INTRODUCTION

Today, as in the past, the triad, family, school, and community, is formed by institutions, in which a system of values should be built in order to give legitimacy and viability to the Nation. The school, with its own teaching nature is, without a doubt, the one in charge of guiding the axiological route that allows society to cohesion and build responsible citizens, ready to face the challenges that social, economic, cultural and political changes have brought, and that their participation would be to guarantee a prosperous, pacific and certainly happy country.

The objective of this book oneducating with values, proposed by Tamaulipas Integral Family Development (Sistema para el Desarrollo Integral de la Familia de Tamaulipas, DIF, for its initials in Spanish)is to complement the Tamaulipas Education Ministry’s program of civic education and ethics (SET,for its initials in Spanish). To contribute to the reinforcement school, family and society through education with values is one of the most important tasks of DIF Tamaulipas. School,because of its essence and vocation, because of its function and influence, and because of the time students spend there, becomes the perfect place to reinforce learning values among students, not only in its ethical approach, but also in preparing them as future active citizens participating in their duties with their Nation.

Two dimensions regarding educational systems

There are two dimensions regarding contemporary educational systems that give legitimacy and importance to the formation and preservation of the institutions in society, and to the incorporation of the following generations for their development. The first dimension is stated as the one having the function of transmitting knowledge through appropriate educational models where teaching is the main purpose the second dimension refers to accomplishing the complex process of forming students to integrate them to society as responsible peopleby educating them with values as a unique way of teaching, which prepare them for life, in their development as human beingsand to actively participate in the perfection of their own society.

For both dimensions, teaching and formation, there exists paradoxical situations, which some how limit their application. When teaching, not only does pertinent criteria complicate its functionality, but also –paradoxically- the increasing amount of knowledge that the geniuses of the scientific-technologic revolution constantly generate, and the frequent development of theories on society, culture, economy and politics, which encourages and renews social practice, to the point that school time available for teaching becomes limited. For formation, not only the available time is reduced, but because of its exceptional nature, its teaching becomes somewhat complex, due to the fact that it cannot separate the person who is learning from what has to be learnt, as it happens with other subjects in the curriculum, such as Physics, Chemistry, Biology, etc.

In other words, the aspects of subjectivity, emotions, affections, sensitivity and personal experiences need a different approach from the one who is solely transmitting knowledge. Because of the scarcity of time, it becomes necessary for the student to learn actively, to search for knowledge in available sources: libraries, Internet, cultural sections in the newspaper or magazines, and audiovisual aids from movies, television and theater.

It is clear that a world in constant change needs that the subjects of education become active. The main objective is to encourage and develop own learning, and to develop cognitive (motivational) skills, which prepare them for continuous learning. Simple repetition and memorization, encyclopedic teaching, discipline and textbook centered teaching are not sufficient to achieve new knowledge. This requires knowledge comprehension, giving importance to the significance of processes,students’ organization forms based in self-management of knowledge, the role of libraries as a teaching resource, the qualitative evaluations as well as the quantitative ones, and the careful use of new information technologies in the quest for knowledge.

The formation as an educational dimension doesn’t mean that it is a purely intuitive or reflexive approach. It must rely, the same as other aspects of learning on a group of systematic procedures that could take it to the continuation of a learnt event.

When we talk about the training of students with values, particularly in the first stages of learning, we are referring, not only to the acquisition of certain positive behaviors, butalso to the internalization of a group of values which shall guide them in their life and interactions in all the social areas where they have to be included and participate.

The problem of how to trigger this learning process of values, that becomes affected by the influence of multiple sociocultural behavioral models which are presented to the students on a regular basis, this fact takes us to consider a special way of teaching, that allows us to focus on what must be learnt, and could give them a certain autonomy against the perverse stimuli from other behavioral models. This way of teaching has been explained as learning through competencies.

In the same way that the students will have to learn a number of competencies to obtain a relevant, appropriate and useful education for their lives and their community participation, we must be aware that the teacher must be able to master competencesas well to educate the students with values. This implies the acquisition of a new role as a teacher, that must be not only as a mentor, but also as an adviser, counselor, tutor, friend, and partner in the knowledge construction of students, of course, without trying to replace their learning.

The objective of this book is precisely, not only giving the teacher a group of resources to improve the education with values, but also, to let the teacher work in personal achievement of the group of competencies that are necessary for teaching.

It is evident that the school has been transformed, and together with it, the knowledge that has to be taught to students. The most important actors have changed their roles, some of them for good, and others for worse. However, the school as an institution is still the citizens’ favorite, and also one of the most demanded by them. Its mission of being the place where knowledge is expected to acquirea better position, and opportunities of development within society, all this makes it vulnerable to all the critical situations of the same society. People expect too much from school, and in correspondence, not always has enough resources to satisfy all the demands that education imposes in this new era we are currently living.

Contemporary society imposes growing challenges to educational institutions and to those who are part of them, whether they are principals, teachers, students, or employees. Nevertheless, it keeps on being a niche where the new generations learn how to be part of the change and development of society. To summarize, we could say, that education with values allows us to discover who we are, how to improve, to whom and for whom we do it.

“Tell me which values you have and I will tell you who you are”, as the Stagirite philosopher would say.

The importance of values facing the challenges of contemporary Tamaulipas’ society

Tamaulipas’ society is not isolated from the changes that are happening in all societies in the world. These changes have deeply affected the lifestyles of its inhabitants, their costumes, traditions and rules for living. Having a territory that connects with the United States has brought not only some complications, but economic opportunities as well.

The changes brought by globalization, and particularly by the North America Free Trade Agreement, signed by the United States, Mexico and Canada, caused industrialization to widely develop and social, economic and demographic characteristics of this region radically change. Tamaulipas became a point of attraction to the people in southern Mexico, and also to people in other nations. Its population grew in a way that it affected its previous and well-balanced distribution in its main cities, becoming, an attractive point for employment and economic development. In the south, is the conurbation of Altamira, Tampico and Ciudad Madero, as an effect of the consolidation of oil extraction and petro chemistry industry, as well as for having two of the most important seaports in Mexico. In the north, the bordering region attracted most of the migration motivated by the national and international manufacturing industry implanted there or seeking an opportunity of migrating to the United States.

The speeding process of change in the Tamaulipas’ population to an industrial and service society had noticeable consequences. All this change was not entirely positive. It could be summarized in a relative crisis of values and mistrust towards many of the institutions that regulate daily life.

Education with values is not a simple task. The school has to face the competence of many social agents whose influence is out of proportion because of the resources they have. The media and entertainment have invaded almost all the leisure time of children, teenagers, youth and adults, which contribute to the deterioration of many values and to their extreme relativity. They tend to show habits, costumes and norms that are prone to convert the audience into subjects of consumption, addicts to violent shows, and to the exposition to models of behaviors that are not legally accepted, or they weaken the consolidation of personal social networks.

It is not enough to simply mention that certain examples given in the media, or in neighborhood living, or even in the same family are negative, in order forstudents to avoid them. It is another approach that must be used. The exercise of this axiological teaching proposed covers the need of generating meaningful experiences, involving conditions, necessary reflections, and productive dialogues that result in a conscience of actions and a rationale of their consequences. No one can learn from someone else’s experience. That is, the students have to be able to “make it conscious”, to incorporate it not only to their knowledge background, but also to their everyday behavior when they are faced with conflicts presented in their lives.

Educational investigation has developed several procedures to make more efficient what we can design as complex learning; especially those that can be applied to various vital situations. From this class of transversal learning, values are conformed. Because of this, to make values beunderstood, it is necessary that they are interiorized and become part of the internal norms that control the actions of the person. Techniques that represent relatively complex environments are required, but within a scale that is manageable by the school and classroom environments.

Scenarios have the most versatility, adequacy, and adaptability to accomplish the objectives of an education with values.It is because of this characteristic that this technique has been selected, due to the fact that it allows a process of immersion of students in meaningful situations, in which they can activelysolve problems, dilemmas, and conditions, generating and building their own and shared learning.

The people of Tamaulipas and values.

In a recent study, sponsored by DIF Tamaulipas, onthe values of its states’ population, it was found that persons from Tamaulipas show a strong social orientation to ward traditionalism, which enforces the problems of gender inequality, family violence, child abuse, paternalism, authoritarianism and low civic participation (Moreno Álvarez, 2004).

It was found in other studies from the main cities in Tamaulipas (Cappello, 1993, 1995 y 1996) that the people from this state tend to be passive in their social relationships; in their jobs’ activities, a significant percentage tends to be undisciplined; it is frequent that they avoid making decisions and assuming personal responsibilities. A big part of the population shows a tendency towards magical thoughts, and they blame destiny or bad luck for the failure of their actions. Regarding authority, most of the population shows certain ambivalence, because on one hand, they seem to be submissive in their presence, and on the other, they express hostility when they exercise authority over their subordinates.

They show fear and uncertainty towards the process of change. Their attitude about religion is positive, but often negative concerning church authorities. They love free time, and even though they like to enjoy nature, they don’t show respect for it. In a study conducted in Tamaulipas (Cappello, 1999), the people surveyed surprisingly considered that environmental pollution and destruction of green areas in the state were the least problematic issues.

However, they showed a positive attitude towards industrialization, commerce, and education. They expressed a strong concern about social violence, drug addiction, and organized crime. In general, they grant a low value to personal health.They expose their physical well being to conducts that will surely hurt them, and consider that tobacco, alcohol, and other addictions will cause them relative harm. Preventive health care is not common in many men. Women showed more concern, particularly associated with their roles as mothers, but personally, they consider that loss of health could be fatal.

Referring to ethical universal values, their orientation tends to relativism, where the majority of the population gives them little attention. It seems they are not worried about them.

Education in values must be differenced from teaching of values. In the first case, when students are educated in values, the judgment about men and his nature is the most important thing. We refer to the topics and teaching techniques that are required for the students to be able to systematically guide their behavior with the orientations that society consider as valuable. The teaching of values is focused on the instruction of conceptual, informative, and disciplinary aspects.

With the results of the investigations about values in Tamaulipas, it is seriously considered that education with values should be oriented in a very incisive way towards the formative aspect. It must be focused on the relationship between values and behavior, contextualizing the most conspicuous problems that communities, families, and individuals face.

I. FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATION IN VALUES BASED ON COMPETENCIES

School, education, and values.

Education and values have been considered as an obligated relationship to school since the former doesn’t finish its job in simple transmission of knowledge, but assumes the formation of students as one of its main functions, so that they can successfully face their lives, and maturely participate in a society that will demand from them as committed citizens.

The main aspect of this formation is the learning of values, from individual to collective, which reach their maximum significancefor exercising democratic coexistence.

Concept of values

From a Humanistic perspective, the supreme value is manhood –humanity- and the basic moral foundation of human society is its preservation, development, and perfection. Respect for life would be the value related with that preservation, emanating, extending and transferring to a complex group of facts, experiences, and behaviors pertaining to life, as peace preservation, health, environment, and public safety.

