INTRODUCTION

Today, as in the past, the triad, family, school, and community, is formed by institutions, in which a system of values should be built in order to give legitimacy and viability to the Nation. The school, with its own teaching nature is, without a doubt, the one in charge of guiding the axiological route that allows society to cohesion and build responsible citizens, ready to face the challenges that social, economic, cultural and political changes have brought, and that their participation would be to guarantee a prosperous, pacific and certainly happy country.

The objective of this book oneducating with values, proposed by Tamaulipas Integral Family Development (Sistema para el Desarrollo Integral de la Familia de Tamaulipas, DIF, for its initials in Spanish)is to complement the Tamaulipas Education Ministry’s program of civic education and ethics (SET,for its initials in Spanish). To contribute to the reinforcement school, family and society through education with values is one of the most important tasks of DIF Tamaulipas. School,because of its essence and vocation, because of its function and influence, and because of the time students spend there, becomes the perfect place to reinforce learning values among students, not only in its ethical approach, but also in preparing them as future active citizens participating in their duties with their Nation.

Two dimensions regarding educational systems

There are two dimensions regarding contemporary educational systems that give legitimacy and importance to the formation and preservation of the institutions in society, and to the incorporation of the following generations for their development. The first dimension is stated as the one having the function of transmitting knowledge through appropriate educational models where teaching is the main purpose the second dimension refers to accomplishing the complex process of forming students to integrate them to society as responsible peopleby educating them with values as a unique way of teaching, which prepare them for life, in their development as human beingsand to actively participate in the perfection of their own society.

For both dimensions, teaching and formation, there exists paradoxical situations, which some how limit their application. When teaching, not only does pertinent criteria complicate its functionality, but also –paradoxically- the increasing amount of knowledge that the geniuses of the scientific-technologic revolution constantly generate, and the frequent development of theories on society, culture, economy and politics, which encourages and renews social practice, to the point that school time available for teaching becomes limited. For formation, not only the available time is reduced, but because of its exceptional nature, its teaching becomes somewhat complex, due to the fact that it cannot separate the person who is learning from what has to be learnt, as it happens with other subjects in the curriculum, such as Physics, Chemistry, Biology, etc.

In other words, the aspects of subjectivity, emotions, affections, sensitivity and personal experiences need a different approach from the one who is solely transmitting knowledge. Because of the scarcity of time, it becomes necessary for the student to learn actively, to search for knowledge in available sources: libraries, Internet, cultural sections in the newspaper or magazines, and audiovisual aids from movies, television and theater.

It is clear that a world in constant change needs that the subjects of education become active. The main objective is to encourage and develop own learning, and to develop cognitive (motivational) skills, which prepare them for continuous learning. Simple repetition and memorization, encyclopedic teaching, discipline and textbook centered teaching are not sufficient to achieve new knowledge. This requires knowledge comprehension, giving importance to the significance of processes,students’ organization forms based in self-management of knowledge, the role of libraries as a teaching resource, the qualitative evaluations as well as the quantitative ones, and the careful use of new information technologies in the quest for knowledge.

The formation as an educational dimension doesn’t mean that it is a purely intuitive or reflexive approach. It must rely, the same as other aspects of learning on a group of systematic procedures that could take it to the continuation of a learnt event.

When we talk about the training of students with values, particularly in the first stages of learning, we are referring, not only to the acquisition of certain positive behaviors, butalso to the internalization of a group of values which shall guide them in their life and interactions in all the social areas where they have to be included and participate.

The problem of how to trigger this learning process of values, that becomes affected by the influence of multiple sociocultural behavioral models which are presented to the students on a regular basis, this fact takes us to consider a special way of teaching, that allows us to focus on what must be learnt, and could give them a certain autonomy against the perverse stimuli from other behavioral models. This way of teaching has been explained as learning through competencies.

In the same way that the students will have to learn a number of competencies to obtain a relevant, appropriate and useful education for their lives and their community participation, we must be aware that the teacher must be able to master competencesas well to educate the students with values. This implies the acquisition of a new role as a teacher, that must be not only as a mentor, but also as an adviser, counselor, tutor, friend, and partner in the knowledge construction of students, of course, without trying to replace their learning.

The objective of this book is precisely, not only giving the teacher a group of resources to improve the education with values, but also, to let the teacher work in personal achievement of the group of competencies that are necessary for teaching.

It is evident that the school has been transformed, and together with it, the knowledge that has to be taught to students. The most important actors have changed their roles, some of them for good, and others for worse. However, the school as an institution is still the citizens’ favorite, and also one of the most demanded by them. Its mission of being the place where knowledge is expected to acquirea better position, and opportunities of development within society, all this makes it vulnerable to all the critical situations of the same society. People expect too much from school, and in correspondence, not always has enough resources to satisfy all the demands that education imposes in this new era we are currently living.

