preschool through high school, the construction of knowledge, the heterogeneous grouping, the cooperative study groups, the school as a community, the recognition of diversity, critical thinking, are all important, but, above all these aspects, education is a process of life.

On the other hand, school must instruct students for a democratic life. Gutmann (2001) advises that all the students must be prepared to participate as politically equal citizens, in the deliberate configuration of the future of society.

To sum up, we can say that students must be instructed in critical reflection. Rollano (2004) claims that school, in education with values must form human beings able to acquire those cognitive and affective skills that, in harmony, could help them coexist with the necessary balance and understanding to integrate themas individuals who belong to society, and also as a unique human being in the world surrounding him/her. We can consider that people and the whole society are in the middle of a crisis, and that, evidently, we are suffering a serious value crisis. This causes schoolto emerge with a very important role as a rescuer.

Ten approaches to develop education with values

In the educational environment and among experts in education with values, it is recognized that they are most frequently acquired through example ratherthan through recommendations, admonitions, punishments and rewards or by mere school instruction. There are several conditions that must be fulfilled by an effective education with values. Also, we have to consider the students’ experience, their context, and the events’ familiarity that are used to reach an axiological education. Outside their direct experience, their everyday context, and unusual conditions, or outside family perceptions, all education with values will have as a result undefiled achievements.

There are no written or specific rules to develop a strategy for education with values. However, we could present, as useful suggestions, a group of approaches that the teacher needs to take into account to teach education with values.

The first approach is to consider that it is not an easy or simple task; so, we have to accept that it is a complex task, of totalizing processes, of rich and diverse situations.

The second approach is to consider that education with values responds to a conception of “integrality” (forgive the neologism). In other words, a value could not be conceptualized as a divisible structure. No one could be considered half honest, or thirty percent honest. You are honest, or you are not honest.

The third approach is the consideration that values have the property of being transversal. This is, they could be applied to a great different number of facts, situations, objects and conditions.

The fourth approach refers to multidimensionality. Values possess the characteristic that, regardless the place where they were learnt, they could be applied to different areas of social interaction. The counter-values also have this characteristic, and that’s why they are considered dangerous.

The fifth approach considers the correspondence between universal and relative as a characteristic of values. This refers to the appropriate areas of application, the same application, and adequacy, and also the interpretation in the sociocultural diversity. For example, tolerance is considered as a universal value, but is restricted by what guides it. It is evident that, even in the culture of a racist group, this cannot be tolerated because it threatens the ethical implications of the same value.

The sixth approach refers to the fact that education with values takes as a foundation the “reality as educational space”. We educate with values, not for a purely abstract instance, but taking into account the real problems that the students face. Because of this, this kind of education goes beyond the purely scholar environments, and seeks to influence the family and proximal and broader community.

The seventh approach emphasizes that education with values must consider the relationship between the students and their development, in the double conception of growth and development skills of the person, and the development of the person as an intelligent, and ethical human being.

Private and public aspects are the main topics of the eighth approach that has to be considered. We can say that education allows the development of an individual personality with an individual values’ system, it is true that the limits between private and public are so narrow, because their relationship with the community is always close, and, each individual fact transcends to public life. That’s the reason why education is interested in preparing students as citizens.

The ninth approach refers to the idea that values are products of learning, but they are influenced by the students’ particularities, their social vocations, and their preferences about knowledge. This has to be considered as a triad of components: personality, vocation, and knowledge.

The tenth approach considers personal life, social realities, and citizenship. This implies knowing who the student is (his/her social reality, existing implications in training him/her to fully exercise his citizenship). An education with values is not complete if these three components are not contemplated, because, eventually, teachers need to consider these factors.

The concept of competencies in education with values.
What are competencies?

The didactic that allows with greater certainty this special type of learning, education with values, is the establishment of competencies.

From this point of view, what could we understand as a competency? The term is a product from formative models initially used in working environments, and, later on, in the world of schooling education, under the idea that it sets an alternative to satisfy the productive requirements in the job and the demands of life.

We are searching, with this procedure, that human actions become more efficient, but at the same time, we look for defining its components based on structures, and characteristics. This takes us to find different definitions that make us wonder, according to Zavala and Arnau (2007): What are competencies good for? Which is their field of involvement? In which situations should they be applied? And also ask: Are they aptitudes or skills? In any of these aspects are there other components? Also, to make clear the difference between competency and competent acting.

Let’s see some definitions about “competence”, and “competency” that let us recognize its basic components, in semantic and structural terms.

In the working area, McClelland (1973) defined competency as “that element that really causes a superior performance in a specific job”. As we can infer,this author implied quality in the results of the work.

Lloyd McLeary (Cepeda, 2005) defines it as “the presence of characteristics, or the absence of aptitudes that make a person qualified to perform a specific task, or to assume a definite role”. As we can observe, this definition pointsto manifested conditions: the existence or absence of aptitudes that make a person qualified to perform a specific task, or to assume a different role.

The Working International Organization (2004) defines competence as “the effective capacity to successfully accomplish a job activity completely identified”. It adds up to the former definitions, the terms of effective and successful capacity.

The Ministry of the Labor and Social Affairs of the Spanish Government (1995) defines competence as: “the capacity to apply knowledge, skills and attitudes to the performance of the correspondent task, including the capacity of response to unexpected problems, autonomy, flexibility, collaboration with the professional environment, and with the job’s organization”. As we can see, this definition adds onto the explicative area of competence, in addition to “applying knowledge, skills, and attitudes to the performance of the correspondent task”. Besides, it increases the capacity of response to unexpected problems, autonomy, and flexibility. This means, that it goes beyond mere semantics to a certain evaluative approach.

In the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2008)), ccompetence is defined as the ability to do something well, meanwhile, it also points out a difference with the word (competency) as an important ability required to perform a job. This suggests that in English, we have two words for two activities that may seem similar, but they refer to two levels of application of ability: to do something well, anything, and the required ability to perform a “task” well. This means, that rules are necessary, to perform a “task”. This second meaning is used in the definition of “competency” in the school processes, and in the external ones as well.

The Larousse Dictionary (2004) also defines competency by the application to commercial and industrial aspects, considering it as “the set of knowledge, qualities, aptitudes and aptitudes that allow to discuss, consult and decide everything concerning a task”. The definition becomes a broad explanation, and considers that the competency has a group of diverse structures whereby is defined what could be demanded in a job, implying that the knowledge could be applied, more than just theoretical.

The Organization for Cooperation and Development (OCDE, its initials in Spanish), which our country is a member, in its project, “Definition and Selection of Competencies” (2002) for the transformation of educational institutions, and educational programs, it explains competencies as “the ability to successfully accomplish the complex demands, through mobilization of psychosocial prerequisite. In this way, the results that the individual gets through his/her actions, selection or behavior according to the demands, are emphasized".

This definition is complemented with the following addition: “each competency is the combination of practical abilities, knowledge (including tacit knowledge), motivation, ethical values, attitudes, emotions, and other social and behavioral components that can be mobilized together so the action in a determined situation could be successful”. (Zavala y Arnau, 2007).

The presented definitions of competencies for educational and working environments have in common two aspects, they refer to three specific components: psychosocial properties of the person (attitudes, abilities, skills, values, etc.), qualitative orientation (success) towards a specific practice, and forms of action and performance procedures which are adequate to the performed task (efficiency and efficacy).

However, we can observe that the definitions and components attributed to “competency”, to the extent that they serve as parameters to accomplish more complex tasks, they become somewhat broader and lose certain specificity.

Actually, it is important not to forget that competency is a person’s attribute, because he/she is the receiver of the competency, the one who has to be competent. This person is the one who then acts following norms and specifications regarding the appointed task. Thus, we could say that in general terms, we could define competency as the possession of a group of abilities, knowledge, and aptitudes to develop a specific task with quality and efficiency, a specialized activity, or a required job subject to defined norms.

The aptitudes could refer to psychosocial aspects suchas attitudes, values, or skills. In educational terms, the competency implies the successful management of knowledge, aptitudes, attitudes and procedures to acquire a clearly specified learning in terms of applicability to problems, and real situations, or the practical accomplishment of the topics in a given curriculum.

When the subject to be learned -in this case, values- specifies competencies that are related with very abstract aspects, the teaching procedure gains more relevance, because it is the fundamental constitution, which should have the ability to facilitate the most generalization of what was learned. Thus, the technique of "scenarios" has been suggested.

Learning competencies through scenarios.

As we have previously mentioned, the challenge of educating with values not only implies the adoption of a theoretical and evaluative approach, but also, implies the didactic strategies from which is intended to form the students.

In this sense, several authors have manifested the suitability of “scenarios” as a teaching strategy to educate with values, due to its versatility, emulation of real situations close to the students’ lives; high motivational level that stimulates sensitivity, and the ability to propitiate the students’ engagement. (Brady, 2011; Noguera et al., 2000)

Therefore, a scenario connotes the use of a space where an action takes place, and an interaction of characters, representing a group of events, and physical and abstract components that grant meaning and certain limits to the events that happen within it, everything joined by a central argument.

Likewise, in its simplest expression, scenarios require from the performance of competencies that mobilize a group of knowledge, procedures and values, for decision making, and resolution of problematic situations that require value’s judgment and ethical reasoning.

It is worth noting that regarding the attitudinal component of competencies, the solutions to said problems, not only promote learning of a specific value, but also present an interrelationship between values due to the complex web of factors, situations, conditions, people, and groups of various interests that are conflicted in each scenario’s resolution.

Consequently, scenarios provide the participants with numerous resources to derive senses and meanings that allow them to understand the values and their importance in human and collective life, thanks to the immersion of mnemonic processes of reconstruction, recollection, evoking, and recognition of values, that facilitate their learning and transference to wider daily lifecontexts (Cappello, 2006).

Building upon the former principles, scenarios propose learning situations according to the students’ social, cognitive and moral level of development, being pre-school level the simplest and superior levels more complex.

Therefore, the topics that are brought up through scenarios have the characteristic of integrating arguments obtained from families’, schools’ and communities’ daily life’s experience.

Finally, it is convenient to point out that the teachers could introduce variations, changes or adjustments in the application of scenarios, depending on the schools’ conditions, the characteristics ofthe students and the group, the degree of participation of their parents, and the community context, as well as, the formation necessities established in the course syllabus. (Cappello, 2006).

Teaching competencies for the teachers when educating with values.

Likewise students, we believe that who intends educating with values should master a number of competencies. This becomes particularly relevant, because the subject that the students should learn does not refer to material aspects or accessible knowledge that could be easily transmitted through an instructional methodology. The teacher must have certain competencies to allow him/her educate with values effectively.