While responsibility to comply norms and obligations that improve the relationships of coexistence, institutions, and jobs, respond to the value of social and material development – the whole society- the quest for a fair and equitable society – in all dimensions of human existence: social, economic, cultural and political- would lead to perfecting human beings as citizens.

The conception of aaxiological pillar, considering the human being as a moral base, lies in three basic dimensions: Respect for life; Vocation for development, and Perfection achievement- Equity and Justice- that allow how to identify the way these values are expressed in different stages of educational development of the individual and society.

The “experienciation” is not achieved with the simple systematic exposition from concepts that integrate the value as a public and specific event represented on a cognitive category. The students should be incorporated with everything involving emotions and affections, in order to experiment what the value means. Education must start from emotions provoked by specific situations when students face dilemmas that offer experiencing values in personal and social life.

Education with values presents serious challenges for the teacher in different school levels. The management of students’ sensitivity implies the comprehension of the degree of emotional and cognitive maturity in the different ages of the students.

During development, children, teenagers and youth, besides absorbing knowledge from everywhere –formal and informal education- have a growing ability to get vital experiences that come from family role models, media, friends and surrounding community, reproducing the behavior of the observed models – consciously and unconsciously- whether good or bad, and interiorizing them as part of their identity and character. Therefore, the simple exposition as a vehicle to model axiological behaviors are insufficient. There must be another way of teaching, and another way of integrating themto the students’ curriculum.

Clyde Kluckhohn (1957), regarding values, considers that the inappropriate conceptions of the relationship between normative and existential propositions come from the disproportioned vision from existing differences and similarities among them. Lepley (1959), rejecting the emphasis that tends to exist between judgment of value and judgment of facts, claims it isa mere extrinsic distinction. According to Thorndike (1932), the judgment of value refers to the consequences of factual situations; and therefore, they are from the same type. The distinction between judgment of value and judgment of facts has a classifying nature; object of the former are the relationships via-end, and the latter, cause and effect relationships.

The integration of values in a system, a major factor in the characterization of particular structures (person, family, institutions), it becomes a necessary condition for the integration of motivations in a determined motivational system, which at the same time acts as a factor of identification of personality.

Finally, integration that forms personality, insofar it confers regularity tosocial behaviors and becomes predictable; becomes a necessary condition for role expectations to be formed around the social actors in interaction. Value integration in the personality system is made by a process of internalization that transforms value in a supplementary motivation of the action. Because of this, we must complement the approach of Kluckhohm with the interpretation that Moscovici gives to this process in the Theory of Social Representations (1986).

In most of contemporary educational systems, the so called values are the ones that are included for learning. And these values are the ones considered to support the proposal of education with the values that we present here.

The program of education with values, while taken in a general way by the educational institutions,isconsidered a triple axis –Organism, Ethics, and Environment- sometimes adding a module on civics. The program here in develops special treatments designed to address typical problems such as citizen morality -civic participation-, family and child violence -, problems in the environment- pollution, destruction of natural habitat, public gardens, recreational centers, forests, rivers, and coasts-, and public health problems and prevention- diseases, body hygiene, and collective health-, and finally, aspects of social and economic change in current circumstances: employment,business, efficiency, support, science and technology, personal development and collective progress. “Experience, contextualization, and active participation are the means for an education with values”. In other words, to incorporate the values to our behavior we must live by them, feel them, and get excited with them, as an intimate and external experience.

The school’s role in promoting values

The school in the 21st century has been transformed like all other institutions that are part of our current society. It is no longer an isolated element that allowed certain isolation from society problems, so a student, calmly, under the direction of the teacher, could learn norms for the reproduction of culture, for preparation, and complying society’s demands outside of school, as well as, adapting to the conditions that family and community impose.

The current school has moved from its initial isolation to the growing demands of a society moving towards post modernism, to the scientific-technological revolution, to the empire of massmedia, to the diversity of cultures, the socio economic ending of national borders, the growing demand of new roles, the cosmopolitanism of costumes, and to the expanding markets of globalization.

The school is involved in a constant demand. It is no longer a guarantee of school education, but has become somewhat a substitution of the family’s responsibility in forming students with values. School is demanded to be a center of knowledge and acceptance of external institutions to the preceding role, like the ones dedicated to healthcare, justice, politics, environment and new values appearing from the society’s internalization processes.

As Gilbert (2001) has said,student centered education, the integrated curriculum from preschool through high school, the construction of knowledge, the heterogeneous grouping, the cooperative study groups, the school as a community, the recognition of diversity, critical thinking, are all important, but, above all these aspects, education is a process of life.

On the other hand, school must instruct students for a democratic life. Gutmann (2001) advises that all the students must be prepared to participate as politically equal citizens, in the deliberate configuration of the future of society.

To sum up, we can say that students must be instructed in critical reflection. Rollano (2004) claims that school, in education with values must form human beings able to acquire those cognitive and affective skills that, in harmony, could help them coexist with the necessary balance and understanding to integrate themas individuals who belong to society, and also as a unique human being in the world surrounding him/her. We can consider that people and the whole society are in the middle of a crisis, and that, evidently, we are suffering a serious value crisis. This causes schoolto emerge with a very important role as a rescuer.

Ten approaches to develop education with values

In the educational environment and among experts in education with values, it is recognized that they are most frequently acquired through example ratherthan through recommendations, admonitions, punishments and rewards or by mere school instruction. There are several conditions that must be fulfilled by an effective education with values. Also, we have to consider the students’ experience, their context, and the events’ familiarity that are used to reach an axiological education. Outside their direct experience, their everyday context, and unusual conditions, or outside family perceptions, all education with values will have as a result undefiled achievements.

There are no written or specific rules to develop a strategy for education with values. However, we could present, as useful suggestions, a group of approaches that the teacher needs to take into account to teach education with values.

The first approach is to consider that it is not an easy or simple task; so, we have to accept that it is a complex task, of totalizing processes, of rich and diverse situations.

The second approach is to consider that education with values responds to a conception of “integrality” (forgive the neologism). In other words, a value could not be conceptualized as a divisible structure. No one could be considered half honest, or thirty percent honest. You are honest, or you are not honest.

The third approach is the consideration that values have the property of being transversal. This is, they could be applied to a great different number of facts, situations, objects and conditions.

The fourth approach refers to multidimensionality. Values possess the characteristic that, regardless the place where they were learnt, they could be applied to different areas of social interaction. The counter-values also have this characteristic, and that’s why they are considered dangerous.

The fifth approach considers the correspondence between universal and relative as a characteristic of values. This refers to the appropriate areas of application, the same application, and adequacy, and also the interpretation in the sociocultural diversity. For example, tolerance is considered as a universal value, but is restricted by what guides it. It is evident that, even in the culture of a racist group, this cannot be tolerated because it threatens the ethical implications of the same value.

The sixth approach refers to the fact that education with values takes as a foundation the “reality as educational space”. We educate with values, not for a purely abstract instance, but taking into account the real problems that the students face. Because of this, this kind of education goes beyond the purely scholar environments, and seeks to influence the family and proximal and broader community.

The seventh approach emphasizes that education with values must consider the relationship between the students and their development, in the double conception of growth and development skills of the person, and the development of the person as an intelligent, and ethical human being.

Private and public aspects are the main topics of the eighth approach that has to be considered. We can say that education allows the development of an individual personality with an individual values’ system, it is true that the limits between private and public are so narrow, because their relationship with the community is always close, and, each individual fact transcends to public life. That’s the reason why education is interested in preparing students as citizens.

The ninth approach refers to the idea that values are products of learning, but they are influenced by the students’ particularities, their social vocations, and their preferences about knowledge. This has to be considered as a triad of components: personality, vocation, and knowledge.

The tenth approach considers personal life, social realities, and citizenship. This implies knowing who the student is (his/her social reality, existing implications in training him/her to fully exercise his citizenship). An education with values is not complete if these three components are not contemplated, because, eventually, teachers need to consider these factors.

The concept of competencies in education with values.
What are competencies?

The didactic that allows with greater certainty this special type of learning, education with values, is the establishment of competencies.

From this point of view, what could we understand as a competency? The term is a product from formative models initially used in working environments, and, later on, in the world of schooling education, under the idea that it sets an alternative to satisfy the productive requirements in the job and the demands of life.

We are searching, with this procedure, that human actions become more efficient, but at the same time, we look for defining its components based on structures, and characteristics. This takes us to find different definitions that make us wonder, according to Zavala and Arnau (2007): What are competencies good for? Which is their field of involvement? In which situations should they be applied? And also ask: Are they aptitudes or skills? In any of these aspects are there other components? Also, to make clear the difference between competency and competent acting.

Let’s see some definitions about “competence”, and “competency” that let us recognize its basic components, in semantic and structural terms.

In the working area, McClelland (1973) defined competency as “that element that really causes a superior performance in a specific job”. As we can infer,this author implied quality in the results of the work.

Lloyd McLeary (Cepeda, 2005) defines it as “the presence of characteristics, or the absence of aptitudes that make a person qualified to perform a specific task, or to assume a definite role”. As we can observe, this definition pointsto manifested conditions: the existence or absence of aptitudes that make a person qualified to perform a specific task, or to assume a different role.

The Working International Organization (2004) defines competence as “the effective capacity to successfully accomplish a job activity completely identified”. It adds up to the former definitions, the terms of effective and successful capacity.

The Ministry of the Labor and Social Affairs of the Spanish Government (1995) defines competence as: “the capacity to apply knowledge, skills and attitudes to the performance of the correspondent task, including the capacity of response to unexpected problems, autonomy, flexibility, collaboration with the professional environment, and with the job’s organization”. As we can see, this definition adds onto the explicative area of competence, in addition to “applying knowledge, skills, and attitudes to the performance of the correspondent task”. Besides, it increases the capacity of response to unexpected problems, autonomy, and flexibility. This means, that it goes beyond mere semantics to a certain evaluative approach.

In the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2008)), ccompetence is defined as the ability to do something well, meanwhile, it also points out a difference with the word (competency) as an important ability required to perform a job. This suggests that in English, we have two words for two activities that may seem similar, but they refer to two levels of application of ability: to do something well, anything, and the required ability to perform a “task” well. This means, that rules are necessary, to perform a “task”. This second meaning is used in the definition of “competency” in the school processes, and in the external ones as well.

The Larousse Dictionary (2004) also defines competency by the application to commercial and industrial aspects, considering it as “the set of knowledge, qualities, aptitudes and aptitudes that allow to discuss, consult and decide everything concerning a task”. The definition becomes a broad explanation, and considers that the competency has a group of diverse structures whereby is defined what could be demanded in a job, implying that the knowledge could be applied, more than just theoretical.

The Organization for Cooperation and Development (OCDE, its initials in Spanish), which our country is a member, in its project, “Definition and Selection of Competencies” (2002) for the transformation of educational institutions, and educational programs, it explains competencies as “the ability to successfully accomplish the complex demands, through mobilization of psychosocial prerequisite. In this way, the results that the individual gets through his/her actions, selection or behavior according to the demands, are emphasized".

