Glossary for education in values
Citizenship: It comes from the Latin voice civitas. It is defined in terms of responsibility, in the sense of corresponsabilization.
Citizenship is the belonging to a political community and it is constituted in several terms in different societies. It is linked to freedom (taken as a part of natural right, in other words, universal), or justice, or one and the other, and in this sense, it is identified with the exercise of three classes of human rights.
1. Civil rights. For example: to life, to expression, to property.
2. Political rights. For example: to electoral decision, to political party and union association.
3. Social rights. For example: to work, to education, to health.
Currently, the idea of citizenship covers rights and duties/obligations: considered as coessential for being members of a community. More precisely, we could say that the new citizenship gathers the rights of freedom and equality, with the rights of solidarity. In this sense, the concept of citizenship joins the one of democracy andis characterized by the need of reconciling the demands of participation, on one side and on the other, the ones of justice with the ones of the market.
Civic: Respectful behavior of citizens about the norms of public coexistence.
Competency: Ability to successfully achieve the complex demands through mobilization of the psychosocial prerequisites, in a way that the individual results, reached through action, selection, or behavior according to the demands, are emphasized. Similarly, we can say that it refers to a successful intervention in a concrete problem-situation through actions in which attitudinal, procedural and conceptual actions are mobilized.
Democracy: It is derived from the Greek word demos, which means “town” and kratos that means “town’s government and authority”. Nowadays, the concept of democracy is not limited to a determined form of government; it refers to a set of norms for social and political coexistence.
Democracy as a lifestyle is a form of life based on the respect to human dignity, freedom and rights of each and all of the members of a community.
Democracy as a form of government implies the participation of the people ingovernment action through suffrage and the exercised control over what is done by the State.
Human rights: Set of prerogatives, which are inherent to a person’s nature, indispensablefor the integral development of an individual who lives in a society legally organized. These rights, established in the constitution and laws, must be recognized and guaranteed by the State.
We are all obligated to the respect human rights of others. However, according to the constitutional mandate, the ones with greater responsibility in this sense are the government authorities, that is, men and women in public office. The duty of protecting human rights represents for the State, the demand of providing and maintaining the necessary conditions, in justice, peace and freedom, so that people could really enjoy all their rights. The common welfare supposes that public power must do everything it takes to, gradually, overcome inequality, poverty and discrimination.
Dialogue: It comes from the Latinso dialogues and the Greek διάλογος. Currently, it still has an eminent normative value. The dialogue implies to talk, discuss, ask and answer between associated people in a common interest of investigation. The principle of dialogue implies philosophical and religious tolerance, in a positive and active sense and therefore, not the kind of tolerance where different points of view exist, but the one where equal legitimacy and good will to understand reasons. A growing appreciation of dialogue is accompanied by a growing appreciation and thanks to in that atmosphere- dialogue concretely lives and persists.
Human dignity: "The principle of human dignity" enunciated by Kant means the requirement as a second formula of the categorical imperative: "Act so as to treat humanity, whether in your person or in the person of another, always as an end and never merely as a means".
Education with values: Process to induce civic education in scholars, based on the active participation of their insertion in the social, cultural, political and economical contexts of their community, their province (states) and their nation.
Values education must be understood, from the constructivist perspective, as a set of natural situations and scenarios, assisted by the experience of teachers, allowing students to build their civic personality in interaction with their peers, their teachers and own sociocultural context of the institution and the social group they belong to.
Equity:It comes from the Latin aequitas, from aequus, equal; from the Greek επιεικεία, virtue of justice in a concrete case.
It is customary beneficial temperance. It is a propensity to be guided, or to fail, for the feeling of duty, or awareness, and the rigourous prescriptions of justice and the strict text of law.
It is the appealing to justice to correct the law that expresses justice. The same nature of equity is the correction of law when it is shown to be insufficient by its universal character. The law necessarily has to have a general character, and, because of this, sometimes shows to be imperfect, or with a difficult application to particular cases. In such cases, equity intervenes to judge, not from the law, but from justice and that the same law is conducted to do. Justice and equity are not the same things; equity is superior, not to justice per se, but what is formulated in a law that by reason of universality is subjected to error.
Ethics: Science of behavior. There are two fundamental concepts of this science, namely: 1) the considered end science directed to behavior of mankind and the means to achieve and to deduce such end, both end and means of mankind's nature; 2) the considered impulse science of human behavior and intends to determine it with the aim to direct or discipline behavior itself.
Honesty: Attribute of human quality that consists in behaving and expressing with sincerity and coherence (tell the truth) according to the values of truth and justice.
Identity: It comes from the Latin identitas.Set of traits of an individual or a community.These characteristics differentiate the individual (or groups of individuals) from each other. Identity is also linked toconsciousness that a person has about himself.
National identity is manifestedmainly through language, traditions and customs, common history, general values, aspirations as a people, the ethnic composition of the population, the specific culture they have generated, etc.
Equality: Principle that grants all citizens equal rights.
You can describe the moral and legal equality as that by which an individual who is subject to certain conditions or privileges has the same possibilities as another in the same conditions.
Justice: It originates from the Latin termiustitia and allows denominating one of the four cardinal virtues, one inclined to give everyone his belongings.
It is a value determined by society. It was born from the necessity of keeping peace among the members of a community. It is the group of rules that establish an appropriate frame for people and institutions, authorizing, prohibiting and allowing specific actions in individual and institutional interactions.
Moral: Pertaining or related to the actions or characters of a person, from the perspective of good and evil.
Libertad: Comes from the Latin libertas, -atis, of equal meaning. Capability mankind possess to act according to own will, throughout life; therefore, responsible for own actions.
Reciprocity: It comes from the Latin reciprocitas and it refers to the mutual correspondence of a person or thing with another. It is the principle of universal relationship of things in the world, principle by which a community is formed, an organized whole.
Respect: From the Latin respectus, it means attention, consideration. The term refers to moral and ethical issues. The recognition of self-dignity or someone else’s dignity is a behavior originated in this acknowledgment.
Commonly, respect is known by the endeavor of recognizing others, or himself/herself; a certain dignity that is required to be protected.
Respect is the consideration that someone has a value in itself and is set to reciprocity, mutual respect and mutual recognition.
Responsibility: It is the virtue or habitual disposition to assume the consequences of people’s own decisions, responding for them. It is the ability to respond for their own acts. It is all that concerns me in an exclusive way and that I can’t humanly reject.
Solidarity: Solidarity: The root refers to conduct in-solidum, that is, that the destinies of two or more people join. Therefore, to show solidarity is not only to help, but involves a commitment to that to which you are given the solidarity. In the most basic sense, solidarity is supposed to be practiced without distinction of gender, race, nationality, religion, or political affiliation. Solidarity is moved only by the conviction of justice and equality.
Tolerance: Respect for the ideas, beliefs or practices of others, when they are different, or contrary to the ones we have.
Values: Principles that allow us to guide our behavior in function of self realization. They are fundamental beliefs that help us prefer, appreciate and choose some things instead of others, or one behavior instead of another. They are also a source of satisfaction.
Truth: It comes from the Latin veritas. It is the validity or effectiveness of cognitive processes. By means truth generally the quality by which a cognitive procedure is effective or any succeeds. Truth, in general, is understood as the quality through which a cognitive procedure is efficient or successful.
Virtue: Designates any capability or Excellency that belongs to any thing or being. Its specific meanings could be reduced to three: 1)general capability or potential, 2) Capability or Human potential; 3) Capability or potential, of moral nature.