Which competencies are the ones the teacher must have when educating with values? These, according to various authors (García y Puig, 2007:8), are a group of personal and professional attributes whose level of knowledge is improvable. Educating with values presents certain paradox to the teacher. Whoever he/she is and which ever educational level he/she has, as a human being and a citizen, he/she should be prepared for educating with values.

New ways of teaching advocate not for a selective orientation without foundations, but a mostly inclusive ways of teaching, assuringa trueequity of opportunities for everybody. This doesn’t mean stopping the efforts of the students in their academic responsibilities, but to guiding education to a closer teaching that allows teaching adaptation to the students’ characteristics.

This leads us to annul, in the educational community, prejudices against gender, culture, and socioeconomic class. Within the many competencies that the teacher must possess, there will always be seven basic competencies that the teacher must have when educating with values:

  • 1. To have a conscience that it is required a firm and broad education with values as a parallel to an educational revolution.
  • 2. To be himself/herself.
  • 3. To be able to recognize others.
  • 4. To facilitate dialogue.
  • 5. To regulate participation.
  • 6. To work in teams.
  • 7. To contribute to improve the school.

It is important for teachers have in mind that learning through competencies is a clear advance in teaching. However, we must understand that its application requires from a careful analysis, not only of what must be learned, but also, about its nature and components. In as much aswe get closer to topics that involve aspects with psychological and subjective dimensions, we will need a broader teaching demand, and the construction of learning based on more complex competencies. Definitely, when educating with values, success will be related to the level of competencies that the teachers have to form students in the complex world of values.

Evaluation of civic and ethical competencies: principles and instruments.

How do we evaluate the civic and ethical competencies that students learn and develop from the participation in educational processes when educating with values through scenarios?

Without a doubt, answering this question implies, on one hand, to have the characteristics of competencies’ assessment completely clear, and, on the other, to dispose of certain domain of the instruments that can be used to teach it.

In this sense, the strategy of education with values presented here assumes six key principles about the characteristics of evaluation of civic and ethical competencies, considering the orientation that are provided by the current official educational programs in our country, and supported by specialized literature. (Bolívar, 1998; San Martí, 2007; Zabala y Arnau, 2007).

1. Evaluating competencies inside problematic situations.

Learning civic and ethical competencies must be assessed byplacing the students in scenarios which show problematic situations more or less similar to those they can face in real life, that force them to analyze value choices, to perform ethical reasoning, and make decisions about the behavioral schemes more appropriate to solve those situations. That is, it is required to make a contextualized assessment from the experience of attitudes and values.

2. Evaluating competencies from the expected learning outcomes.

Each scenario establishes a group of expected learning outcomes and tasks constituting in the referents that the teachers could use to determine appropriate products and activities to obtain evidence, as well as the types of instruments and indicators of achievement. The foregoing, with the objective of aligning the teaching–learning–evaluating processes, performed in each scenario.

3. Evaluating competencies clearly defining the assessment activities.

This means that the teachers must define the products or evidences that they consider the most appropriate to observe the learning achieved by the students from their performance in each scenario. The assessment activities of competencies could be diverse, depending of the educational level, including written and graphic productions, collective projects, scripts, documentary investigations, records and attitude schemes of students, among others, that could be compiled in portfolios, or activity notebooks on an individual, team, or group level.

4. Evaluating competencies according to the type of knowledge.

Competencies consist of conceptual, procedural and attitudinal knowledge. Therefore, the teachers must specify the type and degree of knowledge they expect studentsto obtain from each of them. Considering that the manner each component learned is different, the teacher must evaluate them through activities and specific instruments, that allow observation and evaluation in the most integrated way possible, that informs of the knowledge students were capable of learning and mobilize in a specific scenario, or context where the performance of competencies are realized.

5. Evaluating competencies through instruments of formative and alternative assessment.

First of all, the assessment of competencies must be a formative evaluation that guides students in their process of learning and gradual development of certain competencies. Onthe other hand, it must be an alternative evaluation, understood as a compilation of evidences on how students process and complete real tasks in a given topic, like in the case of scenarios.

Unlike traditional assessment, alternative assessment allows teachers to perform four important evaluation activities: 1.To inform students of competencies to be evaluated.2. To document the students’ progress at a certain time, instead of comparing them with others. 3. To obtain information to adopt decisions on how to enablea learning environment that contributes in a greater manner developing competencies, attitudes and values, instead of punishing the civic, ethical and moral behavior of students. 4. To use instruments with explicit indicators of achievement and also share them with students, teachers, and parents.

Besides, competencies and values assessment must be placed in agreement with the system of values of the school and social communities in which students participate, trying to observe the consequences in the communities, depending on the way that values are applied and practiced.

6. Evaluating competencies implies assuming that learning and development are different in each student.

This requires understanding that students are not human beings that passively receive the environmental influences just like that; on the contrary, they are social agents that actively construct knowledge, attitudes, and values that are considered important to orientate their behavior.

This means that, at present, students build up their personal biographies beyond the institutionalized rules, through complex processes that allow them to set their own system of values, including values, norms, and roles that are offered by family, school, community, and media. Evidently, this process of construction varies depending on the different ages; on the first years it is focused on habits and norms, and in the teenage years it is based on the acquisition of a more complex ethical and moral reasoning.

Instruments to evaluate by competencies

According to Lopez and Hinojosa (2001), the evaluation of competencies is commonly made through two types of instruments of alternative assessment: observation techniques, and performance evaluation techniques. In our case teachers could perform the evaluation of the established competencies in the scenarios mainly through three observation instruments: comparison list, attitude scale, and rubric.

Here after, are presented, in an orientated mode, definitions, examples and general recommendations, to give some general guidance about the instruments that teachers could use to evaluate students’ competencies in each scenario implemented in class.

Check list

It consists of a list or words, phrases or sentences that, as indicators, allow the teacher to identify expected behaviors in the students’ performance in certain areas.

Such indicators must be based on knowledge, procedures, and attitudes that teachers intend to evaluate in the scenario, and must be written on the record sheet judgment, that will allow the assessment of the observed competencies. The phrases in the checklist must specify the sequence of indicators is considered fundamental for the assessment judgment. In front of each phrase,word or sentence, two value columns are included – Yes/No; Achieved/Not Achieved; Competent/Not Competent; etc – in which the observer will take note of everything addressed there, performed or not, by the observed student or group.

Example of check list; group observation

Recommendations to elaborate a checklist:

  • To identify each knowledge and behavior to be observed and make a list of them.
  • To organize the behaviors in the sequence that they are expected to occur.
  • To have a simple procedure to check what was observed.

Scale of assessment

Even though it is similar to the check list, the appreciation scale allows to detect the extent an individual shows each evaluated trait, from its absence or scarcity to the maximum possibility or certain attitude or behavior through a graphical, categorical, or numerical scale, where grading is polytomous. In other words,it is important that the instrument has a separate scale for each trait, attitude, or behavior that will be evaluated.

Example scale of assessment


Recommendations for elaborating a scale of assessment:

  • To determine the trait to be evaluated.
  • To define the trait.
  • To elaborate indicators – clearly observable – from the elaborated definition.
  • To specify the order or sequence of the indicators (if applicable).
  • To validate the logical relationship between the definition of the trait and the elaborated indicators through an expert’s judgments (content validation).
  • To select the type of scale to evaluate each indicator. The appreciation scales must be polytomous, rather numerical, categorical, or graphical.
  • To diagram the instrument.

Rubric

The rubric is an evaluation instrument based on a criteria scale and performance levels that allow determining the quality of students’ performance on specific tasks.

Regarding format or design, the rubric is characterized by three key elements that are placed on the left side; performance levels, in the upper side, and values or scores by level of performance in each evaluated criteria.

It is important to point out that rubric is an evaluation instrument designed among teachers and students, where in a negotiated and explicit manner, are established criteria and levels of performance that will be useful to evaluate the success of students in each criterion.

Example of rubric, bulletin board.


Recommendations for elaborating a rubric:

  • To select the objectives supporting the task or job that has to be completed.
  • To identify all the possible criteria to represent the behaviors or performances expected from the students while completing the task.
  • To organize criteria by levels of effectiveness.
  • To assign a numeric value according to the level of performance.
  • Each level must have behaviors or performance expected from the students, described.
  • Students should know in anticipation the evaluation criteria. Self-assessment using the rubric is recommended to the student.

II. DIDACTIC AND CURRICULAR ORGANIZATION IN THE SCENARIOS BASED ON CIVIC AND ETHICAL COMPETENCIES.

The presented strategy for education with values, it is supported by the approach based on competencies from the subject of Civic and Ethical Formation, and it is structured in three different sections. In the first one, the scenarios curricular organization is explained for the formation of civic and ethical competencies; in the second section, the teaching strategy suggested for working in the scenarios in the classroom, is presented. Finally, the topics’ organization of scenarios is desribed, according to the purposes and contents of this topic.

Curricular organization of scenarios for the formation of competencies and values.

Scenarios are organized according to two different criteria.

Organization criteria 1: Gradual development of the competency

Scenarios are organized according to the criteria of the gradual development of the civic and ethical competencies, which are established in the Civic and Ethical Formation subject (SEP, 2009). As an example, the next table shows a quick and global vision from the topics, values, and expected learning outcome for the gradual development of competency 1 (knowledge and care of one’s self) throughout school years.


Organization criteria 2. Values’ selection according to the Civic and Ethical Formation.

Scenarios promote the formation of students in the established values in the Civic and Ethical Formation: respect to human dignity, justice, freedom, equality, solidarity, responsibility, tolerance, honesty, appreciation and respect to natural and cultural diversity (SEP, 2009).

According to the Axiological Model from Integral Education proposed by Gervilla (2000), these values will be part of a greater group of values (with their respective counter values), classified from five dimensions of the person, as bodily values, intellectual affective, individual, esthetic, moral, social, instrumental-economic, and religious (see Seijo, 2009). According to this classification, we can understand, for example, that freedom is an individual and freeing value, meanwhile tolerance and justice are cosindered as moral values.

Values Categorization based on the Axiological Model from Integral Education of Gervilla(2000)

Teaching structure of scenarios

The didactic structure of the scenarios used for the formation of competencies, civic and ethical values is based on key elements concentrated on Scenarios by Competencies Table, expecting that these could guide and facilitate its application to the teachers of the corresponding grades and blocks. This structure is now presented.

Description of scenario

It describes in general terms the group of topics and activities that students should complete through the scenario, and it is useful, therefore, to guide the teacher’s job.