This definition is complemented with the following addition: “each competency is the combination of practical abilities, knowledge (including tacit knowledge), motivation, ethical values, attitudes, emotions, and other social and behavioral components that can be mobilized together so the action in a determined situation could be successful”. (Zavala y Arnau, 2007).

The presented definitions of competencies for educational and working environments have in common two aspects, they refer to three specific components: psychosocial properties of the person (attitudes, abilities, skills, values, etc.), qualitative orientation (success) towards a specific practice, and forms of action and performance procedures which are adequate to the performed task (efficiency and efficacy).

However, we can observe that the definitions and components attributed to “competency”, to the extent that they serve as parameters to accomplish more complex tasks, they become somewhat broader and lose certain specificity.

Actually, it is important not to forget that competency is a person’s attribute, because he/she is the receiver of the competency, the one who has to be competent. This person is the one who then acts following norms and specifications regarding the appointed task. Thus, we could say that in general terms, we could define competency as the possession of a group of abilities, knowledge, and aptitudes to develop a specific task with quality and efficiency, a specialized activity, or a required job subject to defined norms.

The aptitudes could refer to psychosocial aspects suchas attitudes, values, or skills. In educational terms, the competency implies the successful management of knowledge, aptitudes, attitudes and procedures to acquire a clearly specified learning in terms of applicability to problems, and real situations, or the practical accomplishment of the topics in a given curriculum.

When the subject to be learned -in this case, values- specifies competencies that are related with very abstract aspects, the teaching procedure gains more relevance, because it is the fundamental constitution, which should have the ability to facilitate the most generalization of what was learned. Thus, the technique of "scenarios" has been suggested.

Learning competencies through scenarios.

As we have previously mentioned, the challenge of educating with values not only implies the adoption of a theoretical and evaluative approach, but also, implies the didactic strategies from which is intended to form the students.

In this sense, several authors have manifested the suitability of “scenarios” as a teaching strategy to educate with values, due to its versatility, emulation of real situations close to the students’ lives; high motivational level that stimulates sensitivity, and the ability to propitiate the students’ engagement. (Brady, 2011; Noguera et al., 2000)

Therefore, a scenario connotes the use of a space where an action takes place, and an interaction of characters, representing a group of events, and physical and abstract components that grant meaning and certain limits to the events that happen within it, everything joined by a central argument.

Likewise, in its simplest expression, scenarios require from the performance of competencies that mobilize a group of knowledge, procedures and values, for decision making, and resolution of problematic situations that require value’s judgment and ethical reasoning.

It is worth noting that regarding the attitudinal component of competencies, the solutions to said problems, not only promote learning of a specific value, but also present an interrelationship between values due to the complex web of factors, situations, conditions, people, and groups of various interests that are conflicted in each scenario’s resolution.

Consequently, scenarios provide the participants with numerous resources to derive senses and meanings that allow them to understand the values and their importance in human and collective life, thanks to the immersion of mnemonic processes of reconstruction, recollection, evoking, and recognition of values, that facilitate their learning and transference to wider daily lifecontexts (Cappello, 2006).

Building upon the former principles, scenarios propose learning situations according to the students’ social, cognitive and moral level of development, being pre-school level the simplest and superior levels more complex.

Therefore, the topics that are brought up through scenarios have the characteristic of integrating arguments obtained from families’, schools’ and communities’ daily life’s experience.

Finally, it is convenient to point out that the teachers could introduce variations, changes or adjustments in the application of scenarios, depending on the schools’ conditions, the characteristics ofthe students and the group, the degree of participation of their parents, and the community context, as well as, the formation necessities established in the course syllabus. (Cappello, 2006).

Teaching competencies for the teachers when educating with values.

Likewise students, we believe that who intends educating with values should master a number of competencies. This becomes particularly relevant, because the subject that the students should learn does not refer to material aspects or accessible knowledge that could be easily transmitted through an instructional methodology. The teacher must have certain competencies to allow him/her educate with values effectively.

Which competencies are the ones the teacher must have when educating with values? These, according to various authors (García y Puig, 2007:8), are a group of personal and professional attributes whose level of knowledge is improvable. Educating with values presents certain paradox to the teacher. Whoever he/she is and which ever educational level he/she has, as a human being and a citizen, he/she should be prepared for educating with values.

New ways of teaching advocate not for a selective orientation without foundations, but a mostly inclusive ways of teaching, assuringa trueequity of opportunities for everybody. This doesn’t mean stopping the efforts of the students in their academic responsibilities, but to guiding education to a closer teaching that allows teaching adaptation to the students’ characteristics.

This leads us to annul, in the educational community, prejudices against gender, culture, and socioeconomic class. Within the many competencies that the teacher must possess, there will always be seven basic competencies that the teacher must have when educating with values:

  • 1. To have a conscience that it is required a firm and broad education with values as a parallel to an educational revolution.
  • 2. To be himself/herself.
  • 3. To be able to recognize others.
  • 4. To facilitate dialogue.
  • 5. To regulate participation.
  • 6. To work in teams.
  • 7. To contribute to improve the school.

It is important for teachers have in mind that learning through competencies is a clear advance in teaching. However, we must understand that its application requires from a careful analysis, not only of what must be learned, but also, about its nature and components. In as much aswe get closer to topics that involve aspects with psychological and subjective dimensions, we will need a broader teaching demand, and the construction of learning based on more complex competencies. Definitely, when educating with values, success will be related to the level of competencies that the teachers have to form students in the complex world of values.

Evaluation of civic and ethical competencies: principles and instruments.

How do we evaluate the civic and ethical competencies that students learn and develop from the participation in educational processes when educating with values through scenarios?

Without a doubt, answering this question implies, on one hand, to have the characteristics of competencies’ assessment completely clear, and, on the other, to dispose of certain domain of the instruments that can be used to teach it.

In this sense, the strategy of education with values presented here assumes six key principles about the characteristics of evaluation of civic and ethical competencies, considering the orientation that are provided by the current official educational programs in our country, and supported by specialized literature. (Bolívar, 1998; San Martí, 2007; Zabala y Arnau, 2007).

1. Evaluating competencies inside problematic situations.

Learning civic and ethical competencies must be assessed byplacing the students in scenarios which show problematic situations more or less similar to those they can face in real life, that force them to analyze value choices, to perform ethical reasoning, and make decisions about the behavioral schemes more appropriate to solve those situations. That is, it is required to make a contextualized assessment from the experience of attitudes and values.

2. Evaluating competencies from the expected learning outcomes.

Each scenario establishes a group of expected learning outcomes and tasks constituting in the referents that the teachers could use to determine appropriate products and activities to obtain evidence, as well as the types of instruments and indicators of achievement. The foregoing, with the objective of aligning the teaching–learning–evaluating processes, performed in each scenario.

3. Evaluating competencies clearly defining the assessment activities.

This means that the teachers must define the products or evidences that they consider the most appropriate to observe the learning achieved by the students from their performance in each scenario. The assessment activities of competencies could be diverse, depending of the educational level, including written and graphic productions, collective projects, scripts, documentary investigations, records and attitude schemes of students, among others, that could be compiled in portfolios, or activity notebooks on an individual, team, or group level.

4. Evaluating competencies according to the type of knowledge.

Competencies consist of conceptual, procedural and attitudinal knowledge. Therefore, the teachers must specify the type and degree of knowledge they expect studentsto obtain from each of them. Considering that the manner each component learned is different, the teacher must evaluate them through activities and specific instruments, that allow observation and evaluation in the most integrated way possible, that informs of the knowledge students were capable of learning and mobilize in a specific scenario, or context where the performance of competencies are realized.

5. Evaluating competencies through instruments of formative and alternative assessment.

First of all, the assessment of competencies must be a formative evaluation that guides students in their process of learning and gradual development of certain competencies. Onthe other hand, it must be an alternative evaluation, understood as a compilation of evidences on how students process and complete real tasks in a given topic, like in the case of scenarios.

Unlike traditional assessment, alternative assessment allows teachers to perform four important evaluation activities: 1.To inform students of competencies to be evaluated.2. To document the students’ progress at a certain time, instead of comparing them with others. 3. To obtain information to adopt decisions on how to enablea learning environment that contributes in a greater manner developing competencies, attitudes and values, instead of punishing the civic, ethical and moral behavior of students. 4. To use instruments with explicit indicators of achievement and also share them with students, teachers, and parents.

Besides, competencies and values assessment must be placed in agreement with the system of values of the school and social communities in which students participate, trying to observe the consequences in the communities, depending on the way that values are applied and practiced.

6. Evaluating competencies implies assuming that learning and development are different in each student.

This requires understanding that students are not human beings that passively receive the environmental influences just like that; on the contrary, they are social agents that actively construct knowledge, attitudes, and values that are considered important to orientate their behavior.

This means that, at present, students build up their personal biographies beyond the institutionalized rules, through complex processes that allow them to set their own system of values, including values, norms, and roles that are offered by family, school, community, and media. Evidently, this process of construction varies depending on the different ages; on the first years it is focused on habits and norms, and in the teenage years it is based on the acquisition of a more complex ethical and moral reasoning.

Instruments to evaluate by competencies

According to Lopez and Hinojosa (2001), the evaluation of competencies is commonly made through two types of instruments of alternative assessment: observation techniques, and performance evaluation techniques. In our case teachers could perform the evaluation of the established competencies in the scenarios mainly through three observation instruments: comparison list, attitude scale, and rubric.

Here after, are presented, in an orientated mode, definitions, examples and general recommendations, to give some general guidance about the instruments that teachers could use to evaluate students’ competencies in each scenario implemented in class.

Check list

It consists of a list or words, phrases or sentences that, as indicators, allow the teacher to identify expected behaviors in the students’ performance in certain areas.

Such indicators must be based on knowledge, procedures, and attitudes that teachers intend to evaluate in the scenario, and must be written on the record sheet judgment, that will allow the assessment of the observed competencies. The phrases in the checklist must specify the sequence of indicators is considered fundamental for the assessment judgment. In front of each phrase,word or sentence, two value columns are included – Yes/No; Achieved/Not Achieved; Competent/Not Competent; etc – in which the observer will take note of everything addressed there, performed or not, by the observed student or group.

Example of check list; group observation

Recommendations to elaborate a checklist:

  • To identify each knowledge and behavior to be observed and make a list of them.
  • To organize the behaviors in the sequence that they are expected to occur.
  • To have a simple procedure to check what was observed.

Scale of assessment

Even though it is similar to the check list, the appreciation scale allows to detect the extent an individual shows each evaluated trait, from its absence or scarcity to the maximum possibility or certain attitude or behavior through a graphical, categorical, or numerical scale, where grading is polytomous. In other words,it is important that the instrument has a separate scale for each trait, attitude, or behavior that will be evaluated.