Contemporary society imposes growing challenges to educational institutions and to those who are part of them, whether they are principals, teachers, students, or employees. Nevertheless, it keeps on being a niche where the new generations learn how to be part of the change and development of society. To summarize, we could say, that education with values allows us to discover who we are, how to improve, to whom and for whom we do it.

“Tell me which values you have and I will tell you who you are”, as the Stagirite philosopher would say.

The importance of values facing the challenges of contemporary Tamaulipas’ society

Tamaulipas’ society is not isolated from the changes that are happening in all societies in the world. These changes have deeply affected the lifestyles of its inhabitants, their costumes, traditions and rules for living. Having a territory that connects with the United States has brought not only some complications, but economic opportunities as well.

The changes brought by globalization, and particularly by the North America Free Trade Agreement, signed by the United States, Mexico and Canada, caused industrialization to widely develop and social, economic and demographic characteristics of this region radically change. Tamaulipas became a point of attraction to the people in southern Mexico, and also to people in other nations. Its population grew in a way that it affected its previous and well-balanced distribution in its main cities, becoming, an attractive point for employment and economic development. In the south, is the conurbation of Altamira, Tampico and Ciudad Madero, as an effect of the consolidation of oil extraction and petro chemistry industry, as well as for having two of the most important seaports in Mexico. In the north, the bordering region attracted most of the migration motivated by the national and international manufacturing industry implanted there or seeking an opportunity of migrating to the United States.

The speeding process of change in the Tamaulipas’ population to an industrial and service society had noticeable consequences. All this change was not entirely positive. It could be summarized in a relative crisis of values and mistrust towards many of the institutions that regulate daily life.

Education with values is not a simple task. The school has to face the competence of many social agents whose influence is out of proportion because of the resources they have. The media and entertainment have invaded almost all the leisure time of children, teenagers, youth and adults, which contribute to the deterioration of many values and to their extreme relativity. They tend to show habits, costumes and norms that are prone to convert the audience into subjects of consumption, addicts to violent shows, and to the exposition to models of behaviors that are not legally accepted, or they weaken the consolidation of personal social networks.

It is not enough to simply mention that certain examples given in the media, or in neighborhood living, or even in the same family are negative, in order forstudents to avoid them. It is another approach that must be used. The exercise of this axiological teaching proposed covers the need of generating meaningful experiences, involving conditions, necessary reflections, and productive dialogues that result in a conscience of actions and a rationale of their consequences. No one can learn from someone else’s experience. That is, the students have to be able to “make it conscious”, to incorporate it not only to their knowledge background, but also to their everyday behavior when they are faced with conflicts presented in their lives.

Educational investigation has developed several procedures to make more efficient what we can design as complex learning; especially those that can be applied to various vital situations. From this class of transversal learning, values are conformed. Because of this, to make values beunderstood, it is necessary that they are interiorized and become part of the internal norms that control the actions of the person. Techniques that represent relatively complex environments are required, but within a scale that is manageable by the school and classroom environments.

Scenarios have the most versatility, adequacy, and adaptability to accomplish the objectives of an education with values.It is because of this characteristic that this technique has been selected, due to the fact that it allows a process of immersion of students in meaningful situations, in which they can activelysolve problems, dilemmas, and conditions, generating and building their own and shared learning.

The people of Tamaulipas and values.

In a recent study, sponsored by DIF Tamaulipas, onthe values of its states’ population, it was found that persons from Tamaulipas show a strong social orientation to ward traditionalism, which enforces the problems of gender inequality, family violence, child abuse, paternalism, authoritarianism and low civic participation (Moreno Álvarez, 2004).

It was found in other studies from the main cities in Tamaulipas (Cappello, 1993, 1995 y 1996) that the people from this state tend to be passive in their social relationships; in their jobs’ activities, a significant percentage tends to be undisciplined; it is frequent that they avoid making decisions and assuming personal responsibilities. A big part of the population shows a tendency towards magical thoughts, and they blame destiny or bad luck for the failure of their actions. Regarding authority, most of the population shows certain ambivalence, because on one hand, they seem to be submissive in their presence, and on the other, they express hostility when they exercise authority over their subordinates.

They show fear and uncertainty towards the process of change. Their attitude about religion is positive, but often negative concerning church authorities. They love free time, and even though they like to enjoy nature, they don’t show respect for it. In a study conducted in Tamaulipas (Cappello, 1999), the people surveyed surprisingly considered that environmental pollution and destruction of green areas in the state were the least problematic issues.

However, they showed a positive attitude towards industrialization, commerce, and education. They expressed a strong concern about social violence, drug addiction, and organized crime. In general, they grant a low value to personal health.They expose their physical well being to conducts that will surely hurt them, and consider that tobacco, alcohol, and other addictions will cause them relative harm. Preventive health care is not common in many men. Women showed more concern, particularly associated with their roles as mothers, but personally, they consider that loss of health could be fatal.