Field

It specifies the name of the field corresponding with the scenario.

Competencies

It details the main and related competencies, whose acquisition is promoted through the scenario.

Expected learning

Enlists the expected learning from the scenario, associated to the expected learning of the field.

Values

Enlists the values in which the scenario is focused on.

Scenario

It consists in dilemmatic situations that students must actively solve, and with the help of teachers, relatives or community members, and who facilitate the construction of their own and shared meaningful learning about certain values. In other words, scenarios consist in problematic situations about personal and social life, in which students have to make decisions involving an ethical position, or a value judgment, through the development and application of civic and ethical specific competencies.

Teaching strategy

The teaching strategy offers a detailed sequence of the initial, developing and closing activities, that, as a suggestion, the teacher could use to implement the scenario in the classroom, including more activities for the practice of competencies in scenarios in school life, and in everyday life of students. The activities are designed to facilitate the evaluation of the conceptual, procedural, and attitud in all learning expected from them, implied ineach scenario. It is important to remember that these activities could be adjusted, according to the teacher’s experience, the contextual conditions and situations of the school and the formative needs of the classroom, with the aim that the scenario be sufficiently flexible for the effective teaching of values.

The teaching strategy of scenario in terms of beginning, developing and closingis designed to be implemented in the classroom lasting approximately 45 minutes; however, the school activities or everyday activities must be completed and checked in later sessions of the same subject of Civic and Ethical Formation, or in other subjects, through transversal job.

Evaluation

The evaluation of civic and ethical competencies learning is made in a formative way through the compilation of evidences related to activities and products such as:

  • The individual participation of students in the starting activities and the developing of the scenario.

  • The production of written exercises derived from the closing exercises of the scenario, both individual and team activities.

  • Products, activities, and individual or collective products established in the scenarios applying the civic and ethical competencies in school or everyday life of students. These products must be evaluated through rubrics or checklists designed by the teacher according to the indicators of performance, or performance criteria depending on their school grade and individual development. Through these rubrics, or checklists, the teacher will be able to determine the necessary concepts, procedures, and values to evaluate the civic and ethical competencies in each scenario.

  • For the follow up and control of group and individual evaluations, the teacher could use the evidence portfolio of each student, and could have a class portfolio, where the teacher gathers the products generated from team and group activities.
Topic organization of scenarios

Scenarios of education with values pretend to form students in the competencies for life, ethical behavior, and responsible citizenship. To fulfill this, the proposed scenarios have topics related with healthcare, accidents prevention, exercise of freedom through responsible decision making, organization and cooperation to complete an activity, protection of public and natural resources, dialogue to face conflict resolution, solidarity, and participation in natural disasters, rights and obligations or children, and youngsters, and democracy as an exercise to reach agreements for welfare.

This topics are adapted to the purposes and contents established in the subject of Civic and Ethical Formation, and they were chosen with the purpose to facilitate the implementation of scenarios in a vinculated and complementary way to the ctivities of the subject (SEP, 2009). In this sense, it is necessary to point out that for following the model of education with values, the teacher has the freedom to apply scnearios in a flexible manner, adapting, or creating formative activities or procedures different to the ones presented in the section of Teaching Strategy, considering the characteristics of the group, the conditions or the classroom, the timing, and the material resources of the students, and school, among other conditions.

A variety of possibilities is suggested in each scenario, from these, the teachers could choose those ones that could be adapted to the students’ necessities, and interests, with the objective of fulfilling the expected learning of students.


  • Topics:

    Appropriate behavior people have to assume for positive impact on the school and community environment.

  • Competencies:

    Promote permanent learning.

  • Values:

    Responsibility, Commitment, Solidarity, Respect for the environment.

  • Learning outcomes:

    Recognizes that their behavior affect the physical and social environment of both school and community.

    Participates in the improvement of their natural and social environment.

  • Field: V

  • Topic: 1

Scenario 1

A clean school

Scenario

Middle School “Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla” is a school that has a high quality cleaning system. Most students attending this institution are committed to keep it clean, implementing the slogan “It is not cleaner who sweeps more, but who soils less”.

Edna is a responsible and efficient student, and her friend Beatriz is erratic and messy. On their free time they often go to a spot in school where they relax under the shade of a trees and lie on the grass.

Beatriz is a student without cleaning habits, so she’s used to throwing garbage everywhere, she doesn’t recycle, much less separating waste into organic and inorganic. On the other hand, Edna struggles to keep everything in order to protect the environment, to the extent of arguing with Beatriz trying to convince her to do the same. However, Beatriz does not share the same ideas.

One warm afternoon, as usual, they went to the green areas out of the sight of teachers, because Beatriz wanted to smoke a cigarette.

Edna tried by all means to convince her not to smoke. However, Beatriz did not listen and lit a cigarette. Before returning to the classroom, she threw it away without putting it out.

The next day, both were stunned to see that the green area where they used to spend beautiful moments, had been consumed by fire, leaving only ashes.

The school began the investigation...

  • Purpose:

    Addressing the importance of the responsibility we have in caring for the environment.

  • Assessment suggestions:

    Proposing a curriculum for environmental care.

  • Linking:

    Spanish, Science and Geography of Mexico and World, Geography of Tamaulipas.

Teaching strategy

Opening

  • Activate student’s prior knowledge and experiences using the following questions as a guide:

    What measures do you take to reduce environmental problems every day?

    What are you doing to help the environment?

Application

  • Ask students to read the scenario "A clean school." After reading out the scenario, think about the problem using the following questions:

    What do you think about Edna's attitude regarding the actions of Beatriz?

    Should Edna report what happened?

    How should school authorities react to Beatriz’ actions?

    Should Edna and Beatriz apologize for her past behavior and attitudes?

    Do you think that Beatriz has any remorse for the harm they caused?

    Would you accuse one of your friends if you see she´s hurting the environment?

  • Organize students into groups for each one to propose an ending to the story.
  • Ask a representative from each team to read the ending proposed. Together, choose the ending they consider would best solve the conflict.

Closing

  • Ask students the following question: What do you think of the support programs for the environment? Have you been in one?
  • Ask students to form teams and design a school program for environmental care. Choose a different topic for each team.
  • In plenary session, summarize the different proposals and design one program that represents the whole group.
  • Present the programs to the school community through bulletin boards or other means.
  • Topics:

    Diversity.

    Participation in issues of collective interest.

    Respect for human rights.

    Products of scientific knowledge.

  • Competencies:

    To promote permanent learning.

  • Values:

    Respect for natural and cultural diversity.

  • Learning outcomes:

    Raises awareness of the natural diversity of human groups and their cultures.

    Identifies the threats that exist to preserve the survival of natural diversity as a result of a misuse of scientific knowledge.

    Commits to the right of cultural diversity.

  • Field: IV

  • Topic: 2.2 y 2.3

Scenario 2

Scientific advances

Scenario

We were in Chemistry class when Mario and Andrés started an argument.

“It can be done, Mario, I’m telling you”.

“You’re crazy, Andrés. How can you believe that if you mix two different fruit seeds a different fruit will grow?”

“Haven’t you heard about the new inventions of science? Nowadays you can take a melon and an orange and make a "melorange!”

“Melorange? Ha, ha, ha! Who comes up with that stuff? Ha, ha, ha!”.

“Let’s see boys, come here” said the Chemistry teacher.

“Mario, do not make fun of your classmate. What he is saying is not far from the truth. And you, Andrés, it would be good if you studied some genetic engineering to be able to explain your idea to your classmates.”

“Oh teacher! I only commented what I heard on TV, but to study genetic engineering?”

“Well, not exactly studying to be an engineer in genetics, but to read a little more to understand how it works. For example, what is the mixture of seeds you mentioned called?”

“Can anyone tell me the benefits of making genetic modifications in food? And what problems can it cause?”.

The teacher continued: “Did you know that planting genetically modified seeds has been banned, despite they are more resistant to plagues and drought, and they produce more economic benefits because they reduce the genetic diversity? If this was allowed, many varieties of plants would disappear, such as corn, which has been the contribution of indigenous cultures of Mesoamerica”.

Mario interrupted the teacher and said:

“If the new seeds are more productive, it won’t matter if the others disappear. This is what happens in the world. There are plenty of different races and cultural groups that have only produced problems. If there was only one human race everything would be better!”

Andres visibly disagreed and said:

“My opinion is totally the opposite! In fact, I think I heard something about rights and respect for diversity.”

    Purpose:

    Recognizing advances in genetic science and reflect on the benefits and harms that can result from such advances.

  • Workbook’s activities:

    Written answers to questions.

    Conclusions and group reflections.

  • Linking:

    Spanish, Geography, History I, Science II

Teaching strategy

Opening

  • Ask students about their knowledge of advances in genetic engineering.

Application

  • Direct commented reading of the scenario:

    What would be the positive aspects of genetic engineering?

    What is the mixing of genes of two different species called?

    What are the negatives aspects?

    Who do you think benefits most from genetic engineering? Why?

    How can you take advantage of the benefits that genetic engineering can bring, without compromising the different areas that surround human beings?

    What moral and ethical implications does genetic engineering have?

Closing

  • Request information on transgenic foods.
  • Require them to write an essay about the values that should be encouraged when you think about the development of genetic engineering, not only in food production but also in animal cloning, and even in human organs for transplants.
  • Direct the group to reflect on the need to show caution about current scientific developments.
  • Topics:

    Need for scientific moral.

    The critical analysis of the application of technology in nature and society.

  • Competencies:

    For information management.

  • Values:

    Responsibility, Commitment, Respect.

  • Learning outcomes:

    Raises awareness of the negative effects of technology misuse

    Recognizes that technology has been created to improve human productivity.

  • Fields: I, III y IV

  • Topics: 4.2, 2.2 y 2

Scenario 3

Car races

Scenario

Word was spreadamong the youth that a drag race was going to take place in an improvised racetrack outside the city limits.

Laura called her friend Maritza to ask her if she was going to the races. They would begin at five in the afternoon. Maritza told her that if she finished a homework she was doing, she would go with her. Laura insisted:

“But the drag race is only one day, Maritza! You can do homework later!” Maritza asked:

“What are the drag races?”

And Laura, very excited, said:

“Look Maritza, it is a competition of old cars with modified engines. They compete to see who starts faster. It’s very cool! They make a lot of noise; throw out a lot of smoke and the tires screech on the track. It’s very exciting! Everyone screams and cheers for their favorite ones!”

Maritza thought for a bit and asked:

“Who organizes that?”

“The boys of course”, Laura answered.

Maritza made a face of disapproval and asked:

“And do they have permission?”