Example scale of assessment


Recommendations for elaborating a scale of assessment:

  • To determine the trait to be evaluated.
  • To define the trait.
  • To elaborate indicators – clearly observable – from the elaborated definition.
  • To specify the order or sequence of the indicators (if applicable).
  • To validate the logical relationship between the definition of the trait and the elaborated indicators through an expert’s judgments (content validation).
  • To select the type of scale to evaluate each indicator. The appreciation scales must be polytomous, rather numerical, categorical, or graphical.
  • To diagram the instrument.

Rubric

The rubric is an evaluation instrument based on a criteria scale and performance levels that allow determining the quality of students’ performance on specific tasks.

Regarding format or design, the rubric is characterized by three key elements that are placed on the left side; performance levels, in the upper side, and values or scores by level of performance in each evaluated criteria.

It is important to point out that rubric is an evaluation instrument designed among teachers and students, where in a negotiated and explicit manner, are established criteria and levels of performance that will be useful to evaluate the success of students in each criterion.

Example of rubric, bulletin board.


Recommendations for elaborating a rubric:

  • To select the objectives supporting the task or job that has to be completed.
  • To identify all the possible criteria to represent the behaviors or performances expected from the students while completing the task.
  • To organize criteria by levels of effectiveness.
  • To assign a numeric value according to the level of performance.
  • Each level must have behaviors or performance expected from the students, described.
  • Students should know in anticipation the evaluation criteria. Self-assessment using the rubric is recommended to the student.

II. DIDACTIC AND CURRICULAR ORGANIZATION IN THE SCENARIOS BASED ON CIVIC AND ETHICAL COMPETENCIES.

The presented strategy for education with values, it is supported by the approach based on competencies from the subject of Civic and Ethical Formation, and it is structured in three different sections. In the first one, the scenarios curricular organization is explained for the formation of civic and ethical competencies; in the second section, the teaching strategy suggested for working in the scenarios in the classroom, is presented. Finally, the topics’ organization of scenarios is desribed, according to the purposes and contents of this topic.

Curricular organization of scenarios for the formation of competencies and values.

Scenarios are organized according to two different criteria.

Organization criteria 1: Gradual development of the competency

Scenarios are organized according to the criteria of the gradual development of the civic and ethical competencies, which are established in the Civic and Ethical Formation subject (SEP, 2009). As an example, the next table shows a quick and global vision from the topics, values, and expected learning outcome for the gradual development of competency 1 (knowledge and care of one’s self) throughout school years.


Organization criteria 2. Values’ selection according to the Civic and Ethical Formation.

Scenarios promote the formation of students in the established values in the Civic and Ethical Formation: respect to human dignity, justice, freedom, equality, solidarity, responsibility, tolerance, honesty, appreciation and respect to natural and cultural diversity (SEP, 2009).

According to the Axiological Model from Integral Education proposed by Gervilla (2000), these values will be part of a greater group of values (with their respective counter values), classified from five dimensions of the person, as bodily values, intellectual affective, individual, esthetic, moral, social, instrumental-economic, and religious (see Seijo, 2009). According to this classification, we can understand, for example, that freedom is an individual and freeing value, meanwhile tolerance and justice are cosindered as moral values.

Values Categorization based on the Axiological Model from Integral Education of Gervilla(2000)

Teaching structure of scenarios

The didactic structure of the scenarios used for the formation of competencies, civic and ethical values is based on key elements concentrated on Scenarios by Competencies Table, expecting that these could guide and facilitate its application to the teachers of the corresponding grades and blocks. This structure is now presented.

Description of scenario

It describes in general terms the group of topics and activities that students should complete through the scenario, and it is useful, therefore, to guide the teacher’s job.

Field

It specifies the name of the field corresponding with the scenario.

Competencies

It details the main and related competencies, whose acquisition is promoted through the scenario.

Expected learning

Enlists the expected learning from the scenario, associated to the expected learning of the field.

Values

Enlists the values in which the scenario is focused on.

Scenario

It consists in dilemmatic situations that students must actively solve, and with the help of teachers, relatives or community members, and who facilitate the construction of their own and shared meaningful learning about certain values. In other words, scenarios consist in problematic situations about personal and social life, in which students have to make decisions involving an ethical position, or a value judgment, through the development and application of civic and ethical specific competencies.

Teaching strategy

The teaching strategy offers a detailed sequence of the initial, developing and closing activities, that, as a suggestion, the teacher could use to implement the scenario in the classroom, including more activities for the practice of competencies in scenarios in school life, and in everyday life of students. The activities are designed to facilitate the evaluation of the conceptual, procedural, and attitud in all learning expected from them, implied ineach scenario. It is important to remember that these activities could be adjusted, according to the teacher’s experience, the contextual conditions and situations of the school and the formative needs of the classroom, with the aim that the scenario be sufficiently flexible for the effective teaching of values.

The teaching strategy of scenario in terms of beginning, developing and closingis designed to be implemented in the classroom lasting approximately 45 minutes; however, the school activities or everyday activities must be completed and checked in later sessions of the same subject of Civic and Ethical Formation, or in other subjects, through transversal job.

Evaluation

The evaluation of civic and ethical competencies learning is made in a formative way through the compilation of evidences related to activities and products such as:

  • The individual participation of students in the starting activities and the developing of the scenario.

  • The production of written exercises derived from the closing exercises of the scenario, both individual and team activities.

  • Products, activities, and individual or collective products established in the scenarios applying the civic and ethical competencies in school or everyday life of students. These products must be evaluated through rubrics or checklists designed by the teacher according to the indicators of performance, or performance criteria depending on their school grade and individual development. Through these rubrics, or checklists, the teacher will be able to determine the necessary concepts, procedures, and values to evaluate the civic and ethical competencies in each scenario.

  • For the follow up and control of group and individual evaluations, the teacher could use the evidence portfolio of each student, and could have a class portfolio, where the teacher gathers the products generated from team and group activities.
Topic organization of scenarios

Scenarios of education with values pretend to form students in the competencies for life, ethical behavior, and responsible citizenship. To fulfill this, the proposed scenarios have topics related with healthcare, accidents prevention, exercise of freedom through responsible decision making, organization and cooperation to complete an activity, protection of public and natural resources, dialogue to face conflict resolution, solidarity, and participation in natural disasters, rights and obligations or children, and youngsters, and democracy as an exercise to reach agreements for welfare.

This topics are adapted to the purposes and contents established in the subject of Civic and Ethical Formation, and they were chosen with the purpose to facilitate the implementation of scenarios in a vinculated and complementary way to the ctivities of the subject (SEP, 2009). In this sense, it is necessary to point out that for following the model of education with values, the teacher has the freedom to apply scnearios in a flexible manner, adapting, or creating formative activities or procedures different to the ones presented in the section of Teaching Strategy, considering the characteristics of the group, the conditions or the classroom, the timing, and the material resources of the students, and school, among other conditions.

A variety of possibilities is suggested in each scenario, from these, the teachers could choose those ones that could be adapted to the students’ necessities, and interests, with the objective of fulfilling the expected learning of students.


  • Field 1

    From childhood to adolescence

  • Competencies:

    Focus: Knowledge and care of oneself.

    Related: Self- regulation and responsible use of freedom.

  • Values:

    Respect oneself and others, care of health and personal integrity, responsibility.

  • Learning outcomes:

    Recognizes the necessary measures for prevention of addictions.

    Reflects about the importance of a positive attitude when facing adverse situations in life and sets goals and strives to reach them.

Scenario 1

Changing my life

Description

In the scenario “Transforming my life ”, Jose a 12-year-old teenager, is being pressured by his Uncle Enrique to drink alcohol. The scenario is enriching because it intends for children to become aware of the social pressure they might experience from friends and relatives. Likewise, they learn to promote and practice the values of respect to themselves and others as well as of the care of their health and personal integrity.

Scenario

Through the scenario students will learn the importance of adopting a positive attitude as a tool to overcome unexpected obstacles that life presents. Likewise, self-determination when proposing a life project based on a knowledging own different abilities and possible eventualities.

Enrique is a 19-year-old boy who lost the mobility of his legs in a terrible car accident for driving under the influence of alcohol. His major passion is soccer, but he cannot practice it and this situation makes him very depressed. Alonso is his brother and his best friend.

One evening, Enrique said to his brother “I can’t take it any longer, Alonso... if I cannot play soccer, my life is over… and all this because of alcohol! And besides, people always ignore me.”

Alonso replied, “It is not true, no one ignores you. Since the accident happened you have become solitary and mean. If people stay away, it is because they do not know if you are going to be in a bad mood, if you are going to say something negative to them, or if you are going to ignore them. I think that it is time for you to move on. I know you love soccer, but there are other things that you can do.”

With a frown on his forehead Enrique exclaimed: “Oh yeah? Like what? Tell me!”

Alonso, noticing the frustration of his brother, replied: “You can try swimming, or you can take part in competitions with people who are in a situation like yours … You could even become a great Paralympic athlete, you should follow their example. You have the potential, you just have to decide and redirect your life, which is not over just because you can’t play soccer.”.

“Better yet, you could give your testimony to many young people who have problems with alcohol and encourage them to follow your example and tell them that life is worth living despite adversities. Your limitations are in your mind!”

Enrique answered his brother: “Can’t you see my condition? What I like to do is play soccer and in this condition, I am useless!”.

  • Workbook activities:

    Which are your goals in life and what do you need to achieve them?

    What did I learn from this lesson?

  • School activities:

    Research about what actions can be carried out to prevent addictions. Then, elaborate a picture collage of the above mentioned activities

    Present the assignment to the rest of the group.

  • Evaluation suggestions:

    Create a collage of actions and/or activities that are useful to prevent addictions.

    Evaluate the participation of the students, as well as the answers to the questions from the workbook.

Teaching strategy

Opening

  • Activate previous knowledge of the students from the title of the scenario and from the following questions:

    Have you ever had any problem? How have you overcome it?

Application

  • Have a student read out loud for the rest of the class to present the scenario “Transforming my life”.
  • Have students reflect about the ideas prompted in the text and share opinions regarding the following questions:

    What situations can lead teenagers to consume alcohol?

    What damages does the consumption of alcohol cause to our health and in our life in general?

    What do you think about Enrique's attitude?

    What do you think about Alonso's advices?

    How can we face adverse situations in life?

    Do we recognize our potentials, interests and our characteristics?

Closing

  • Conclude by reflecting with the group about the consequences of the consumption of alcohol emphasizing on overcoming difficult situations caused by alcohol and or by other reasons.
  • Field II

    Make decisions according to ethical principles for a better future.

  • Competencies:

    Focus: Self-regulation and responsible use of freedom.

    Related: Management and solution of problems.

  • Values:

    Freedom, Respect, Tolerance, Equity.

  • Learning outcomes:

    To establish mechanisms that allow people to face situations that provoke fear, frustration or anger.