Referring to ethical universal values, their orientation tends to relativism, where the majority of the population gives them little attention. It seems they are not worried about them.

Education in values must be differenced from teaching of values. In the first case, when students are educated in values, the judgment about men and his nature is the most important thing. We refer to the topics and teaching techniques that are required for the students to be able to systematically guide their behavior with the orientations that society consider as valuable. The teaching of values is focused on the instruction of conceptual, informative, and disciplinary aspects.

With the results of the investigations about values in Tamaulipas, it is seriously considered that education with values should be oriented in a very incisive way towards the formative aspect. It must be focused on the relationship between values and behavior, contextualizing the most conspicuous problems that communities, families, and individuals face.

I. FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATION IN VALUES BASED ON COMPETENCIES

School, education, and values.

Education and values have been considered as an obligated relationship to school since the former doesn’t finish its job in simple transmission of knowledge, but assumes the formation of students as one of its main functions, so that they can successfully face their lives, and maturely participate in a society that will demand from them as committed citizens.

The main aspect of this formation is the learning of values, from individual to collective, which reach their maximum significancefor exercising democratic coexistence.

Concept of values

From a Humanistic perspective, the supreme value is manhood –humanity- and the basic moral foundation of human society is its preservation, development, and perfection. Respect for life would be the value related with that preservation, emanating, extending and transferring to a complex group of facts, experiences, and behaviors pertaining to life, as peace preservation, health, environment, and public safety.

While responsibility to comply norms and obligations that improve the relationships of coexistence, institutions, and jobs, respond to the value of social and material development – the whole society- the quest for a fair and equitable society – in all dimensions of human existence: social, economic, cultural and political- would lead to perfecting human beings as citizens.

The conception of aaxiological pillar, considering the human being as a moral base, lies in three basic dimensions: Respect for life; Vocation for development, and Perfection achievement- Equity and Justice- that allow how to identify the way these values are expressed in different stages of educational development of the individual and society.

The “experienciation” is not achieved with the simple systematic exposition from concepts that integrate the value as a public and specific event represented on a cognitive category. The students should be incorporated with everything involving emotions and affections, in order to experiment what the value means. Education must start from emotions provoked by specific situations when students face dilemmas that offer experiencing values in personal and social life.

Education with values presents serious challenges for the teacher in different school levels. The management of students’ sensitivity implies the comprehension of the degree of emotional and cognitive maturity in the different ages of the students.

During development, children, teenagers and youth, besides absorbing knowledge from everywhere –formal and informal education- have a growing ability to get vital experiences that come from family role models, media, friends and surrounding community, reproducing the behavior of the observed models – consciously and unconsciously- whether good or bad, and interiorizing them as part of their identity and character. Therefore, the simple exposition as a vehicle to model axiological behaviors are insufficient. There must be another way of teaching, and another way of integrating themto the students’ curriculum.

Clyde Kluckhohn (1957), regarding values, considers that the inappropriate conceptions of the relationship between normative and existential propositions come from the disproportioned vision from existing differences and similarities among them. Lepley (1959), rejecting the emphasis that tends to exist between judgment of value and judgment of facts, claims it isa mere extrinsic distinction. According to Thorndike (1932), the judgment of value refers to the consequences of factual situations; and therefore, they are from the same type. The distinction between judgment of value and judgment of facts has a classifying nature; object of the former are the relationships via-end, and the latter, cause and effect relationships.

The integration of values in a system, a major factor in the characterization of particular structures (person, family, institutions), it becomes a necessary condition for the integration of motivations in a determined motivational system, which at the same time acts as a factor of identification of personality.

Finally, integration that forms personality, insofar it confers regularity tosocial behaviors and becomes predictable; becomes a necessary condition for role expectations to be formed around the social actors in interaction. Value integration in the personality system is made by a process of internalization that transforms value in a supplementary motivation of the action. Because of this, we must complement the approach of Kluckhohm with the interpretation that Moscovici gives to this process in the Theory of Social Representations (1986).

In most of contemporary educational systems, the so called values are the ones that are included for learning. And these values are the ones considered to support the proposal of education with the values that we present here.

The program of education with values, while taken in a general way by the educational institutions,isconsidered a triple axis –Organism, Ethics, and Environment- sometimes adding a module on civics. The program here in develops special treatments designed to address typical problems such as citizen morality -civic participation-, family and child violence -, problems in the environment- pollution, destruction of natural habitat, public gardens, recreational centers, forests, rivers, and coasts-, and public health problems and prevention- diseases, body hygiene, and collective health-, and finally, aspects of social and economic change in current circumstances: employment,business, efficiency, support, science and technology, personal development and collective progress. “Experience, contextualization, and active participation are the means for an education with values”. In other words, to incorporate the values to our behavior we must live by them, feel them, and get excited with them, as an intimate and external experience.