“I don’t know, but it doesn’t matter. Drag races have always been done without anyone’s permission. Then at the end they make a party and there is a lot of everything!”

Maritza told Laura that her homework was about the impact of technology in changing societies. How machines had changed everything. Although they had helped mankind making work easier, we could now see the negative effects and in many cases in a very serious manner. Not only machines and technology are being used to make work easier, but for other uses that are not so important and that are damaging the environment and people’s lives.

“Don’t you think Laura, that drag races are damaging the environment and people? Not having authorization is already a problem. What if an accident happens? I don’t know, on one hand I want to go, but on the other, I have to do homework. I don’t know if it’s right for me to go to the drag race”.

“But Maritza, you’re going to have fun. What does your homework have to do with the drag race?” remarked Laura. “So, are you in? Her friend insisted”.

Maritza stared at her assignment notebook…

  • Purpose:

    To analyze situations of everyday life where teenagers develop.

  • Evaluating assessment:

    Written answers to questions.

    Conclusions and group reflections.

  • Linking:

    Arts, Science, Science II, History I.

Teaching strategy

Opening

  • Reflect with students about the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution.

Application

  • Introduce students questions to help them reflect on the topic developed on the scenario:

    What do you think Maritza should do?

    What do you think about Laura’s attitude? Do you agree with her?

    What would be the best thing both friends could do?

    Are drag races, as explained in the scenario, right?

    Do drag races need to be authorized? Why?

    What do you think about the unrestricted use of technology today?

    What is the incorrect usage of machines and instruments that utilize energy?

    What are the disadvantages of industrialization?

    What problems does the indiscriminate use of machines of all kinds produce to our society today?

    How is people’s health affected by the excessive use of motor transportation?

  • Together build an ending for the scenario.
  • Ask students to write an essay about what machines they see on the way from home to school and what is the importance of each in our daily lives.
  • Ask students to list the machines in their homes and which ones they use. What devices do they know how to handle in or out their homes?
  • Have students answer the following questions:

    What kind of energy is used to start machines (airplanes, cars, washing machines, microwaves, blenders, etc.)? What is the effect of the use of machinery and devices on our health and the environment?

Closing

  • To conclude the work of the scenario, the teacher will propose students to make a composition for homework on the following:

    How would our life be if we stopped using machines and devices that use energy? Would it be possible? What would the consequences be for our society and its future?

  • Topics:

    Conflict as an inherent element of coexistence.

    Resources and conditions for resolving conflicts without violence.

  • Competencies:

    Information management.

  • Values:

    Tolerance, Peace, Harmony, Respect, Communication.

  • Learning outcomes:

    Proposes non-violent solutions to conflicts of everyday life, which express skills and attitudes for dialogue, empathy, cooperation and negotiation.

  • Fields: III y V

  • Topics: 1/1.2, 1.3 y 3/3.3

Scenario 4

How annoying they are!

Scenario

Marcos is a 14 year old who loves to learn about Mexico’s and the world’s history. He recently came across with some photos and books that looked very old and asked his father for permission to see them.

“Dad, can I take a look at those old books you have on your desk?”

“I propose we look at them together. I have had them for a long time without being able to go over them. They are part of some things left by my father's grandparents as an inheritance, but my father had no time to explain to me what they were either”.

“Cool! So, it's like a treasure”.

“Yes, a cultural treasure. They are history books and some photos of the World War One.”

“World War? Cool, let’s look at them now Dad…”

“Well, that would have to be on another day, because now it's time for you to go to school and for me to go to work. But quickly, so you won’t go to school sad, I’ll give you some data: World War One was a military conflict that began with the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to the Austro Hungarian throne.

“Wow! That is awful! A single person starting a tremendous conflict. Ok, Dad, see you tonight”.

When Marcos arrives to school, he sees Rubén, who looked like if someone had painted his face with red paint because he was very upset.

“What's up? What's wrong?”

“I'm going to tell Efren to die. I’m tired of him; he’s always bothering my sister and believes he is so great because he is always surrounded by his friends. He should be left alone and see how it goes for both of us!”

“Take it easy! Take it easy! Don’t turn a conflict into a war, pal.”

Rubén calmed down, looked at Mark, shrugged and asked,

“What’s up, why are you talking so weird?”

They were entering the classroom when Mark saw his history teacher and said:

“Professor, could you explain to my friend Ruben how World War One started? You'll see that just because your neighbor doesn’t like you, it is more than enough to start a fight this big!” As he spoke, Marcos extended his arms as if they had something big between them.

“I see that Mark is very excited about a particular topic. But that war did not happen just because a person disliked another. Indeed, one of the course topics is how wars start, so get out your notebooks and start copying the next task.”

Ouch! And I thought we were going to have fun by listening to a story...

At the end of the school day, Ruben passed by Efren and his friends. Efren stared at him with a smirk on his face, because just at that moment Ruben’s sister was inviting him to play at her home in the afternoon. Ruben got angry with his sister and yelled at her why she was inviting him if he always bothered her. Efren got into the conversation and responded on behalf of Ruben´s sister, saying she invited him because he was better company than him. Ruben looked at him fiercely, clenched his fists and wanted to throw a punch at him. He saw Marcos sideways, and remembered…

  • Purpose

    To make an analysis of the negative effects of war and violence among people.

  • Evaluation Suggestions:

    Written answers to questions.

    Rubric for the implementation of the game.

    Conclusions and group reflections.

  • Linking:

    Geography, History II.

…the advice he had given. Anyhow, he clenched his fists to give Efren a good punch, when suddenly; the teacher stopped him and asked, “Efren, is this the best way to solve things?”

Teaching strategy

Opening

  • Activate students’ prior knowledge and experiences using the following questions as a guide:

    What do you think causes wars?

    What effects do the wars have in towns?

    How can peace be achieved in human conflicts?

Application

  • Ask students to read the scenario “You’re so annoying”
  • Direct the debate about the scenario, using the following questions:

    What should Ruben have done to avoid punching Efren?

    What do you think about Efren’s attitude?

    What could have Efren and Ruben agreed on to avoid fighting and prevent the negative consequences of the use of violence?

    Do you believe that personal actions can prevent conflicts or contribute to major problems, such as the use of violence?

  • Together with students create a positive ending to the scenario, in which the value of peacefully resolving conflicts is emphasized. Have students write the ending in their workbooks.

Closing

  • Ask students to answer the following questions:

    What is the similarity between a war and what happens with Efren and Ruben?

    What values are absent in the relationship between Efren and Ruben?

Complementary activities

  • Ask students to investigate which countries integrated each block in the war of 1914. Divide the group into two teams. Organize the game "I declare the war to ..." where each student takes the name of a participating country, and when it is mentioned he /she discusses why he/she participates in that war.
  • Request them to write in their notebook the reasons for both sides.
  • Topics:

    Freedom to choose and decide.

  • Competencies:

    For situations’ management.

  • Values:

    Legality, Honesty, Responsibility

  • Learning outcomes:

    Identifies the way a person expresses his/her and other people’s ethical attitude in everyday situations.

    To recognizes respect for laws, being this basis of a moral and harmonious coexistence between people.

  • Field: I

  • Topics: 1/1.3, 2/2.3

Scenario 5

8.5 Minimun

Scenario

In a middle school several students comment on the need of having an 8.5 grade point average to enter High school "Benito Juarez", a recognized academic institution and locally the most requested.

Cinthia, one of the students, in recent months missed some classes, she didn’t hand in all the assignments and had low scores in her exams. As a result, she did not reach the minimum grade point average required to enter High school Juarez, although she had promised her parents she would try hard to achieve it.

The situation worried her so much that she decided to discuss it with her peers. Some suggested her to erase the final average of the certificate’s copy and correct the data so she could get a registration form. At the end, all she needed was a copy.

Two friends helped her make the alteration, and went with her for a registration form to be able to take the placement test. Upon acceptance, Cinthia felt she had accomplished her purpose and informed her parents she would enroll in high school. Cinthia’s parents were proud of their daughter and offered their support to her to continue with her studying aspirations.

Time for registration came. Obviously, Cinthia didn’t have her original certificate and asked for a chance to bring it later. She justified this by saying that she had forgotten it. She was given a chance to present it later and began classes.

Cinthia had new classmates, new opportunities and was ready to put all her effort to finish her high school. She felt satisfied until a few days later, the School Control called to tell her that it was the last day to present her original document.

Cinthia, with great concern, brought it the next day...

  • Purpose:

    Identify the responsible exercise of freedom as an essential feature of the ethical performance.

  • Suggestions assessment:

    Answers to questions about the scenario.

    Script and dramatization of the conflict on the alteration of legal documents.

  • Linking:

    Spanish.

Teaching strategy

Opening

  • Start an initial reflection among students making the following question:

    Do you agree with the expression that says, "The end justifies the mean”?

  • Summarize all the students’ ideas to introduce the issue addressed by the scenario.

Application

  • After reading out the "Minimum 8.5" scenario, reflect and discuss with students:

    How do you think the story ends?

    What do you think about Cinthia’s and her friends’ actions?

    Why do you think they acted like that way?

    How do you imagine Cinthia’s parents would feel to know the truth?

    What do you think would be the reaction of the authorities?

    Do you think Cinthia deserves a second chance, now that she is studying and taking the opportunity to be in that school?

    What do you learn from the above?

  • Develop in teams a role play to dramatize a situation in which legal documents are altered. They can use the contributions of other subjects to enrich their work.
  • Make a written reflection with the previous ideas and discuss them in class. Write the ideas in the workbook.

Closing

  • Look for short videos that reflect aspects of honesty.
  • Share in class and have students vote for the best video that show honesty and associated values.
  • Obtain and expose conclusions about the winning video.
  • Topics:

    Individual moral conscience: principles guiding personal performance.

    Consideration of others in ethical reflection.

  • Competencies:

    For situations’ management.

  • Values:

    Friendship, Solidarity, Empathy, Responsibility, Honesty.

  • Learning outcomes:

    Recognizes the need of information to make moral and appropriate decisions for a lifelong, healthy and responsible relationship.

  • Field: II

  • Topics: 1/3.3 y 4.2

Scenario 6

An unexpected present

Scenario

Edna is a privileged girl who has all the luxuries because her parents are very important business people. They provide for her comfort and material well-being. However, they are constantly traveling to attend family business’ affairs, so Edna spends most of her time with the nanny. This situation has led Edna to become a materialistic and arrogant girl with the certainty that money can buy anything.

School and studies are not much of her interest therefore her grades are not so good.