    Explains his belief for situations considered a violation of the fundamental rights of others.

Scenario 2

Problems at home

Description

Currently, the presence of physical and emotional violence in Mexican homes forces us to rescue and promote values that respect the integrity and dignity of the people. By means of this scenario, the student will learn to identify situations within the family and in his orher context that can turn into a risk factor for physical and mental health.

Scenario

Manuel is a householder and lately has been having problems when he comes home…

“Martha! I am home and I’m hungry … hurry up and serve me dinner!”

Martha, his wife, replied to him with greetings: “Hello, how you are darling? How was your day?”

Manuel answered her: “Right now I do not want to know anything from work, I do not want to speak about things from the office... I work all day and they do not pay me enough … and on top of everything, I come home and you don’t have dinner ready for me …”

At that moment, Silvia, his daughter, walked into the kitchen holding a notebook in her hand, “Hi, dad! I’m glad you’re home! Can you help me finish my homework?”

“Give me a break!” Her father said with a strong voice. “Just tell me, what were you doing the whole evening that you didn’t finish it? It is your homework and you must do it yourself.”

Silvia answered him: “but, dad … there are some things that I do not understand.”

“I won’t help you. You have to do things by yourself,” Manuel insisted. “Otherwise, when you are older, you will want people to do everything for you …”

Silvia was about to answer when suddenly, Arturo, her brother, walked in with a soccer ball, saying: “Hi dad, I’m glad you’re here! Let’s play!”

With all that is going on, Manuel, raising his voice, said to his wife, “Martha! Do not bother to serve dinner, you took too long already and these children are driving me crazy, I cannot stand this situation anymore, I’m leaving!”

“Why did Silvia leave the room crying, mom?” Asked Arturo, “Why did my dad say those things?”

His mom answered: “Your dad is tired … don’t pay attention to him, son.”

After several days with the same situation, Martha decided to talk to Manuel.

“Manuel, what is going on? Every day you come home upset, and we are not responsible for your problems at work.”

Manuel interrupted her: “Here you go again!”

His wife answered him, “I’m being serious! The children and I always take the blame for your problems at work”.

“It is not only that” added Manuel, “It is the kids too. When I come home, one child wants me to play with him and the other to help her with her homework… Aren’t you here the whole day to help them?”

  • Workbook activities:

    Have students answer the following questions:

    What would you do in case of suffering physical or verbal abuse?

    What values must be promoted to avoid suffering some type of mistreatment?

    What did I learn from this lesson?

  • Activities in the school environment:

    Investigate what institutions in the community offer support to mistreated people.

    In teams elaborate a pamphlet based on the answers to the questions in the Workbook and in the investigation.

    Provide the pamphlet to relatives and neighbors.

“Yes, but I have many other things to do, there is a lot of work in the house. I cannot do everything!” replied Martha.

“I’m the man of the house and my only duty is to bring money to support it, not to struggle with the children.”

“If that is the case, I can also get a job to bring money home”

Are you crazy! Women are to take care of children and to clean the house.

“Who says so? You? Really?”

Silvia and Arturo, having listened to their father and mother arguing for a while, stepped in and exclaimed: “Stop arguing!”.

Their father replied strongly: “You go to your room and stay out of this!"

Meanwhile, Martha kept telling her husband: “If I want to, I can get a job, period!” Manuel replied: “I’ve already told you, you are not going to do it. I am the head of the house and you do as I say!”

Martha, tired of all that ended the conversation saying “I’m going to sleep, I do not want to argue with you anymore. You are rude!...”

Teaching strategy

Opening

  • Activate the previous knowledge of the children implementing the brainstorming technique. Use the following questions as a guide:

    What is physical and verbal abuse?

Which are the reasons that lead to physical or verbal mistreatment among the members of a family?

What consequences can the mistreated people have?

Who or whom are those who can help the people who suffer mistreatment?

Why do you think some people mistreat others?

Application

  • By reading out loud present the scenario “Problems at home” to the students.
  • Make teams to discuss and solve the following questions:

    What type of mistreatment is presented in the scenario? How did you identify it?

    Who do you think has a better argument in the discussion, Martha or Manuel? Why?

    What should Silvia and Arturo do to try to solve their parents’ argument?

    Do you agree with the idea that women should only take care of children and the house? Why?

    What caused the argument?

Closing

  • Select a representative for each team who will read the answers of the previous questions.
  • In each team, establish general conclusions relating to the values of respect, tolerance, equality and freedom aimed to avoid physical and verbal abuse at home. Use examples of daily life to illustrate situations in which the above values help avoid violence. Encourage participation from the students.
  • Evaluation suggestions:

    Participation when responding to the questions about the scenario.

    In teams, write the answers to the questions (include them in the Workbook).

    Investigation and elaboration of the pamphlet.

  • Field III

    Challenges of modern societies.

  • Competencies:

    Focus: Respect and appreciation of diversity.

    Related: Management and solution of problems.

  • Values:

    Tolerance, Respect, Equity.

  • Learning outcome:

    Expresses opinions about social interdependent relationships that generate situations of inequality and injustice.

    Shows personal point of view over situations of discrimination and racism that are present in everyday life and of those promotedby media.

Scenario 3

There are no distinctions here

Description

In the scenario “There are no distinctions here”, Toño is a child with a physical disability. He is a new student in sixth grade and is a victim of discrimination from his classmates. The scenario is enriching because it intends for children to become aware of discrimination. Likewise, that they learn, promote and practice the values of tolerance, respect, and appreciation of diversity and equality.

Scenario

A week after the school year started, a new student got enrolled. Toño was a happy, responsible and friendly child with a lot of dreams to fulfill, but he had a disability. He could not walk and therefore, he moved around in a wheelchair. In spite of this, he always made a great effort to get the best grades in school and to have many friends.

When he came to school, his parents submitted a request for a scholarship to the School Administration, because their economic situation was not very good. When the principal saw Toño’s report card from the previous school year, he decided to grant the scholarship to him, since they were excellent.

The first day Toño came to class, his classmates kept staring at him. He could feel their looks; however, he only kept focused in class and tried not to pay attention to the buzz that was around, for he felt uncomfortable with the situation.

Luis: “Have you noticed he cannot walk?”

Maria: “Yes, but I heard that his grades are excellent”

Jose: “And what good can this do if he cannot walk? …”

Pedro: “He must be a nerd, that’s why they gave him the scholarship.”

Juan: “Oh, how boring!”

Fernanda: “Leave him alone. Would you like people to talk about you like that if you were in the same condition?”

When Teacher Julia noticed what was happening in class, she decided to make a pause in Math and change to a new topic …

Teacher: “children, Can someone tell me what discrimination is, Raise your hand, please…”

At that moment, only Toño raised his hand …

Teacher: “Yes, Toño”

Toño: “Discrimination, teacher, is . . .”

  • Workbook activities:

    Investigate, with the help of a relative, what types of discrimination exist and what social groups are discriminated for the most part in the community or in the country.

    What did I learn from this lesson?

  • Activities in the school environment and day-to-day life:

    Based on the result of the individual investigations, form a consensus about the information and elaborate a poster that informs about discrimination, its types and how it is possible to avoid it.

    Present it at a cultural activity of the institution.

    Ask students to share the information with their relatives.

  • Assessment suggestions:

    Individual participation during the questions session.

    Production of the ending of the scene. Evaluate using a rubric or a check list if the students emphasize the pointed values.

    Evaluation of the results from the requested investigation.

    Elaboration of the poster in teams.

Teaching Strategy

Opening

  • Activate previous knowledge by implementing the brain storming technique about the subject of the scenario, based on the following questions:

    What is discrimination?

    Through what actions is discrimination shown towards people with physical disability?

Application

  • Listening to the reading, present to the children the scenario “There are no distinctions here”.
  • Organize teams and ask the students to share opinions regarding the following questions to think about and support the comprehension of the topics and values in the scenario:

    What is the problem in the scenario?

    Are Luis, Maria, Jose, Pedro and Juan’s attitudes correct? Why?

    Is Fernanda's attitude correct? Why?

    Why do you think the teacher decided to switch to the discrimination topic?

    What are the values that the characters represent in the scenario?

Closing

  • In teams, elaborate an ending to the scenario demonstrating their idea of how the teacher solved the problem of discrimination towards Toño and what values the characters of the scenario must adopt.
  • As a whole group, have a representative of each team present and debate his or her answers.
  • Write up conclusions as a whole group based on the reflections made by the team. Register them in the workbook.
  • Field IV

    From childhood to adolescence.

  • Competencies:

    Focus: Respect and appreciation of diversity.

    Related: Adherence to legality and sense of justice.

  • Values:

    Solidarity, Responsibility, Justice.

  • Learning outcomes:

    Recognizes the differences and similarities that exist among people about gender, physical aspect, and social aspects.

Scenario 4

The shelter home

Description

In the scenario “The shelter home”, Emmanuel shows a selfish attitude when he did not want to cooperate to help the children of a shelter home, arguing that it was not his problem. The scenario is enriching because it pretends to motivate children to reflect about values as well as learn, promote and practice them in their everyday life.

Scenario

On a Thursday morning Mrs. Diana was about to take Emmanuel and Karina to school. When they came to an intersection, the traffic light changed to red and a young man who was there approached Mrs. Diana and asked her to contribute in helping children from a shelter home…

Mrs. Diana took her purse and started looking for coins, but she realized that she didn’t have any …She asked Emmanuel and Karina to give the young man the coins she just gave them to spend during recess time.…

Emmanuel answered: “Why is it that I have to give them money? That is not my problem.They should manage for themselves”

Karina complied and kindly gave the coins to the young man …

The traffic light changed and a discussion arose between Emmanuel and Karina:

“You are bad, Emmanuel! Why is it so hard for you to give the boy your coins! What if you were an orphan child who needed those coins?” Karina asked.

“Keep quiet, silly, I am not an orphan, therefore, it is not my problem” Replied Emmanuel …

“Stop arguing and take your backpacks, we’re here. Let’s go. It’s getting late! Emmanuel, we will talk about this at dinner time” Added Mrs. Diana …

  • Workbook activities:

    Ask students to investigate about the following topic: What are the problems that arise from social inequality?

    What did I learn from this lesson?

  • School activities:

    Investigate if in the community or state there are government groups or private associations that develop programs that aid people in unfavorable conditions.

    In teams, elaborate a list and post it on the bulletin board of the school.

    Elaborate a proposal to help people in unfavorable conditions, for example, children living on the street, seniors who live alone, etc.

  • Evaluation suggestions:

    Participation during the question session.

    Evaluation of the investigation requested in the workbook.

    Evaluation of the school work activities.

Teaching strategy

Opening

  • Activate previous knowledge by using brainstorming technique based on the following questions:

    What is solidarity?

    Is it our responsibility to help people with low income? Why?