The school’s role in promoting values

The school in the 21st century has been transformed like all other institutions that are part of our current society. It is no longer an isolated element that allowed certain isolation from society problems, so a student, calmly, under the direction of the teacher, could learn norms for the reproduction of culture, for preparation, and complying society’s demands outside of school, as well as, adapting to the conditions that family and community impose.

The current school has moved from its initial isolation to the growing demands of a society moving towards post modernism, to the scientific-technological revolution, to the empire of massmedia, to the diversity of cultures, the socio economic ending of national borders, the growing demand of new roles, the cosmopolitanism of costumes, and to the expanding markets of globalization.

The school is involved in a constant demand. It is no longer a guarantee of school education, but has become somewhat a substitution of the family’s responsibility in forming students with values. School is demanded to be a center of knowledge and acceptance of external institutions to the preceding role, like the ones dedicated to healthcare, justice, politics, environment and new values appearing from the society’s internalization processes.

As Gilbert (2001) has said,student centered education, the integrated curriculum from preschool through high school, the construction of knowledge, the heterogeneous grouping, the cooperative study groups, the school as a community, the recognition of diversity, critical thinking, are all important, but, above all these aspects, education is a process of life.

On the other hand, school must instruct students for a democratic life. Gutmann (2001) advises that all the students must be prepared to participate as politically equal citizens, in the deliberate configuration of the future of society.

To sum up, we can say that students must be instructed in critical reflection. Rollano (2004) claims that school, in education with values must form human beings able to acquire those cognitive and affective skills that, in harmony, could help them coexist with the necessary balance and understanding to integrate themas individuals who belong to society, and also as a unique human being in the world surrounding him/her. We can consider that people and the whole society are in the middle of a crisis, and that, evidently, we are suffering a serious value crisis. This causes schoolto emerge with a very important role as a rescuer.

Ten approaches to develop education with values

In the educational environment and among experts in education with values, it is recognized that they are most frequently acquired through example ratherthan through recommendations, admonitions, punishments and rewards or by mere school instruction. There are several conditions that must be fulfilled by an effective education with values. Also, we have to consider the students’ experience, their context, and the events’ familiarity that are used to reach an axiological education. Outside their direct experience, their everyday context, and unusual conditions, or outside family perceptions, all education with values will have as a result undefiled achievements.

There are no written or specific rules to develop a strategy for education with values. However, we could present, as useful suggestions, a group of approaches that the teacher needs to take into account to teach education with values.

The first approach is to consider that it is not an easy or simple task; so, we have to accept that it is a complex task, of totalizing processes, of rich and diverse situations.

The second approach is to consider that education with values responds to a conception of “integrality” (forgive the neologism). In other words, a value could not be conceptualized as a divisible structure. No one could be considered half honest, or thirty percent honest. You are honest, or you are not honest.

The third approach is the consideration that values have the property of being transversal. This is, they could be applied to a great different number of facts, situations, objects and conditions.

The fourth approach refers to multidimensionality. Values possess the characteristic that, regardless the place where they were learnt, they could be applied to different areas of social interaction. The counter-values also have this characteristic, and that’s why they are considered dangerous.

The fifth approach considers the correspondence between universal and relative as a characteristic of values. This refers to the appropriate areas of application, the same application, and adequacy, and also the interpretation in the sociocultural diversity. For example, tolerance is considered as a universal value, but is restricted by what guides it. It is evident that, even in the culture of a racist group, this cannot be tolerated because it threatens the ethical implications of the same value.

The sixth approach refers to the fact that education with values takes as a foundation the “reality as educational space”. We educate with values, not for a purely abstract instance, but taking into account the real problems that the students face. Because of this, this kind of education goes beyond the purely scholar environments, and seeks to influence the family and proximal and broader community.

The seventh approach emphasizes that education with values must consider the relationship between the students and their development, in the double conception of growth and development skills of the person, and the development of the person as an intelligent, and ethical human being.

Private and public aspects are the main topics of the eighth approach that has to be considered. We can say that education allows the development of an individual personality with an individual values’ system, it is true that the limits between private and public are so narrow, because their relationship with the community is always close, and, each individual fact transcends to public life. That’s the reason why education is interested in preparing students as citizens.

The ninth approach refers to the idea that values are products of learning, but they are influenced by the students’ particularities, their social vocations, and their preferences about knowledge. This has to be considered as a triad of components: personality, vocation, and knowledge.

The tenth approach considers personal life, social realities, and citizenship. This implies knowing who the student is (his/her social reality, existing implications in training him/her to fully exercise his citizenship). An education with values is not complete if these three components are not contemplated, because, eventually, teachers need to consider these factors.

The concept of competencies in education with values.
What are competencies?

The didactic that allows with greater certainty this special type of learning, education with values, is the establishment of competencies.

From this point of view, what could we understand as a competency? The term is a product from formative models initially used in working environments, and, later on, in the world of schooling education, under the idea that it sets an alternative to satisfy the productive requirements in the job and the demands of life.