In her spare time she usually goes shopping or hangs out with friends, but her parents exhort her to use that time to study, play sports or take dance, theater or painting lessons. But for Edna all that is complete boredom.

One summer afternoon she went shopping on her truck. On her way to the mall she saw a girl sitting on a corner crying and decided to approach her and ask what was wrong.

The girl told her that two guys had robbed her. Her greatest grief was that she could not afford the book "The Lord of the Rings" anymore.

In the conversation, Edna found out from Sonia (which is the girl’s name), was an intelligent young girl, with a low income, who liked to attend a reading club. Also that she took free dance lessons in a public institution.

Edna decided to help her and bought her the book. They continued talking for a while and exchanged points of view.

Sonia shared with Edna experiences of her recreational and cultural activities and their benefits. Edna was curious and played with the idea of attending the reading club with Sonia, to see what new experiences she could find.

At the end, she decided to invite her new friend to the movies, and then go for dinner and to a party. She told her that there would be a lot of handsome boys. Additionally, she could borrow the dress she liked the most from her wardrobe and she would help her with the makeup.

Sonia was impressed…

Edna told her to forget the reading club. That she needed to live and have fun!

  • Purpose:

    To value human beings for their personal qualities and not their material belongings.

  • Evaluation suggestions:

    Answers to questions from the scenario.

    Ending proposed for the scenario.

    Portfolio with activities of the Reading Circle.

  • Linking:

    Spanish.

Teaching strategy

Opening

  • Explore previous students’ knowledge and experiences using the following question:

    Do you know what empathy is?

Application

  • Ask students to read the scenario "An unexpected gift".
  • After reading out the scenario, comment and reflect with the students the topics presented in it, using the following questions as a guide:

    What do you think about Edna’s actions?

    What life lesson does Sonia provide?

    Do you think the reading club could help improve Sonia’s communication skills?

    Is money important in order to have education?

    What do you think Sonia will do?

    What do you think happens if Sonia agrees to go to the party?

    Why does Edna want Sonia to go to the party, instead of attending the reading club?

    Have you taken advantage of the opportunities your parents or government institutions offer to practice any cultural or recreational activity?

  • Return to the main idea of the scenario and in teams, make each come up with a different endings of the scenario to learn life situations that teens face and could help them in the future.
  • Reinforce, through the conclusions students have reached, the practice of values such as friendship, empathy, solidarity and respect for cultural and social diversity.

Closing

  • Create a project in which is collaborative work among students is reflected. To do this, follow the suggested actions:

    Organize a Reading Club, looking for topics discussed in the previous activity.

    Find out what books young people read and make a list of the ten most read.

    Promote the donation of ten books with mayor interest to school and integrate the Reading Club.

    Develop rules to join the Club.

    Integrate the Constitutive Act to give formality to the Club.

    Promote the Club through leaflets, the bulletin board, etc.

    Have students discuss readings with peers and reach conclusions.

    Recover the reading conclusions of each book, the comments obtained in the Reading Club and integrate a portfolio.

  • Topics:

    Romantic relationships in adolescence

    Components of sexuality in human relationships and personal realization.

  • Competencies:

    For situations’ management

  • Values:

    Love, Friendship, Respect, Responsibility.

  • Learning outcomes:

    Recognizes the need for information to make appropriate moral decisions for a healthy and responsible lifelong relationship.

  • Field: II
  • Topics: 2.2 y 2.3

Scenario 7

A harmonious love relationship

Scenario

Yadira and Luis have been in a relationship for a year and seven months. She is 15 years old, he is 17. Their relationship has been mature despite their youth. Respect has been mutual. They give each other personal space because they are in different schools. Luis goes to school in the morning and Yadira in the afternoon. Sometimes they see each other when she finishes school, and sometimes when they go out to the same parties and meetings.

Luis’ mom tries talking to him a lot about his relationship because she’s intrigued about the fact that even when they do not see each other often, he is so relaxed. One day, while in the kitchen, his mother took advantage of the moment and asked:

“How are things going with Yadira, son?”

Luis as always, answered calmly: “What things, Mom?”

“What do you do talk about when you see each other, what is important for you?”

“Well, Mom, I don’t know what important means to you. We talk about many things and have so much fun”.

“Sure, I know. But are you aware that you have been together for a long time and things are not that easy?”

“Of course”, Luis said, without really understanding what his mom wanted to imply with that conversation.

Luis' mother continued cooking and asking:

“Well son, the truth is that if for some reason your relationship ends I don’t know how you would take it. Well, I guess you will be hurt.”

“I think so, but you get over it and life goes on.”

“Hey, have you talked about the future, about what you will do in the years to come? How do you see yourself in 2, 4 or 6 years? Have you thought on what will happen to your relationship in the future? Do you think that over the years you'll still feel the same for her, or will it be different? I know the attraction you feel for her is very strong, and that offers many temptations. But precisely, if you do not control those emotions, your life projects, what you want to become in life, can be affected.”

Luis stared at her and responded:

“No, we do not talk about it.”

“Why?” his mom insisted.

“Maybe it went through my mind once.”

Deep in his mind, Luis remembered that he often had been in the situation that his mother just mentioned. He even had asked his friends what to do. Friends had given him a lot of advice; some claimed girls knew how not to complicate their life, even those who claimed it was a girl’s problem and not theirs. One of his closest friends told him the right thing to do was to respect her and be respected in the demonstrating their affection. His mother always told him abstinence was better during relationships, waiting to have sex with your partner until marriage in order to form a solid family. There were friends who advised him to use condoms. They had told him there would be no problem. But he wondered if it was really true.

His mother continued the conversation:

“Well I'll tell you a story, Luis. My friend Clara´s daughter just had a baby and how old do you think she is, son? She just turned 17. Now she has to wash diapers, stay up late to take care of her child, and she, most likely, will have to work and study at the same time if she wants to be someone in the future. Her parents were very firm; they will support her only with the most necessary things. She must stand up for herself, educate and care for her son, because the father vanished in thin air. Remember, son, being in a relationship is no game. You and Yadira need to respect each other, get to know each other little by little”.

  • Purpose:

    Understand that the emotional relationships between adolescents are part of personal realization.

  • Evaluating Suggestions

    Student participation in the activities of initial reflection.

    Answers to questions about the scenario.

    Development of a portfolio with the compositions.

  • Linking:

    Spanish, Science II.

“Cultivating your relationship with patience and respect. This is the basis of true love and a relationship.”

The phone rang. It was Yadira. She asked Luis to go to her home and that she was alone because her parents had gone to the movies.

Luis thought about it and did not know what to say to Yadira.

“Luis answer me, are you going to come?”

Luis was thinking what to say…

Teaching strategy

Opening

  • Ask students the following question:

    Do you know what a life project is?

  • Recover all ideas arising on students’ life projects.
  • Complete the reflection with the following basic question:

    How can having sex before marriage affectyour life´s project?

Application

  • Ask students to read scenario “A relationship in harmony”.
  • Once reading the scenario, the teacher divides the class into several groups to discuss the following issues:

    What do you think about Yadira and Luis’ relationship?

    How do you think this story ends?

    What do you think about the advice Luis received from his friends? Which one you think is the best?

    What is required for a good relationship in adolescence?

    Do you think you should talk to your parents about the courtship you live?

Why is respect and honesty important in teenagers’ relationships?

How do you value the respect Luis offers his girlfriend?

Do you talk with your parents when you want to know about sexual matters?

Do you feel that you know enough about sexual problems and teenagers?

What do you think teenagers should know about sexual problems?

Do you talk with friends about your dating relationships?

  • Once the groups have discussed the issues outlined above, a representative from each group will address the class and submit their responses.
  • What are the possible endings to this story? Organize two teams to create two endings for the scenario, apositive one and a negative one. Each team will explain the reasons why their stories ended that way.

Closing

  • Suggest students to listen actual songs in groups related to situations that promote doing anything for love, standing beside a person even if he/she offends you, considering that a person may be owned by another, the defining of women as objects, and so on.
  • Research the song lyrics and analyze them in the group. Develop categories that allow them to analyze the songs according to different topics.
  • Ask students to compose a song per team, which highlights love, respect and rescue the value of women and men in dating relationships.
  • Present their written productions.
  • Close the work on the scenario, asking the students to write an essay that answers the following question: What should the school do to address the concerns of young people about their sexuality and dating relationships?
  • Topics:

    Attitudes that damage and hinder fair and equal coexistence.

    Bullying.

  • Competencies:

    For coexistence.

  • Values:

    Equality, Respect, Tolerance, Equity, Peace.

  • Learning outcomes:

    Identifies the problems of social relations between groups of diverse cultural and economic backgrounds.

    Recognizes the existence of bullying and proposes ways to eliminate prejudices that originate it.

  • Fields: II, III, IV, I y IV

  • Topics: 3.3, 1.2, 1.2, 2.1, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 1.1, 3.1

Scenario 8

Differences and injustices

Scenario

Axel is a boy from Belize; he’s 13 years old. His features are distinctly African-American: the color of his skin is dark, has thick lips and frizzy hair. His parents decided to live close to the border with Mexico so their child could study in a Mexican school and learn to speak Spanish well, so they enrolled him in a public middle school in Mexico.

“Have you seen the monkey in our class?”

“Don’t be like that Pedro, He’s a boy just like you and me, only his skin has a different color.

“The same as me Rosa? Ha, ha, ha. Of course not, I don’t live in the jungle and climb trees. Ha, ha, ha!”

“You really have no respect for anything, Pedro”.

Pedro stood on his chair and began to tell his classmates:

“Let’s see, we will decide who will be the next group leader. The white guys on this side, the brown ones on these other side and the black ones… better not participate. Ha, ha, ha!”.

  • Purpose:

    Knowing the problems of poverty, inequality and racial conflicts in order to identify their causes.

Pedro’s friends started to laugh, turning to see Axel and pointing at him to make it more obvious that they were making fun of him.

At that moment the teacher enters into the classroom. “Let’s see, what is going on here?”

Axel was in a corner almost crying and the teacher knew his color difference was generating controversy in the group.

“Teacher, teacher, have you noticed that black guy in our class? Why was he accepted in school?” remarked another student.

“It is the first day of school for all of you, a new school, with new classmates. Let me ask you this: what would happen if any of you have the need to go to study abroad, to a country where all people were tall, blonde and with blue eyes?”

  • Evaluating assessment:

    Written answers from questions and researching the biography.

    Rubric for the list of values.

    Conclusions and group reflections.

  • Linking:

    Spanish, Geography, History I.

Teaching strategy

Opening

  • Active students’ prior knowledge by asking the following questions:

    What do you know about bullying?