Application

  • Listening to the reading out loud, present to the children the scenario “The shelter home”.
  • Organize teams and ask the students to share opinions regarding the following questions, to think about and to enhance comprehension of the topics and values of the scenario:

    Which is the problem or dilemma that appears in the scenario “The Orphanage “?

    Is Emmanuel’s attitude correct? Why?

    Is Karina’s attitude correct? Why?

    Is Mrs. Diana’s attitude correct? Why?

    What values do Mrs. Diana, Emmanuel and Karina present?

Closing

  • As a whole group, share the answers to the questions.
  • Elaborate conclusions in groups, emphasizing the values of solidarity and responsibility. Register them in the workbook.
  • Field V

    Solution of conflicts in accordance to the human rights and without violence.

  • Competencies:

    Focus: Management and solution of problems.

    Related: Adherence to legality and sense of justice.

    Self-regulation and responsible use of freedom.

  • Values:

    Respect to oneself and to others, Dialogue, Equity, Justice, Respect, and Tolerance.

  • Learning outcomes:

    Proposes solutions to situations of conflict, taking into account the opinion of others in their areas of participation.

Scenario 5

Let’s stop school harassment!

Description

A situation of school harassment is presented, in which the student, through the scenario, learns that by means of dialogue and participation such problems can be eradicated.

Scenario

“Hey, Aldo!” Said Juan, pushing him slightly. “I want a soda!”

“So, buy it, Juan!” Replied Aldo, lowering his head.

“What did you say?” Said Juan, raising his voice. “Now, give me the money!”

“No, it’s mine!” Shouted Aldo.

“Oh! Come on! Take it, Juan!” Said Jesús. “And hurry, the teacher is coming!”

“Yeah …That’s it, he surely is going to cry” Said Paul. ”You are a crybaby, Aldo! You’d better give us the money!”

“It is my money, I won’t give it to you!” Insisted Aldo.

“I said give it to me!” Shouted Juan, grabbing the money from Aldo’s hands. “And let me tell you right off, I do not want to do the Spanish homework, so you better have it ready”.

“I do not want to do your work anymore! I do not want to give you my money, nor my candies anymore!” Shouted Aldo and ran to the classroom.

Once in class, the teacher asked Aldo to participate in an activity, but the boy as it was usually happening lately didn’t want to do it. So, in front of his classmates, she asked Aldo if something was wrong, to what the boy replied with a no.

“Aldo, something rare is happening with you … it’s been days since you participated in class. You are inattentive… you can trust me” the teacher told him....

“Children, if someone knows what is happening to your classmate, you must tell me, so I can help him.”

Claudia knew what was happening to Aldo, but she was afraid of telling because she was sure that Juan and his friends would do the same thing to her...

  • Workbook activities:

    In teams, investigate different aspects about school harassment.

    What did I learn from this lesson?

  • Day-to-day activities:

    Elaborate a pamphlet based in what was done in class and in the investigation to share it throughout the institution.

  • Evaluation suggestions:

    Written answers.

    Individual participation.

    Elaboration of Pamphlets.

    Value the investigation with a rubric.

    Include in the evaluation the exercises elaborated in the workbook.

Teaching strategy

Opening

  • Activate previous knowledge based in the title of the scenario, guided by the following questions:

    Do you know what school harassment is?

    Have you ever suffered school harassment?

    What have you done about it?

Application

  • Ask two students to take turns reading the scenario “Let’s stop school harassment!”.
  • In teams, comment on the main ideas of the text and answer the following questions:

    What do you think about Juan and his friends’ attitudes?

    Do you approve what they do?

    What would you do if you were in Aldo’s situation?

    If you were Claudia, what would you do?

    What is school harassment?

    Do you know someone who suffers school harassment?

    What is it that you must do if you suffer school harassment?

    Which are the main characteristics of children who suffer school harassment?

    How can I help a friend who suffers school harassment?

What measures can we adopt to eradicate school harassment?

Closing

  • In teams, based on previous knowledge and the comments made in the group, establish agreements to create measures that eradicate school harassment.
  • Field VI

    Social participation.

  • Competencies:

    Focus: Social and political participation.

    Related: Sense of belonging to the community, the nation, and humanity.

  • Values:

    Rational use of the natural resources, Cooperation.

  • Learning outcomes:

    Establishes collective agreements that imply the participation in actions of common benefit.

    Proposes solutions for situations of conflict, taking into account the opinion of others in their areas of participation.

Scenario 6

Let’s take care of water

Description

Through the scenario, the student will become aware of the importance of getting involved in matters that imply a common benefit.

Scenario

In the morning, Juana sweeps the patio of her house, collects the garbage, puts it in a bag and tosses it in a trash can. She takes the trash out when the garbage truck goes by. At night, Juana waters the plants, because she says that it is how they can take advantage of the fresh air at night.

Sebastián turns on the faucet, wets his hands and takes the bar of soap. While he soaps, he leaves the water running. He rinses his hands, takes the towel and dries them off. Finally, he turns off the faucet.

To wash her car, Martha gets a bucket of water, rags, brush, soap and old newspapers. With wet rags she cleans the outside of the car and with the brush and soap washes the tires. She cleans the glass with newspaper.

Paulina uses the water jet of the hose to sweep the sidewalk. The sidewalk looks really wet and shiny… as a mirror.

One day at school, while going to the restroom, Martha noticed that in several of the toilets there were water leaks. When she got out, she ran to where her friends were playing during recess time.

Martha: “Friends, I have just gone to the restroom and I saw that in several of the toilets there are water leaks. I think that we should tell MissPaty about it…”

Sebastián: “Do not even worry, Martha, in the boy’s restroom it has been like that for more than a week …”

Martha: “What? And why hasn’t anybody said anything?”

Paulina: “Oh, Martha, that is the principal’s office problem, we have nothing to do with it, so let’s keep playing …”

Juana: “We should, at least tell Mr. Beto, and he will know what to do …”

Sebastián: “Let me tell you something... Look, there is a lot of water on the ground, and I found out that Mr. Beto has a few days off, and that is why they have not noticed it. If we go and tell the teacher, and the principal finds out, she will ask us to come on Saturday to sweep all the water on the ground and to clean up the restrooms, just like they do it at the end of every school year …”

Paulina: “It is true, it’s better not to say anything, and if they find out, oh well!”

Martha: “I’ll just tell the teacher what is happening, so that she can warn the principal…”

Juana: “I will go with you, Martha …”

Paulina: “Well, if they have us clean up the mess and sweep all the water, it will be your fault and you will have to pay for it…”

Martha: “What? And why would it be our fault?”

Sebastian: “Because you are a gossiper. You, as our friend, should not do anything that harms us and, in spite of that, you want to report something that is a problem of the school and we would probably have to pay for it …”

Juana: “I think Sebastian is right, Martha … We are not going to lose two of our best friends because of the school’s fault…”

  • Workbook activities:

    Ask students to answer the following questions:

    What values are being promoted in the scenario?

    How would you organize your community to achieve collective agreements that lead to the benefit of all?

    What social implications would the shortage of water bring with it?

    What did I learn from this lesson?

  • Day-to-day activities:

    Elaborate a poster to raise people’s awareness of the care of water.

    Share the poster with friends, relatives, and neighbors.

  • Evaluation suggestions:

    Children’s participation in answering the scenario questions.

    Team conclusions.

    Elaboration of the products. (Posters).

Martha: “You’re silly! I’ll tell the teacher and you, Juana, stay with your friends… ”

Teaching strategy

Opening

  • Activate previous knowledge based on the title of the scenario and the following question:

    Why is water important to human beings?

Application

  • Ask students to read the scenario “Let’s take care of water”.
  • In teams, talk about the main ideas of the text based on the reflection on the following questions:

    With which of the characters do you identify yourself the most?

    Should Martha support Juana’s decision not to lose her best friends just because of the problem at school?

    Is Martha’s attitude on facing the situation at school a good one?

    In the scenario, whose responsibility is it to take care of water?

    What decision would you take if you were in the same situation as Martha and why?

Closing

  • Talk about the conclusions that each team reached based on the previous questions. Rescue the importance of the rational use of natural resources and the importance of cooperation to take care of those resources.
  • Field VII

    The pillars of a democratic government

  • Competencies:

    Focus: Adherence to legality and sense of justice.

    Related: Self-regulation and responsible use of freedom.

  • Values:

    Justice, Solidarity and Responsibility.

  • Learning outcomes:

    Recognizes the consequences resulting from personal and collective violation of a norm.

Scenario 7

The avenue

Description

In the scenario “The avenue’’, Ricardo, a 12 year old who becomes a witness when he saw how an irresponsible driver ran over a lady and drives off. The scenario is enriching because it intends to motivate children to reflect about the justice, solidarity, and responsibility values as well as to develop their critical thinking about the fulfilment of the laws and norms in everyday life.

Scenario

Ricardo is twelve years old and every day he walks to school. To get there, he has to cross a busy avenue, but he feels confident in the traffic light, which makes it easier to cross the street along the pedestrian crossing.

One day, Ricardo told his friend:

“You know what, Ramon?, today I almost got run over when I was about to cross the avenue … Since the traffic light was on red for the cars, I started crossing, but suddenly, I saw a truck coming very fast and it ran through the red light … I ran and managed to cross, but it almost hit me …”

Ramon answered him: “No way!? You better take care. At least you noticed the situation. Imagine if you had not seen the truck!”.

One evening, when Ricardo was walking home, he noticed that a driver was talking on the phone and did not notice that the traffic light was red. The driver ran the red light and ran over a lady who was crossing the avenue at that moment.

The driver drove off, but Ricardo had seen the license plate number and he gave it to the policeman who arrived at the scene. The policeman asked Ricardo if he could recognize the driver and Ricardo said that he could... Then, the policeman asked him to go to the police station to testify and to give the description of the driver in orderto make a spoken portrait…

The following day, Ricardo told Ramon about all that had happened and the testimony he had told the police.

Ramon replied: What a difficult decision! I wouldn’t have gone, what if the man is a bad guy and takes it against you!

  • Workbook activities:

    With the help of a relative, investigate which are the traffic regulations in your city.

    What did I learn from this lesson?

  • Activities in the school environment:

    Based upon the investigation, elaborate drawings where the traffic regulations are represented.

    Expose the drawings on the bulletin board and share them with relatives.

  • Evaluation suggestions:

    Individual participation during the question session.

    Evaluate the research.

    Evaluate of Drawings.

Teaching strategy

Opening

  • Activate previous knowledge by implementing the brainstorming technique based on the following questions:

    What is social participation?

    What is legality?

    What is justice?

Application

  • Listening to the reading, present to the children the scenario “The Avenue”.
  • Organize teams and ask students to share opinions regarding the following questions, to reflect and enhance comprehension of the topics and values of the scenario:

    What is the problem that is presented in the scenario?

    Which traffic regulations were violated by the driver who ran over the lady?

    Is what Ricardo did correct? Why?

    What values did Ricardo practice on having reported the driver?

    Do you think Ramon was right in telling Ricardo that he shouldn’t have reported the driver? Why?