We are searching, with this procedure, that human actions become more efficient, but at the same time, we look for defining its components based on structures, and characteristics. This takes us to find different definitions that make us wonder, according to Zavala and Arnau (2007): What are competencies good for? Which is their field of involvement? In which situations should they be applied? And also ask: Are they aptitudes or skills? In any of these aspects are there other components? Also, to make clear the difference between competency and competent acting.

Let’s see some definitions about “competence”, and “competency” that let us recognize its basic components, in semantic and structural terms.

In the working area, McClelland (1973) defined competency as “that element that really causes a superior performance in a specific job”. As we can infer,this author implied quality in the results of the work.

Lloyd McLeary (Cepeda, 2005) defines it as “the presence of characteristics, or the absence of aptitudes that make a person qualified to perform a specific task, or to assume a definite role”. As we can observe, this definition pointsto manifested conditions: the existence or absence of aptitudes that make a person qualified to perform a specific task, or to assume a different role.

The Working International Organization (2004) defines competence as “the effective capacity to successfully accomplish a job activity completely identified”. It adds up to the former definitions, the terms of effective and successful capacity.

The Ministry of the Labor and Social Affairs of the Spanish Government (1995) defines competence as: “the capacity to apply knowledge, skills and attitudes to the performance of the correspondent task, including the capacity of response to unexpected problems, autonomy, flexibility, collaboration with the professional environment, and with the job’s organization”. As we can see, this definition adds onto the explicative area of competence, in addition to “applying knowledge, skills, and attitudes to the performance of the correspondent task”. Besides, it increases the capacity of response to unexpected problems, autonomy, and flexibility. This means, that it goes beyond mere semantics to a certain evaluative approach.

In the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2008)), ccompetence is defined as the ability to do something well, meanwhile, it also points out a difference with the word (competency) as an important ability required to perform a job. This suggests that in English, we have two words for two activities that may seem similar, but they refer to two levels of application of ability: to do something well, anything, and the required ability to perform a “task” well. This means, that rules are necessary, to perform a “task”. This second meaning is used in the definition of “competency” in the school processes, and in the external ones as well.

The Larousse Dictionary (2004) also defines competency by the application to commercial and industrial aspects, considering it as “the set of knowledge, qualities, aptitudes and aptitudes that allow to discuss, consult and decide everything concerning a task”. The definition becomes a broad explanation, and considers that the competency has a group of diverse structures whereby is defined what could be demanded in a job, implying that the knowledge could be applied, more than just theoretical.

The Organization for Cooperation and Development (OCDE, its initials in Spanish), which our country is a member, in its project, “Definition and Selection of Competencies” (2002) for the transformation of educational institutions, and educational programs, it explains competencies as “the ability to successfully accomplish the complex demands, through mobilization of psychosocial prerequisite. In this way, the results that the individual gets through his/her actions, selection or behavior according to the demands, are emphasized".

This definition is complemented with the following addition: “each competency is the combination of practical abilities, knowledge (including tacit knowledge), motivation, ethical values, attitudes, emotions, and other social and behavioral components that can be mobilized together so the action in a determined situation could be successful”. (Zavala y Arnau, 2007).

The presented definitions of competencies for educational and working environments have in common two aspects, they refer to three specific components: psychosocial properties of the person (attitudes, abilities, skills, values, etc.), qualitative orientation (success) towards a specific practice, and forms of action and performance procedures which are adequate to the performed task (efficiency and efficacy).

However, we can observe that the definitions and components attributed to “competency”, to the extent that they serve as parameters to accomplish more complex tasks, they become somewhat broader and lose certain specificity.

Actually, it is important not to forget that competency is a person’s attribute, because he/she is the receiver of the competency, the one who has to be competent. This person is the one who then acts following norms and specifications regarding the appointed task. Thus, we could say that in general terms, we could define competency as the possession of a group of abilities, knowledge, and aptitudes to develop a specific task with quality and efficiency, a specialized activity, or a required job subject to defined norms.

The aptitudes could refer to psychosocial aspects suchas attitudes, values, or skills. In educational terms, the competency implies the successful management of knowledge, aptitudes, attitudes and procedures to acquire a clearly specified learning in terms of applicability to problems, and real situations, or the practical accomplishment of the topics in a given curriculum.

When the subject to be learned -in this case, values- specifies competencies that are related with very abstract aspects, the teaching procedure gains more relevance, because it is the fundamental constitution, which should have the ability to facilitate the most generalization of what was learned. Thus, the technique of "scenarios" has been suggested.

Learning competencies through scenarios.

As we have previously mentioned, the challenge of educating with values not only implies the adoption of a theoretical and evaluative approach, but also, implies the didactic strategies from which is intended to form the students.