    Do you know what prejudice is?

  • Summarize the ideas expressed by students to initiate a reflection on this issue.

Application

  • Ask students to read the scenario "Differences and Injustices".
  • Direct commented reading of the scenario using following questions as a guide:

    How do you think the story ends?

    What do you think happened at school?

    What do you think of Pedro's attitude? Can you identify yourself with any of the characters in the story? With whom?

  • Create a positive ending for the scenario in which the value of respect to physical diversity and multiculturalism with all of the class.
  • Organize teams and have students discuss the following questions:

    Do you think that the color of people is important?

    What color are the Mexicans?

    Why are there so many prejudices about the skin color or race we belong to?

    What race in the world is more important?

    What race do you belong to?

    Why do you consider discrimination exists against people of color?

Closing

  • Ask students to answer the following questions.

    Have you heard of the Apartheid?

    What was the role of Europe in the South African racial problems?

    Do you think there is a relationship between the South African conflict and poverty of its inhabitants?

  • Ask students to investigate Nelson Mandela’s biography.
  • Ask students to investigate how many languages are spoken in Mexico and describe three different cultures of the country. Ask them to write the research in their workbooks.
  • Topics:

    Humans and their ability to think and judge their actions.

    Interests and needs that guide human action.

    Ability to face the consequences of our own actions.

  • Competencies:

    For coexistence.

  • Values:

    Honesty, Responsibility, Respect.

  • Learning outcomes:

    Identifies the way a person expresses his/her ethical attitude and of others in everyday situations.

    Recognizes that respecting the law is the basis of a moral and harmonious coexistence between people.

  • Field: I

  • Topic: 2.1

Scenario 9

Pedro’s decisions

Scenario

It has been more than a semester that the school has not notified Ricardo his son’s grades. This situation begins to worry him because he is used to receiving the progress report cards of his son, who is in second year of middle school. After giving it much thought, Ricardo decided to go to school the next day to talk to the principal.

Meanwhile, Pedro has just received the bimonthly report card and does not know what to do because his grades have fallen quite a lot and his father warned him he would be punished severely if he failed.

“I scored very low in the bimonthly examinations again”, he commented to his friend Oscar. “If my dad finds out, he won’t allow me to go to my girlfriend’s birthday party. “I’d better not show him my report card, in order to go and enjoy the party!”

“How are you going to return it signed?” Oscar asked a bit worried for his friend.

  • Purpose:

    To analyze conflicts of everyday life where teenagers are developed.

“Look, my father’s signature is easy to do. I am going to sign for him to avoid confrontations with him and the school”;

That afternoon, Pedro returned unworried to his home, because he had found a solution to his problem. After dinner he went to the living room to rest for a while. There he saw his dad’s wallet along with payment receipts. Pedro’s face lighted up thinking that, besides going to the party, thanks to the idea of faking his father's signature on the school’s report; he could also buy a present to his girlfriend if he took money from his father’s wallet. It would be perfect!, he thought.

  • Evaluation suggestions:

    Answers to questions from the scenario.

    Group conclusions.

  • Linking:

    Spanish.

Teaching strategy

Opening

  • Summarize different examples of daily life situations from the group members similar to the one presented in the scenario to be analyzed by all.

Application

  • Ask students read the stage "Pedro’s decisions" in plenary.
  • Direct reflection of what happened on the scenario, using the following questions as a guide:

    Have you heard of a similar situation occurred among your friends?

    What do you think Oscar should have told Pedro?

    How would you solve the problem if it happened to you?

    What do you think happened to Pedro?

    How do you think the story ends?

  • Integrate four teams to work on their opinion on Pedro’s conduct. Make each team present an ending of the scenario. A representative from each team reads their ending to the class. Reflections and conclusions will be drawn among all of each of the proposed endings.

Closing

  • Organize teams to discuss how to avoid behaviors like Pedro’s.
  • Each team will propose to the class the most appropriate measures to avoid that students get poor grades, not study enough and choose negative behaviors at school (like Pedro). The teams write their proposals in the workbook.
  • After hearing all teams’ proposals, the whole class will vote for the best proposals.
  • Topics:

    Rational decision making.

    Health care.

    Enforcement of family welfare.

  • Competencies:

    For coexistence.

  • Values:

    Responsibility, Solidarity, Prudence, Empathy.

  • Learning outcomes:

    Learns the difference between superstition and scientific knowledge.

    Recognizes the need to get information from reliable sources to decide about health problems.

  • Field: I

  • Topics: 2.2, 3.3, 4.1

Scenario 10

A health problem

Scenario

Claudia is 14 years old; she lives with her mother and two brothers: Pepe is 17 and Rogelio 12. Pepe is a somewhat care free young man; he focuses his interests in what he does, his friends and his girlfriend. His family is there for him most of the time, but only when he's at home. Rogelio is entering adolescence and has a moody character, sometimes conflictive and with many mood swings. Sometimes he is happy, but most of the time sad and angry just about everything. Claudia, despite being only 14 years old is more interested in the family and home. She knows that her family situation is not as good as she wanted and she doesn’t know what to do to solve many of her and her family’s problems. Dad left home to work abroad. Sometimes he sends them money and sometimes they don’t know anything about him for weeks or months. Her mom has a cataracts problem and each day it is harder for her to see well.

“Pepe, what can we do to improve mom's sight?” asked Claudia, very worried.

“Well, I heard the other day when we went to the square about aid given to poor people who cannot see well, but I do not know what to do.”

“We can find out if they can help mom, right?”

“Well, tomorrow after High school before coming home, if I have time, I’ll go ask for information”.

“Fine! I will come from school as soon as I can to know what you found out.”

When the school day was over, Pepe's friends invited him to drink some refreshments at the store on the corner. There they had fun and joked. After a very long time, they went to their homes.

When he got home, Pepe had the feeling that he had forgotten something, but did not give it much importance.

“Did you bring the information?” Claudia asks him.

Then he remembered what he had formally promised to investigate, to be able to help his mom.

The next day, after a heated discussion between Claudia and Pepe, he went to the place to seek for information about the support that was offered to poor people and to see how they could help his mom with her cataract problem. He waited for a long time before he could talk to someone because there were many people waiting for their turn. They told him everything he had to do. He was told that his mother would have to have several health and eye tests done. A group of specialists would prepare her and then operate on her with new surgical technology. When they found out his mother’s age, they said it could be risky, but he needed to trust technology and the professional physicians.

Pepe came out quite worried. He was afraid of everything they told him, especially about the new technology. He did not trust it much.

On the way, he met again with friends and went to the same store to drink some refreshments. Pepe told them about his mother’s situation and what they had told him about the doctors and the technology used in the operations. A man who was in the store heard everything and approached Pepe and said: “That just happened to me. I lost an eye and I almost died in the operation. I think it’s a lie that technology solves everything. Now that I have started with the same problem in my other eye, I will go see someone who treats diseases differently. He knows a lot about herbs and ointments that can remove cataracts. He advertised himself on the radio and on television. So I suggest you take your mother with this gentleman. “Look, this is his address.”

Pepe was shocked. His friends had mixed feelings about the information. They told Pepe to take advantage of the man’s advice and to take his mother with whom the man recommended. He had to be very good, because he was announcing himself on TV!

When Pepe got home he told his sister what had happened. He told her that he considered that the technology recommended for their mom’s eye problem seemed like a lot of lies and that the recommendation made by the man in the store seemed better and less complicated.

“What do you think, Claudia? This is better, right? So mom won’t need to have surgery”.

Claudia did not know what to answer. Pepe seemed convinced. Rogelio, who heard everything without grumbling, suddenly exclaimed, “Please decide! What is the best thing to do?”

The two older siblings turned to the young boy and stared at him. Claudia put her hands on her head and Pepe said: “You know nothing. It is better to take our mother to the man who advertises himself on TV. Here, I have the address. So mom will not suffer from the surgery and will get better ... don’t you think?.

Teaching strategy

Opening

  • Ask students about their knowledge of the progress of science in the area of prevention and health care.

Application

  • Direct commented reading the scenario:

    What did Pepe show with his omission?

    What do you think Claudia felt when she realized her brother didn’t support her?

    What do you think about what Claudia told Pepe?

    What do you think needs to be done in these cases to solve the problem?

    What do you think the siblings decided?

    Do you think Claudia's mother agrees to surgery with this new technique? Why?

    What do you think about the father’s behavior?

    How do you think this story ends?

  • Together create an ending for the scenario in which the value of being well informed is highlighted to avoid falling into superstition to solve the health problems.

Closing

  • To close the activities of the scenario, ask students to conduct the following activities:

    Do some research on the health institutions that exist in Mexico.

    Make a report on the health campaigns the government does to protect citizens.

  • Purpose:

    Recognize the role of technology in the advancements of medical science.

  • Evaluating assessment:

    Written answers to questions.

    Rubric to evaluate posters.

    Investigations.

    Conclusions and group reflections.

  • Linking:

    Spanish, Science I y II.

Propose recommendations for personal health care and families.

List what technologies are commonly used to prevent collectively to communities about threats to their health.

Give examples of people among them who have used advances in technology to health care.

  • Coordinate the individual development of a poster describing a new technological instrument applied to the area of health that student know or investigate.
  • Lead the group to reflect on the need to advance scientific knowledge to protect peoples’ health.
  • Topics:

    The conflict as inherent element of coexistence.

    Recovery of public spaces for the enjoyment of the community.

    Knowledge of the effect of globalization in our daily lives.

  • Competencies:

    Life in society.

  • Values:

    Respect for life, respect for others, physical integrity.

  • Learning outcomes:

    Recognizes in everyday life situations the contribution of values shared by humanity to achieve peaceful coexistence among individuals and groups.

  • Field: II, III y IV

  • Topics: 1.2, 3.1, 3.2 y 3.3

Scenario 11

Enemies without a face

Scenario

The second grade students of middle school were in the Social Studies class. The teacher began the dialogue by making the following question: “What is a faceless enemy, students?”.

“Well, someone who wants to hurt you and you cannot see their face,” Mariana said.

“Very well, Mariana, anyone else?”

“Teacher, could it be a bacteria or a virus?”

“Very good question, Jorge.”

“If they are going hurt us, bacteria and viruses become our enemies, and since we cannot see them, they do not have face, right?”

“It's a very logical answer, but let's put aside what ails us, and focus on what surrounds us and who we have contact with every day.”

Students turned around to see each other and did not know what to say.

“Let’s see, does anyone have any idea about what happened on September 2001 in the United States?”