Closing

  • Elaborate conclusions as a whole group based on reflection, emphasizing the values of justice, solidarity and responsibility. Register those conclusions in the workbook.
  • Field VIII

    The pillars of a democratic government.

  • Competencies:

    Focus: Comprehension and appreciation for democracy.

    Related: Social and political participation.

  • Values:

    Responsibility, Honesty, Justice, and Commitment.

  • Learning outcomes:

    Distinguishes that the fulfillment of laws, the division of power and the recognition and protection of the human rights is the strength of a democratic government.

Scenario 8

The establishment of a school board committee

Description

All the members of a school institution can be represented by a school board committee. In this space, the school situations that need to be attended are analyzed. The importance of the intermediary function and offer that the school board can exercise between parents and the administration of the schoolis undoubted. . That is why, it is important to defend the principles of participation and of the assigning of the means and the institutional respect that it deserves, because it is an indirect route to morally enrich society and improve it through education.

By means of approaching the scenario, the student will develop social skills that allow us to identify ourselves as members of different social groups, with rights and specific commitments.

Scenario

In a primary school, some parents decided to create a school board committee. One morning, before recess time, teacher Juanita handed in a written message to her sixth grade students.

Juan José, after reading the message, said to his teacher:

“Teacher, my mom says that the school board is useless. My grandmother told her that she had to do everything my dad says. She cannot give me permission, not even to play on the sidewalk outside my house! I think that it’s better not to give her this message.”

Having heard this, Miss Juanita explained to the students:

“Look, we’ll create this school board committee so that your parents, you and the teachers can work together to have a better school, improved with more things for you to learn better”.

Alberto commented: “No, teacher, if it is going to be about teaching us more things and give us more homework, then it is not convenient … It would be better if some soccer goals are put around school and, give us soccer balls and uniforms, even those of the Mexican Soccer Team would be ok. Yes, that would be good …”

The teacher replied: “That is very much the point, for all of us to participate to attend all your needs. Your classes are important, as well as your learning, but also the way you entertain yourselves and play sports”.

And she added: “If you want, we can ask the Principal Francisca for permission to organize a soccer tournament, and we can propose it as the first activity to be discussed by the school board committee. But remember that we must study very hard, because we will work with programs that grant scholarships for the first places of every grade level. And maybe even propose trips or field trips for the groups with the best Grade Point Average. So, take the messages home, and let's hope that the majority of your parents will attend”.

  • Workbook activities:

    What would be the consequences of an undemocratic choice?

    What did I learn from this lesson?

  • Day-to-day activities:

    Elaborate a drawing whereyou represent what democratic actions are carried out in your family and in the nearest context.

    Share the drawing with your family and relatives.

  • Evaluation suggestions:

    Individual draft of the answers to the questions.

    List of conclusions.

    Elaboration of the drawing.

    Include in the evaluation the exercises elaborated in the workbook.

Teaching strategy

Opening

  • Activate previous knowledge of the students based on the following questions:

    What is democracy?

    In what areas or situations have you observed the practice of democracy?

Application

  • In teams, read the scenario “Establishment of a school board committee”.
  • Reflect and respond to the following questioning:

    Whom do you know that has a representative function in the school?

    Which do think are their most important activities?

    Why do you think that in the majority of the social groups they choose some of their members to carry out representative functions?

    Do know what is a public representative?

    Whom do you know that is a public representative?

Closing

  • To choose democratically a member of every team to present the answers. Then, present general conclusions.
  • Elaborate a list of general conclusions.
  • Distinguish the values promoted in the scenario.

Appendix 1

Glossary for education in values

Citizenship: It comes from the Latin voice civitas. It is defined in terms of responsibility, in the sense of corresponsabilization.

Citizenship is the belonging to a political community and it is constituted in several terms in different societies. It is linked to freedom (taken as a part of natural right, in other words, universal), or justice, or one and the other, and in this sense, it is identified with the exercise of three classes of human rights:

  • 1. Civil rights. For example: to life, to expression, to property.
  • 2. Political rights. For example: to electoral decision, to political party and union association.
  • 3. Social rights. For example: to work, to education, to health.

Currently, the idea of citizenship covers rights and duties/obligations: considered as coessential for being members of a community. More precisely, we could say that the new citizenship gathers the rights of freedom and equality, with the rights of solidarity. In this sense, the concept of citizenship joins the one of democracy andis characterized by the need of reconciling the demands of participation, on one side and on the other, the ones of justice with the ones of the market.

Civic: Respectful behavior of citizens about the norms of public coexistence.

Competency: Ability to successfully achieve the complex demands through mobilization of the psychosocial prerequisites, in a way that the individual results, reached through action, selection, or behavior according to the demands, are emphasized. Similarly, we can say that it refers to a successful intervention in a concrete problem-situation through actions in which attitudinal, procedural and conceptual actions are mobilized.

Democracy: It is derived from the Greek word demos, which means “town” and kratos that means “town’s government and authority”. Nowadays, the concept of democracy is not limited to a determined form of government; it refers to a set of norms for social and political coexistence.

Democracy as a lifestyle is a form of life based on the respect to human dignity, freedom and rights of each and all of the members of a community.

Democracy as a form of government implies the participation of the people ingovernment action through suffrage and the exercised control over what is done by the State.

Human rights: Set of prerogatives, which are inherent to a person’s nature, indispensablefor the integral development of an individual who lives in a society legally organized. These rights, established in the constitution and laws, must be recognized and guaranteed by the State.

We are all obligated to the respect human rights of others. However, according to the constitutional mandate, the ones with greater responsibility in this sense are the government authorities, that is, men and women in public office. The duty of protecting human rights represents for the State, the demand of providing and maintaining the necessary conditions, in justice, peace and freedom, so that people could really enjoy all their rights. The common welfare supposes that public power must do everything it takes to, gradually, overcome inequality, poverty and discrimination.

Dialogue: It comes from the Latinso dialogues and the Greek διάλογος. Currently, it still has an eminent normative value. The dialogue implies to talk, discuss, ask and answer between associated people in a common interest of investigation. The principle of dialogue implies philosophical and religious tolerance, in a positive and active sense and therefore, not the kind of tolerance where different points of view exist, but the one where equal legitimacy and good will to understand reasons. A growing appreciation of dialogue is accompanied by a growing appreciation and thanks to in that atmosphere- dialogue concretely lives and persists.

Human dignity: "The principle of human dignity" enunciated by Kant means the requirement as a second formula of the categorical imperative: "Act so as to treat humanity, whether in your person or in the person of another, always as an end and never merely as a means".

Education with values: Process to induce civic education in scholars, based on the active participation of their insertion in the social, cultural, political and economical contexts of their community, their province (states) and their nation.

Values education must be understood, from the constructivist perspective, as a set of natural situations and scenarios, assisted by the experience of teachers, allowing students to build their civic personality in interaction with their peers, their teachers and own sociocultural context of the institution and the social group they belong to.

Equity:It comes from the Latin aequitas, from aequus, equal; from the Greek επιεικεία, virtue of justice in a concrete case.

It is customary beneficial temperance. It is a propensity to be guided, or to fail, for the feeling of duty, or awareness, and the rigourous prescriptions of justice and the strict text of law.

It is the appealing to justice to correct the law that expresses justice. The same nature of equity is the correction of law when it is shown to be insufficient by its universal character. The law necessarily has to have a general character, and, because of this, sometimes shows to be imperfect, or with a difficult application to particular cases. In such cases, equity intervenes to judge, not from the law, but from justice and that the same law is conducted to do. Justice and equity are not the same things; equity is superior, not to justice per se, but what is formulated in a law that by reason of universality is subjected to error.

Ethics: Science of behavior. There are two fundamental concepts of this science, namely: 1) the considered end science directed to behavior of mankind and the means to achieve and to deduce such end, both end and means of mankind's nature; 2) the considered impulse science of human behavior and intends to determine it with the aim to direct or discipline behavior itself.

Honesty: Attribute of human quality that consists in behaving and expressing with sincerity and coherence (tell the truth) according to the values of truth and justice.

Identity: It comes from the Latin identitas.Set of traits of an individual or a community.These characteristics differentiate the individual (or groups of individuals) from each other. Identity is also linked toconsciousness that a person has about himself.

National identity is manifestedmainly through language, traditions and customs, common history, general values, aspirations as a people, the ethnic composition of the population, the specific culture they have generated, etc.

Equality: Principle that grants all citizens equal rights.

You can describe the moral and legal equality as that by which an individual who is subject to certain conditions or privileges has the same possibilities as another in the same conditions.

Justice: It originates from the Latin termiustitia and allows denominating one of the four cardinal virtues, one inclined to give everyone his belongings.

It is a value determined by society. It was born from the necessity of keeping peace among the members of a community. It is the group of rules that establish an appropriate frame for people and institutions, authorizing, prohibiting and allowing specific actions in individual and institutional interactions.

Moral: Pertaining or related to the actions or characters of a person, from the perspective of good and evil.

Libertad: Comes from the Latin libertas, -atis, of equal meaning. Capability mankind possess to act according to own will, throughout life; therefore, responsible for own actions.

Reciprocity: It comes from the Latin reciprocitas and it refers to the mutual correspondence of a person or thing with another. It is the principle of universal relationship of things in the world, principle by which a community is formed, an organized whole.

Respect: From the Latin respectus, it means attention, consideration. The term refers to moral and ethical issues. The recognition of self-dignity or someone else’s dignity is a behavior originated in this acknowledgment.

Commonly, respect is known by the endeavor of recognizing others, or himself/herself; a certain dignity that is required to be protected.

Respect is the consideration that someone has a value in itself and is set to reciprocity, mutual respect and mutual recognition.

Responsibility: It is the virtue or habitual disposition to assume the consequences of people’s own decisions, responding for them. It is the ability to respond for their own acts. It is all that concerns me in an exclusive way and that I can’t humanly reject.

Solidarity: Solidarity: The root refers to conduct in-solidum, that is, that the destinies of two or more people join. Therefore, to show solidarity is not only to help, but involves a commitment to that to which you are given the solidarity. In the most basic sense, solidarity is supposed to be practiced without distinction of gender, race, nationality, religion, or political affiliation. Solidarity is moved only by the conviction of justice and equality.

Tolerance: Respect for the ideas, beliefs or practices of others, when they are different, or contrary to the ones we have.

Values: Principles that allow us to guide our behavior in function of self realization. They are fundamental beliefs that help us prefer, appreciate and choose some things instead of others, or one behavior instead of another. They are also a source of satisfaction.

Truth: It comes from the Latin veritas. It is the validity or effectiveness of cognitive processes. By means truth generally the quality by which a cognitive procedure is effective or any succeeds. Truth, in general, is understood as the quality through which a cognitive procedure is efficient or successful.

Virtue: Designates any capability or Excellency that belongs to any thing or being. Its specific meanings could be reduced to three: 1)general capability or potential, 2) Capability or Human potential; 3) Capability or potential, of moral nature.