In this sense, several authors have manifested the suitability of “scenarios” as a teaching strategy to educate with values, due to its versatility, emulation of real situations close to the students’ lives; high motivational level that stimulates sensitivity, and the ability to propitiate the students’ engagement. (Brady, 2011; Noguera et al., 2000)

Therefore, a scenario connotes the use of a space where an action takes place, and an interaction of characters, representing a group of events, and physical and abstract components that grant meaning and certain limits to the events that happen within it, everything joined by a central argument.

Likewise, in its simplest expression, scenarios require from the performance of competencies that mobilize a group of knowledge, procedures and values, for decision making, and resolution of problematic situations that require value’s judgment and ethical reasoning.

It is worth noting that regarding the attitudinal component of competencies, the solutions to said problems, not only promote learning of a specific value, but also present an interrelationship between values due to the complex web of factors, situations, conditions, people, and groups of various interests that are conflicted in each scenario’s resolution.

Consequently, scenarios provide the participants with numerous resources to derive senses and meanings that allow them to understand the values and their importance in human and collective life, thanks to the immersion of mnemonic processes of reconstruction, recollection, evoking, and recognition of values, that facilitate their learning and transference to wider daily lifecontexts (Cappello, 2006).

Building upon the former principles, scenarios propose learning situations according to the students’ social, cognitive and moral level of development, being pre-school level the simplest and superior levels more complex.

Therefore, the topics that are brought up through scenarios have the characteristic of integrating arguments obtained from families’, schools’ and communities’ daily life’s experience.

Finally, it is convenient to point out that the teachers could introduce variations, changes or adjustments in the application of scenarios, depending on the schools’ conditions, the characteristics ofthe students and the group, the degree of participation of their parents, and the community context, as well as, the formation necessities established in the course syllabus. (Cappello, 2006).

Teaching competencies for the teachers when educating with values.

Likewise students, we believe that who intends educating with values should master a number of competencies. This becomes particularly relevant, because the subject that the students should learn does not refer to material aspects or accessible knowledge that could be easily transmitted through an instructional methodology. The teacher must have certain competencies to allow him/her educate with values effectively.

Which competencies are the ones the teacher must have when educating with values? These, according to various authors (García y Puig, 2007:8), are a group of personal and professional attributes whose level of knowledge is improvable. Educating with values presents certain paradox to the teacher. Whoever he/she is and which ever educational level he/she has, as a human being and a citizen, he/she should be prepared for educating with values.

New ways of teaching advocate not for a selective orientation without foundations, but a mostly inclusive ways of teaching, assuringa trueequity of opportunities for everybody. This doesn’t mean stopping the efforts of the students in their academic responsibilities, but to guiding education to a closer teaching that allows teaching adaptation to the students’ characteristics.

This leads us to annul, in the educational community, prejudices against gender, culture, and socioeconomic class. Within the many competencies that the teacher must possess, there will always be seven basic competencies that the teacher must have when educating with values:

  • 1. To have a conscience that it is required a firm and broad education with values as a parallel to an educational revolution.
  • 2. To be himself/herself.
  • 3. To be able to recognize others.
  • 4. To facilitate dialogue.
  • 5. To regulate participation.
  • 6. To work in teams.
  • 7. To contribute to improve the school.

It is important for teachers have in mind that learning through competencies is a clear advance in teaching. However, we must understand that its application requires from a careful analysis, not only of what must be learned, but also, about its nature and components. In as much aswe get closer to topics that involve aspects with psychological and subjective dimensions, we will need a broader teaching demand, and the construction of learning based on more complex competencies. Definitely, when educating with values, success will be related to the level of competencies that the teachers have to form students in the complex world of values.

Evaluation of civic and ethical competencies: principles and instruments.

How do we evaluate the civic and ethical competencies that students learn and develop from the participation in educational processes when educating with values through scenarios?

Without a doubt, answering this question implies, on one hand, to have the characteristics of competencies’ assessment completely clear, and, on the other, to dispose of certain domain of the instruments that can be used to teach it.

In this sense, the strategy of education with values presented here assumes six key principles about the characteristics of evaluation of civic and ethical competencies, considering the orientation that are provided by the current official educational programs in our country, and supported by specialized literature. (Bolívar, 1998; San Martí, 2007; Zabala y Arnau, 2007).

1. Evaluating competencies inside problematic situations.

Learning civic and ethical competencies must be assessed byplacing the students in scenarios which show problematic situations more or less similar to those they can face in real life, that force them to analyze value choices, to perform ethical reasoning, and make decisions about the behavioral schemes more appropriate to solve those situations. That is, it is required to make a contextualized assessment from the experience of attitudes and values.

2. Evaluating competencies from the expected learning outcomes.

Each scenario establishes a group of expected learning outcomes and tasks constituting in the referents that the teachers could use to determine appropriate products and activities to obtain evidence, as well as the types of instruments and indicators of achievement. The foregoing, with the objective of aligning the teaching–learning–evaluating processes, performed in each scenario.