“Some planes crashed the Twin Towers in New York”.

“That’s right, Alexandra. So, you should know that event generated a new security culture worldwide”.

“How is that teacher? In that time there was no security?”

“Laura, how could we have known that our neighbor was a criminal?”

“Well I’ve known Beto, the guy who lives across the street, since we were in kindergarten. The people who live next door are very nice people who leave for work early and return late at night, but they are quiet. And all the others ... well, I do not know... But in this neighborhood most people know each other, but lately new people have arrived and we know nothing about them”.

In the afternoon, Laura saw police cars outside Beto’s house. She asked her mother what had happened.

“I do not know. It seems that the family is involved with criminals! From now on, you are not going out in the afternoons.”

“But, Mom! Laura protested. “Today I had planned to go to downtown with my friends!”

“Sorry”, Mom answered her daughter. “But it's for your own sake and for the sake of all of us too. The neighbors and the city are not like they used to be. We must be careful!”

“Look, Mom, don’t you think that if we lock ourselves up we are going to lose our friends? Then we will not be able to go to the movies, to the stadium, to the square, to walk in public places! Soon we could lose our own city,” Laura argued.

Laura's father, who was hearing the conversation, said to both of them:

“We must think carefully about what you are both are saying. I think…

  • Purpose:

    To recognize that globalization causes some of the most important global issues, both economic and social.

  • Evaluation suggestions:

    Written answers to questions from the scenario.

    Concepts’ investigations.

    Rubric for expositions.

    Conclusions and group reflections.

  • Linking:

    Geography, Sciences I, Arts, History I.

Teaching strategy

Opening

  • Ask students:

    What do you understand by globalization?

    What social aspects have been affected by what we call globalization?

  • Summarize all the ideas to make an initial reflection on the subject.

Application

  • Ask students to read the scenario “Faceless enemies”.
  • Direct commented reading of the scenario using the following questions has a guide:

    What are the social spaces of the city?

    How do we communicate with each other more often? Do we know more people today than before? Do we know more about them?

    Do we know more about the people who live closer to us than those we come into contact by electronic communication?

    Will Laura go out despite her mom’s warnings?

    What do you think Laura’s father opinion is? Do you believe he agrees with Laura's mother?

    What do you think will happen if Laura goes out as has she planned?

    Do you think like Laura, that we know all of our neighbors?

    If you analyze the media (cinema, radio, television, newspapers, magazines, etc.) you'll notice a lot of violence, do you know why it occurs throughout the whole world?

Why what happens in one country affects the rest of the world?

Why people say globalization is not only evident in the economy, but also in culture of the countries?

Why do you think the title of the scenario is "Faceless enemies"?

How have these "enemies" affected your community?

What happened to the social areas for the coexistence of the communities?

  • Organize students into groups. Each group will propose an ending to the scenario. Ask a representative from each team to present the ending of the story. Once all the presentations are completed, students choose the most appropriate ending to this scenario.

Closing

  • Ask students to investigate concepts of difficult understanding: infringe, terrorism, organized crime...
  • Form teams. Have them choose one of the following topics:

    a) Current terrorism and its social consequences

    b) Organized Crime and globalization

  • Ask them to make a research about the chosen topic and make an exposition of the investigation. Ask them to write in their notebook the most important ideas. Organize open expositions.
  • Lead the group to analyze how those problems can occur in their immediate environment and discuss what measures can be applied to prevent them.
  • Lead the group to reflect on the need to deepen in the knowledge of our history, values, culture, etc., so when interacting with others, we are in a position to know how to choose the positive elements or not, according to our values scale.
  • Topics:

    The role individuals play in the problems the community is facing.

    Conflicts of opinion that appear against natural disasters.

  • Competencies:

    Life in society.

  • Values:

    Participation, Responsibility, Prudence, Solidarity, Kindness.

  • Learning outcomes:

    Recognizes the importance of anticipating the effects that natural disasters can have on communities.

  • Field: II, III y V

  • Topics: 2.1, 2.2, 3.1 y 3.2

Scenario 12

Threat or disaster?

Scenario

Ernesto and Eva are students in the secondary school "Emiliano Zapata" and they are in second grade. At the beginning of the school year, they had been absent because the city had been damaged due to a hurricane in their area. They discussed the event with their teacher in class:

“In our house a lot of water got in, we had to climb onto the roof and after three days we got all the water out,” Ernesto said.

“Here at school some walls fell, the railings on the second floor of Building C collapsed and almost all the surrounding trees were on sidewalks and blocking the entrance for several days”.

“Does anyone know why Luisa didn’t come?”

“Oh, Miss! Her family was on one of the most affected. They are in a shelter, not knowing when they’re going to be able to go back home. That area is still completely flooded you can’t even see the ground yet”.

“How do you know, Eva?”

“Well, as you know, Luisa is my friend, and since we hadn’t seen each other, I asked my dad to take me to her house. He told me he couldn’t that the people from that area had been taken to a shelter.

“But the worst happened in the canyons. Several families refused to leave their homes. Due to the flood, a lot of stones and mud fell over them. Some even died.” another student of the group commented.

“Well guys, we have to learn how to anticipate damage from natural disasters and prevent catastrophes that may arise.

“Prevent threats? But if you’ve already been threatened, how can you prevent them? Well, if people live in dangerous areas, it is by choice, and there is nothing to do!”

  • Purpose:

    To know the preventive measures that people should take when natural disasters occur and recognizes the benefits of scientific and technological knowledge to reduce damage from natural contingencies.

  • Evaluation suggestions:

    Written answers to questions from the scenario.

    Rubric to assess the cartoon and the book of newspaper clippings.

    Conclusions and group reflections.

  • Linking:

    Spanish, Science I, II y III.

Teaching strategy

Opening

  • Ask students the following question:

    What are the risks to the population against the arrival of a hurricane?

Application

  • Direct commented reading to the scenario, by using the following questions as a guide:

    How do you believe the story ends?

    Which population is the most vulnerable in our State?

    How does a storm affect the coast?

    How do the authorities support the population in areas at risk?

    Has your community been affected by a natural phenomenon? How?

    How do people come together to support each other? What values are shown?

Closing

  • Ask to draw a story that describes a disaster. How did the disaster occur and what did people do? What would you do? Require them to present it to the class.
  • Request the creation of book with newspaper clipping about a recent disaster with their classmates. Show what people did before, during and after the disaster.
  • Coordinate the development of a list of measures that can be taken to prevent risks in natural disasters.
  • Lead the group to reflect on how scientific and technological knowledge is a great support in the prevention and mitigation of natural disasters.

Appendix 1

Glossary for education in values

Citizenship: It comes from the Latin voice civitas. It is defined in terms of responsibility, in the sense of corresponsabilization.

Citizenship is the belonging to a political community and it is constituted in several terms in different societies. It is linked to freedom (taken as a part of natural right, in other words, universal), or justice, or one and the other, and in this sense, it is identified with the exercise of three classes of human rights:

  • 1. Civil rights. For example: to life, to expression, to property.
  • 2. Political rights. For example: to electoral decision, to political party and union association.
  • 3. Social rights. For example: to work, to education, to health.

Currently, the idea of citizenship covers rights and duties/obligations: considered as coessential for being members of a community. More precisely, we could say that the new citizenship gathers the rights of freedom and equality, with the rights of solidarity. In this sense, the concept of citizenship joins the one of democracy andis characterized by the need of reconciling the demands of participation, on one side and on the other, the ones of justice with the ones of the market.

Civic: Respectful behavior of citizens about the norms of public coexistence.

Competency: Ability to successfully achieve the complex demands through mobilization of the psychosocial prerequisites, in a way that the individual results, reached through action, selection, or behavior according to the demands, are emphasized. Similarly, we can say that it refers to a successful intervention in a concrete problem-situation through actions in which attitudinal, procedural and conceptual actions are mobilized.

Democracy: : It is derived from the Greek word demos, which means “town” and kratos that means “town’s government and authority”. Nowadays, the concept of democracy is not limited to a determined form of government; it refers to a set of norms for social and political coexistence.

Democracy as a lifestyle is a form of life based on the respect to human dignity, freedom and rights of each and all of the members of a community.

Democracy as a form of government implies the participation of the people ingovernment action through suffrage and the exercised control over what is done by the State.

Human rights:Set of prerogatives, which are inherent to a person’s nature, indispensable for the integral development of an individual who lives in a society legally organized. These rights, established in the constitution and laws, must be recognized and guaranteed by the State.

We are all obligated to the respect human rights of others. However, according to the constitutional mandate, the ones with greater responsibility in this sense are the government authorities, that is, men and women in public office. The duty of protecting human rights represents for the State, the demand of providing and maintaining the necessary conditions, in justice, peace and freedom, so that people could really enjoy all their rights. The common welfare supposes that public power must do everything it takes to, gradually, overcome inequality, poverty and discrimination.

Dialogue: It comes from the Latinso dialogues and the Greek διάλογος. Currently, it still has an eminent normative value. The dialogue implies to talk, discuss, ask and answer between associated people in a common interest of investigation. The principle of dialogue implies philosophical and religious tolerance, in a positive and active sense and therefore, not the kind of tolerance where different points of view exist, but the one where equal legitimacy and good will to understand reasons. A growing appreciation of dialogue is accompanied by a growing appreciation and thanks to in that atmosphere dialogue concretely lives and persists.

Human dignity: "The principle of human dignity" enunciated by Kant means the requirement as a second formula of the categorical imperative: "Act so as to treat humanity, whether in your person or in the person of another, always as an end and never merely as a means".

Education with values: Process to induce civic education in scholars, based on the active participation of their insertion in the social, cultural, political and economical contexts of their community, their province (states) and their nation.

Values education must be understood, from the constructivist perspective, as a set of natural situations and scenarios, assisted by the experience of teachers, allowing students to build their civic personality in interaction with their peers, their teachers and own sociocultural context of the institution and the social group they belong to.

Equity: It comes from the Latin aequitas, from aequus, equal; from the Greek επιεικεία, virtue of justice in a concrete case.

It is customary beneficial temperance. It is a propensity to be guided, or to fail, for the feeling of duty, or awareness, and the rigourous prescriptions of justice and the strict text of law.

It is the appealing to justice to correct the law that expresses justice. The same nature of equity is the correction of law when it is shown to be insufficient by its universal character. The law necessarily has to have a general character, and, because of this, sometimes shows to be imperfect, or with a difficult application to particular cases. In such cases, equity intervenes to judge, not from the law, but from justice and that the same law is conducted to do. Justice and equity are not the same things; equity is superior, not to justice per se, but what is formulated in a law that by reason of universality is subjected to error.