Appendix 2

Resources to learn more about education in values
Bindé, J. (2004). ¿Hacia dónde se dirigen los valores?, México, Fondo de Cultura Económica

Currently, there is a weakening and a crisis of values, which has been mainly produced by globalization only worried by technical progress; which in essence, has led to an increased materialism that has proven to be incapable of guiding actions and remains indifferent to the strength of values. This value crisis is manifested in the use of terms such as “nihilism”, “loss of meaning”, “values’ disappearance”, or “civilization shock” and values which are supposedly irreducible.

Cappello, H. (2004). El caso de los Congresos Internacionales sobre la Familia del DIF Tamaulipas: Construcción de políticas sociales, identidad colectiva y ciudadanía, Tamaulipas, DIF Tamaulipas

Analyzes the case of International Conferences of DIF Tamaulipas Family, explaining how the institutions in the State-Nation are a fundamental part of the process to create a common collective identity, a civic-political consistent character and an awareness of the most important problems and virtues in the community.

Chávez, M. (2010). Formación cívica y ética. Oferta de actualización para maestros, México, Instituto Nacional de Evaluación Educativa (INNE)

Document that presents the conceptual frame and the results of the documental analysis of the course materials, workshopsand strategy notebooks for teachers of civic and ethical formation. The study was conducted with the purpose of exploring at what extent these materials satisfy the needs of teaching formation to teach that subject. http://www.inee.edu.mx/archivosbuscador/2009/04/INEE200904118-formacioncivicayeticacompleto.pdf

Cortés, M. (2004). Una mirada psicoeducativa a los valores, España, Prensas Universitarias de Zaragoza

Theoretical and practical contents about moral development and its educational side that are seeking empowering personal, moral and ethical growth in students and, at certain point, to point out criteria and ethical education strategies for the professional development in the educational environment with the new technologies.

Education in values and Education for Development

International organization dedicated to education in values. In its website it offers multiple educational resources (videos, documents) about education in human rights, for the citizenship, for the peace, among other key topics linked to education in values. http://www.educacionenvalores. org/spip.php?rubrique8

Hoyos, G. et al. (2001). La educación en valores en Iberoamérica, Madrid, Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos (OEI)

Different Latin American experts present their perspectives about education with values. Among the analyzed topics, the role of education with values for the construction of democratic societies facing the society of knowledge, are the highlighted topics; in addition, it makes an interesting introduction of some teaching strategies and specific evaluation of education with values.

Luengo, F. y Moya, J. (2008). Escuela, familia, comunidad: Claves para la acción, España, Wolters Kluwer España, S.A.

Democratic education is not the onlysole responsibility and competence of the teachers; but involves all citizens in different levels and with complementary activities: education professionals, family, municipalities, civic associations, trade unions and democratic schools.

This work gathers ideas, resources and experiences that have been used to fight for that final objective since project Atlántida: close collaboration betweenschool, family and society, all together.

Martín, X. y Puig, J.M. (2007). Las siete competencias básicas para educar en valores, Barcelona, Graó

To educate with values, we need certain domain in seven competencies; to be one-self; to recognize others, to facilitate dialogue, to regulate participation, to work in teams, to form a school community and to work in a network. The work proposes that education with values is an essential occupation that teachers suggestfor mastering certain competencies.

Moreno, A. y Méndez, P. (2004). Familia y sociedad: Un estudio sobre los valores de los tamaulipecos, Tamaulipas, DIF Tamaulipas

The prevalent Cosmo-vision in the state of Tamaulipas is analyzed and interpreted, as well as the social manifestations that will be more common in the upcoming years. It reflects ideas, attitudes and values of Tamaulipas’ people in a way that these are known, appreciated and prepared for facing a new century.

Mota, G. (2006). Educación cívica y ciudadana: una visión global, México, Santillana

Proposes the need of strengthening dignity, identity and indispensable civil participation in the social construction of new democratic societies, based on jointly agreed upon and informed decisions. Because of the importance of this topic, this is a book of interest for the teachers of any level and also for scholars, academic, researchers and concerned citizens andbetter said, busy, with the development and consolidation of democratic life, that each day is more rooted in our country and some other Hispanic ones.

Navarro, G. (2000). El diálogo. Procedimientos para la educación en valores, España, Desclée de Brouwer, S.A.

Adolescence is a critical stage in the formation of adult personality and in morality consolidation. It is the critical moment when the individual discovers rationality and autonomy, but at the same time, s/he uses this wonderful capability of thinking by him/herself against traditional thinking, authority and morality. This often results in a crisis of values, whose uncertain culmination could leave their personality and moral judgment rooted in mere conventionalism void of principles. For them, it becomes necessary to elaborate strategies that propitiate and develop the fondness for rational thinking as a means to elaborate norms and discover values to facilitate coexistence and the solution of conflicts through dialogue.

Ochoa, A. (2010). La formación del docente para la asignatura de Formación Cívica y Ética: el caso de Querétaro, México, Congreso Iberoamericano de Educación, Metas 2021

The article reports the opinion of the teachers on the formation to teach the subject Civic and Ethical Formation and it points out some suggestions from the same teachers to improve these processes of formation. http://www.chubut.edu.ar/descargas/secundaria/congreso/DOCENTES/R1223_Ochoa.pdf

Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos (OEI), Valores

This is a web site with several publications of investigations, programs and educational resources on education with values, developed in Latin America. http://www.oei.es/valores.php

Rollano, D. (2004). Educación en valores. Teoría y práctica para los docentes, España, Ideas Propias

It gives a guide about the basic contents of education with values and mentions the very important role values have in the personal and social development of the individual. It presents an approach for education with values and it also covers the need for an integral education.

SEP (2011). Encuentro Educación y Valores para la Convivencia en el siglo XXI, 4-9 abril, México

Experts and international leaders encounter with the Mexican educational community to analyze in a critical way the civic and ethical values required for the Mexican citizen formation in the XXI century. The website grants access to the interesting lectures of the conferences’ keynote speakers and the different panels of discussions and forums analyzingwhat has been made. http://www.educacionyvalores. mx/estructura/actividades-academicas

UNESCO, Valores para vivir

International initiative supported by UNESCO, dedicated to the promotion of education with values. The web page in Spanish contains references to the programs, educational materials and formation courses. http://www.valoresparavivir.org/ index.php?lang=spanish

References

Bolívar, A. (1998). Educar en valores. Una educación para la ciudadanía, España, Consejería de Educación y Ciencia de la Junta de Andalucía.

Brady, L. (2011). “Teacher Values and Relationship: Factors in Values Education”, Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 36(2):56-66.

Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2008). Cambridge University Press.

Cappello, H.M. (1993). “Variaciones de la identidad nacional. Un estudio empírico de la identidad y el carácter en seis regiones de la nación mexicana”, Pensar es Cultura, CONACULTA, México.

—— (1995). “Processes of Change in the Civic-Political Identity and Character of Two Cities from the Northeast of Mexico –Revisiting the Theory”, International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, SOCIOTAM, Vol. 5. N. 1:9-55.

—— (1996). “Los procesos de globalización, la cultura política e identidad y carácter nacionales en México”, en: D. Mato, M. Montero, E. Amodio (Coords.), América Latina en tiempos de globalización – Procesos culturales y transformaciones sociopolíticas, U. C. V., Asociación Latinoamericana de Sociología, UNESCO, Venezuela.

—— (1999). “Representación social del medio ambiente y actitudes de los ciudadanos cercanos a una campaña política”, International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, SOCIOTAM, Vol. 10, N. 1:9-29.

—— (2006). Manual de capacitación para docentes. Educación en Valores, DIF Tamaulipas, CeMir, UAT, Tamaulipas, México.

Diccionario Enciclopédico Larousse (2004). España.

García, X.M. y Puig, R.J.M. (2007). Las siete competencias básicas para educar en valores, Barcelona, Graó.

Gervilla, E. (2000). “Un modelo axiológico de educación integral”, Revista Española de Pedagogía, 215:39-58.

Gilbert, S. (2001). “John Dewey: filósofo de la educación democrática”, Sincronía, Universidad de Guadalajara, consultado en el sitio web: http: sincronía.cucsh. udg.mx/gilbert3.htm

Gutmann, A. (2001). La educación democrática: una teoría política de la educación, Barcelona, Paidós.

Kluckhohn, C. (1957). “Values and Value Orientations in the Theory of Action. An Exploration in Definition and Classification”, en: T. Parsons y E. Shils (Eds.), Towards a General Theory of Action, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 338-443.

Lepley, J. (1959). “Comparability in the Light of Social Science”, en: W. Allport, New Knowledge in Human Values, Harper, Nueva York, 86-94.

Lloyd, McLeary, citado en: J.M. Cepeda (2005), “Metodología de la enseñanza basada en competencias”, Revista Iberoamericana de Educación, 34(4).

López, B. y Hinojosa, E. (2001:72). Evaluación del aprendizaje. Alternativas y nuevos desarrollos, México, Trillas.

McClellan, D.C. (1973). “Testing for Competencies rather than Intelligence”, American Psychologist, 28:1-14.

Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales (1995). Real Decreto 797/1995.BOE 138 de 10 de junio.

Moscovici, S. (1984). “The Phenomenon of Social Representations”, en: S. Moscovici y G. Duveen (Eds.), Social Representations, New York University Press, Nueva York, 18-60.

Moreno, A. (2004). Familia y sociedad. Un estudio sobre los valores de los tamaulipecos, Sistema DIF Tamaulipas, Tamaulipas, México.

Noguera, E.; Tey, A.; Buxarrais, M.; Martínez, M. y Prats, E. (2000). “Estrategias de educación en valores”, en: G. Hoyos, et al. (Eds), La educación en valores en Iberoamérica, Madrid, Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos (OEI), 53-86.

OCDE (2002). Proyecto DeSeCo: Définitions et selection des competénses. Fondements théoriques et conceptuels. Document de strategie, DEELSA/CERI/CD (2002)9

OIT (2004). Recomendación sobre el desarrollo de los recursos humanos. Recomendación 195, Ginebra.

Rollano, D. (2004). Educación en valores, Teoría y práctica para los docentes, España, Ideas Propias.

San Martí, N. (2007). Diez ideas claves. Evaluar para aprender, Barcelona, Graó.

Seijó, C. (2009). “Los valores desde las principales teorías axiológicas: cualidades apriorísticas e independientes de las cosas y actos humanos”, Clío América, 3, 6:152-164

SEP (2009). Educación básica. Primaria. Programas de estudio. Segundo Grado, México.

Thorndike, E.L. (1932). The Fundamentals of Learning, Nueva York, Teachers College Bureau of Publication.

Zavala, A. y Arnau, L. (2007). Once ideas clave. Cómo aprender y enseñar competencias, Barcelona, Graó.

Table of Contents

Book of Values

VALUE EDUCATION | Sixth Grade Primary 25