3. Evaluating competencies clearly defining the assessment activities.

This means that the teachers must define the products or evidences that they consider the most appropriate to observe the learning achieved by the students from their performance in each scenario. The assessment activities of competencies could be diverse, depending of the educational level, including written and graphic productions, collective projects, scripts, documentary investigations, records and attitude schemes of students, among others, that could be compiled in portfolios, or activity notebooks on an individual, team, or group level.

4. Evaluating competencies according to the type of knowledge.

Competencies consist of conceptual, procedural and attitudinal knowledge. Therefore, the teachers must specify the type and degree of knowledge they expect studentsto obtain from each of them. Considering that the manner each component learned is different, the teacher must evaluate them through activities and specific instruments, that allow observation and evaluation in the most integrated way possible, that informs of the knowledge students were capable of learning and mobilize in a specific scenario, or context where the performance of competencies are realized.

5. Evaluating competencies through instruments of formative and alternative assessment.

First of all, the assessment of competencies must be a formative evaluation that guides students in their process of learning and gradual development of certain competencies. Onthe other hand, it must be an alternative evaluation, understood as a compilation of evidences on how students process and complete real tasks in a given topic, like in the case of scenarios.

Unlike traditional assessment, alternative assessment allows teachers to perform four important evaluation activities: 1.To inform students of competencies to be evaluated.2. To document the students’ progress at a certain time, instead of comparing them with others. 3. To obtain information to adopt decisions on how to enablea learning environment that contributes in a greater manner developing competencies, attitudes and values, instead of punishing the civic, ethical and moral behavior of students. 4. To use instruments with explicit indicators of achievement and also share them with students, teachers, and parents.

Besides, competencies and values assessment must be placed in agreement with the system of values of the school and social communities in which students participate, trying to observe the consequences in the communities, depending on the way that values are applied and practiced.

6. Evaluating competencies implies assuming that learning and development are different in each student.

This requires understanding that students are not human beings that passively receive the environmental influences just like that; on the contrary, they are social agents that actively construct knowledge, attitudes, and values that are considered important to orientate their behavior.

This means that, at present, students build up their personal biographies beyond the institutionalized rules, through complex processes that allow them to set their own system of values, including values, norms, and roles that are offered by family, school, community, and media. Evidently, this process of construction varies depending on the different ages; on the first years it is focused on habits and norms, and in the teenage years it is based on the acquisition of a more complex ethical and moral reasoning.

Instruments to evaluate by competencies

According to Lopez and Hinojosa (2001), the evaluation of competencies is commonly made through two types of instruments of alternative assessment: observation techniques, and performance evaluation techniques. In our case teachers could perform the evaluation of the established competencies in the scenarios mainly through three observation instruments: comparison list, attitude scale, and rubric.

Here after, are presented, in an orientated mode, definitions, examples and general recommendations, to give some general guidance about the instruments that teachers could use to evaluate students’ competencies in each scenario implemented in class.

Check list

It consists of a list or words, phrases or sentences that, as indicators, allow the teacher to identify expected behaviors in the students’ performance in certain areas.

Such indicators must be based on knowledge, procedures, and attitudes that teachers intend to evaluate in the scenario, and must be written on the record sheet judgment, that will allow the assessment of the observed competencies. The phrases in the checklist must specify the sequence of indicators is considered fundamental for the assessment judgment. In front of each phrase,word or sentence, two value columns are included – Yes/No; Achieved/Not Achieved; Competent/Not Competent; etc – in which the observer will take note of everything addressed there, performed or not, by the observed student or group.

Example of check list; group observation

Recommendations to elaborate a checklist:

  • To identify each knowledge and behavior to be observed and make a list of them.
  • To organize the behaviors in the sequence that they are expected to occur.
  • To have a simple procedure to check what was observed.

Scale of assessment

Even though it is similar to the check list, the appreciation scale allows to detect the extent an individual shows each evaluated trait, from its absence or scarcity to the maximum possibility or certain attitude or behavior through a graphical, categorical, or numerical scale, where grading is polytomous. In other words,it is important that the instrument has a separate scale for each trait, attitude, or behavior that will be evaluated.

Example scale of assessment


Recommendations for elaborating a scale of assessment:

  • To determine the trait to be evaluated.
  • To define the trait.
  • To elaborate indicators – clearly observable – from the elaborated definition.
  • To specify the order or sequence of the indicators (if applicable).
  • To validate the logical relationship between the definition of the trait and the elaborated indicators through an expert’s judgments (content validation).
  • To select the type of scale to evaluate each indicator. The appreciation scales must be polytomous, rather numerical, categorical, or graphical.
  • To diagram the instrument.

Rubric

The rubric is an evaluation instrument based on a criteria scale and performance levels that allow determining the quality of students’ performance on specific tasks.

Regarding format or design, the rubric is characterized by three key elements that are placed on the left side; performance levels, in the upper side, and values or scores by level of performance in each evaluated criteria.