Ethics: Science of behavior. There are two fundamental concepts of this science, namely: 1) the considered end science directed to behavior of mankind and the means to achieve and to deduce such end, both end and means of mankind's nature; 2) the considered impulse science of human behavior and intends to determine it with the aim to direct or discipline behavior itself.

Honesty: Attribute of human quality that consists in behaving and expressing with sincerity and coherence (tell the truth) according to the values of truth and justice.

Identity: National identity is manifestedmainly through language, traditions and customs, common history, general values, aspirations as a people, the ethnic composition of the population, the specific culture they have generated, etc.

National identity is manifested mainly through language, traditions and customs, common history, general values, aspirations as a people, the ethnic composition of the population, the specific culture they have generated, etc.

Equality: Principle that grants all citizens equal rights.

You can describe the moral and legal equality as that by which an individual who is subject to certain conditions or privileges has the same possibilities as another in the same conditions.

Justice: It originates from the Latin termiustitia and allows denominating one of the four cardinal virtues, one inclined to give everyone his belongings.

It is a value determined by society. It was born from the necessity of keeping peace among the members of a community. It is the group of rules that establish an appropriate frame for people and institutions, authorizing, prohibiting and allowing specific actions in individual and institutional interactions.

Moral: Pertaining or related to the actions or characters of a person, from the perspective of good and evil.

Libertad: Comes from the Latin libertas, -atis, of equal meaning. Capability mankindpossess to act according to own will, throughout life; therefore, responsible for own actions.

Reciprocity: It comes from the Latin reciprocitas and it refers to the mutual correspondence of a person or thing with another. It is the principle of universal relationship of things in the world, principle by which a community is formed, an organized whole.

Respect: From the Latin respectus, it means attention, consideration. The term refers to moral and ethical issues. The recognition of self-dignity or someone else’s dignity is a behavior originated in this acknowledgment.

Commonly, respect is known by the endeavor of recognizing others, or himself/herself; a certain dignity that is required to be protected.

Respect is the consideration that someone has a value in itself and is set to reciprocity, mutual respect and mutual recognition.

Responsibility: It is the virtue or habitual disposition to assume the consequences of people’s own decisions, responding for them. It is the ability to respond for their own acts. It is all that concerns me in an exclusive way and that I can’t humanly reject.

Solidarity: The root refers to conduct in-solidum, that is, that the destinies of two or more people join. Therefore, to show solidarity is not only to help, but involves a commitment to that to which you are given the solidarity. In the most basic sense, solidarity is supposed to be practiced without distinction of gender, race, nationality, religion, or political affiliation. Solidarity is moved only by the conviction of justice and equality.

Tolerance: Respect for the ideas, beliefs or practices of others, when they are different, or contrary to the ones we have.

Values: Principles that allow us to guide our behavior in function of self-realization. They are fundamental beliefs that help us prefer, appreciate and choose some things instead of others, or one behavior instead of another. They are also a source of satisfaction.

Truth: It comes from the Latin veritas. It is the validity or effectiveness of cognitive processes. By means truth generally the quality by which a cognitive procedure is effective or any succeeds. Truth, in general, is understood as the quality through which a cognitive procedure is efficient or successful.

Virtue: Designates any capability or Excellency that belongs to any thing or being. Its specific meanings could be reduced to three: 1)general capability or potential, 2) Capability or Human potential; 3) Capability or potential, of moral nature.

Appendix 2

Resources to learn more about education in values
Bindé, J. (2004). ¿Hacia dónde se dirigen los valores?, México, Fondo de Cultura Económica

Currently, there is a weakening and a crisis of values, which has been mainly produced by globalization only worried by technical progress; which in essence, has led to an increased materialism that has proven to be incapable of guiding actions and remains indifferent to the strength of values. This value crisis is manifested in the use of terms such as “nihilism”, “loss of meaning”, “values’ disappearance”, or “civilization shock” and values which are supposedly irreducible.

Cappello, H. (2004). El caso de los Congresos Internacionales sobre la Familia del DIF Tamaulipas: Construcción de políticas sociales, identidad colectiva y ciudadanía, Tamaulipas, DIF Tamaulipas

Analyzes the case of International Conferencesof DIF TamaulipasFamily, explaining how the institutions in the State-Nation are a fundamental part of the process to create a common collective identity, a civic-political consistent character and an awareness of the most important problems and virtues in the community.

Chávez, M. (2010). Formación cívica y ética. Oferta de actualización para maestros, México, Instituto Nacional de Evaluación Educativa (INNE)

Document that presents the conceptual frame and the results of the documental analysis of the course materials, workshops and strategy notebooks for teachers of civic and ethical formation. The study was conducted with the purpose of exploring at what extent these materials satisfy the needs of teaching formation to teach that subject. http://www.inee.edu.mx/archivosbuscador/2009/04/INEE200904118-formacioncivicayeticacompleto.pdf

Cortés, M. (2004). Una mirada psicoeducativa a los valores, España, Prensas Universitarias de Zaragoza

Theoretical and practical contents about moral development and its educational side that are seeking empowering personal, moral andethical growth in students and, at certain point, to point out criteria and ethical education strategies for the professional development in the educational environment with the new technologies.

Education in values and Education for Development

International organization dedicated to education with values. Multiple educational resources (videos, documents) in human rights education, for the citizenship, for peace, among other key topics linked to education with values is offered in website. http://www.educacionenvalores. org/spip.php?rubrique8

Hoyos, G. et al. (2001). La educación en valores en Iberoamérica, Madrid, Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos (OEI)

Different Latin American experts present their perspectives about education with values. Among the analyzed topics, the role of education with values for the construction of democratic societies facing the society of knowledge, are the highlighted topics; in addition, it makes an interesting introduction of some teaching strategies and specific evaluation of education with values.

Luengo, F. y Moya, J. (2008). Escuela, familia, comunidad: Claves para la acción, España, Wolters Kluwer España, S.A.

Democratic education is not the onlysole responsibility and competence of the teachers; but involves all citizens in different levels and with complementary activities: education professionals, family, municipalities, civic associations, trade unions and democratic schools.

This work gathers ideas, resources and experiences that have been used to fight for that final objective since project Atlántida: close collaboration betweenschool, family and society, all together.

Martín, X. y Puig, J.M. (2007). Las siete competencias básicas para educar en valores, Barcelona, Graó

To educate with values, we need certain domain in seven competencies; to be one-self; to recognize others, to facilitate dialogue, to regulate participation, to work in teams, to form a school community and to work in a network. The work proposes that education with values is an essential occupation that teachers suggestfor mastering certain competencies.

Moreno, A. y Méndez, P. (2004). Familia y sociedad: Un estudio sobre los valores de los tamaulipecos, Tamaulipas, DIF Tamaulipas

The prevalent Cosmo-vision in the state of Tamaulipas is analyzed and interpreted, as well as the social manifestations that will be more common in the upcoming years. It reflects ideas, attitudes and values of Tamaulipas’ people in a way that these are known, appreciated and prepared for facing a new century.

Mota, G. (2006). Educación cívica y ciudadana: una visión global, México, Santillana

Proposes the need of strengthening dignity, identity and indispensable civil participation in the social construction of new democratic societies, based on jointly agreed upon and informed decisions. Because of the importance of this topic, this is a book of interest for the teachers of any level and also for scholars, academic, researchers and concerned citizens andbetter said, busy, with the development and consolidation of democratic life, that each day is more rooted in our country and some other Hispanic ones.

Navarro, G. (2000). El diálogo. Procedimientos para la educación en valores, España, Desclée de Brouwer, S.A.

Adolescence is a critical stage in the formation of adult personality and in morality consolidation. It is the critical moment when the individual discovers rationality and autonomy, but at the same time, s/he uses this wonderful capability of thinking by him/herself against traditional thinking, authority and morality. This often results in a crisis of values, whose uncertain culmination could leave their personality and moral judgment rooted in mere conventionalism void of principles. For them, it becomes necessary to elaborate strategies that propitiate and develop the fondness for rational thinking as a means to elaborate norms and discover values to facilitate coexistence and the solution of conflicts through dialogue.

Ochoa, A. (2010). La formación del docente para la asignatura de Formación Cívica y Ética: el caso de Querétaro, México, Congreso Iberoamericano de Educación, Metas 2021

The article reports the opinion of the teachers on the formation to teach the subject Civic and Ethical Formation and it points out some suggestions from the same teachers to improve these processes of formation. http://www.chubut.edu.ar/descargas/secundaria/congreso/DOCENTES/R1223_Ochoa.pdf

Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos (OEI), Valores

This is a web site with several publications of investigations, programs and educational resources on education with values, developed in Latin America. http://www.oei.es/valores.php

Rollano, D. (2004). Educación en valores. Teoría y práctica para los docentes, España, Ideas Propias

It gives a guide about the basic contents of education with values and mentions the very important role values have in the personal and social development of the individual. It presents an approach for education with values and it also covers the need for an integral education.

SEP (2011). Encuentro Educación y Valores para la Convivencia en el siglo XXI, 4-9 abril, México

Experts and international leaders encounter with the Mexican educational community to analyze in a critical way the civic and ethical values required for the Mexican citizen formation in the XXI century. The website grants access to the interesting lectures of the conferences’ keynote speakers and the different panels of discussions and forums analyzingwhat has been made. http://www.educacionyvalores. mx/estructura/actividades-academicas

UNESCO, Valores para vivir

International initiative supported by UNESCO, dedicated to the promotion of education with values. The web page in Spanish contains references to the programs, educational materials and formation courses. http://www.valoresparavivir.org/ index.php?lang=spanish

References

Bolívar, A. (1998). Educar en valores. Una educación para la ciudadanía, España, Consejería de Educación y Ciencia de la Junta de Andalucía.

Brady, L. (2011). “Teacher Values and Relationship: Factors in Values Education”, Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 36(2):56-66.

Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2008). Cambridge University Press.

Cappello, H.M. (1993). “Variaciones de la identidad nacional. Un estudio empírico de la identidad y el carácter en seis regiones de la nación mexicana”, Pensar es Cultura, CONACULTA, México.

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—— (1996). “Los procesos de globalización, la cultura política e identidad y carácter nacionales en México”, en: D. Mato, M. Montero, E. Amodio (Coords.), América Latina en tiempos de globalización – Procesos culturales y transformaciones sociopolíticas, U. C. V., Asociación Latinoamericana de Sociología, UNESCO, Venezuela.

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Table of Contents

Book of Values

VALUE EDUCATION | Middle School Second Grade 25