It is important to point out that rubric is an evaluation instrument designed among teachers and students, where in a negotiated and explicit manner, are established criteria and levels of performance that will be useful to evaluate the success of students in each criterion.

Example of rubric, bulletin board.


Recommendations for elaborating a rubric:

  • To select the objectives supporting the task or job that has to be completed.
  • To identify all the possible criteria to represent the behaviors or performances expected from the students while completing the task.
  • To organize criteria by levels of effectiveness.
  • To assign a numeric value according to the level of performance.
  • Each level must have behaviors or performance expected from the students, described.
  • Students should know in anticipation the evaluation criteria. Self-assessment using the rubric is recommended to the student.

II. DIDACTIC AND CURRICULAR ORGANIZATION IN THE SCENARIOS BASED ON CIVIC AND ETHICAL COMPETENCIES.

The presented strategy for education with values, it is supported by the approach based on competencies from the subject of Civic and Ethical Formation, and it is structured in three different sections. In the first one, the scenarios curricular organization is explained for the formation of civic and ethical competencies; in the second section, the teaching strategy suggested for working in the scenarios in the classroom, is presented. Finally, the topics’ organization of scenarios is desribed, according to the purposes and contents of this topic.

Curricular organization of scenarios for the formation of competencies and values.

Scenarios are organized according to two different criteria.

Organization criteria 1: Gradual development of the competency

Scenarios are organized according to the criteria of the gradual development of the civic and ethical competencies, which are established in the Civic and Ethical Formation subject (SEP, 2009). As an example, the next table shows a quick and global vision from the topics, values, and expected learning outcome for the gradual development of competency 1 (knowledge and care of one’s self) throughout school years.


Organization criteria 2. Values’ selection according to the Civic and Ethical Formation.

Scenarios promote the formation of students in the established values in the Civic and Ethical Formation: respect to human dignity, justice, freedom, equality, solidarity, responsibility, tolerance, honesty, appreciation and respect to natural and cultural diversity (SEP, 2009).

According to the Axiological Model from Integral Education proposed by Gervilla (2000), these values will be part of a greater group of values (with their respective counter values), classified from five dimensions of the person, as bodily values, intellectual affective, individual, esthetic, moral, social, instrumental-economic, and religious (see Seijo, 2009). According to this classification, we can understand, for example, that freedom is an individual and freeing value, meanwhile tolerance and justice are cosindered as moral values.

Values Categorization based on the Axiological Model from Integral Education of Gervilla(2000)

Teaching structure of scenarios

The didactic structure of the scenarios used for the formation of competencies, civic and ethical values is based on key elements concentrated on Scenarios by Competencies Table, expecting that these could guide and facilitate its application to the teachers of the corresponding grades and blocks. This structure is now presented.

Description of scenario

It describes in general terms the group of topics and activities that students should complete through the scenario, and it is useful, therefore, to guide the teacher’s job.

Field

It specifies the name of the field corresponding with the scenario.

Competencies

It details the main and related competencies, whose acquisition is promoted through the scenario.

Expected learning

Enlists the expected learning from the scenario, associated to the expected learning of the field.

Values

Enlists the values in which the scenario is focused on.

Scenario

It consists in dilemmatic situations that students must actively solve, and with the help of teachers, relatives or community members, and who facilitate the construction of their own and shared meaningful learning about certain values. In other words, scenarios consist in problematic situations about personal and social life, in which students have to make decisions involving an ethical position, or a value judgment, through the development and application of civic and ethical specific competencies.

Teaching strategy

The teaching strategy offers a detailed sequence of the initial, developing and closing activities, that, as a suggestion, the teacher could use to implement the scenario in the classroom, including more activities for the practice of competencies in scenarios in school life, and in everyday life of students. The activities are designed to facilitate the evaluation of the conceptual, procedural, and attitud in all learning expected from them, implied ineach scenario. It is important to remember that these activities could be adjusted, according to the teacher’s experience, the contextual conditions and situations of the school and the formative needs of the classroom, with the aim that the scenario be sufficiently flexible for the effective teaching of values.

The teaching strategy of scenario in terms of beginning, developing and closingis designed to be implemented in the classroom lasting approximately 45 minutes; however, the school activities or everyday activities must be completed and checked in later sessions of the same subject of Civic and Ethical Formation, or in other subjects, through transversal job.

Evaluation

The evaluation of civic and ethical competencies learning is made in a formative way through the compilation of evidences related to activities and products such as:

  • The individual participation of students in the starting activities and the developing of the scenario.

  • The production of written exercises derived from the closing exercises of the scenario, both individual and team activities.

  • Products, activities, and individual or collective products established in the scenarios applying the civic and ethical competencies in school or everyday life of students. These products must be evaluated through rubrics or checklists designed by the teacher according to the indicators of performance, or performance criteria depending on their school grade and individual development. Through these rubrics, or checklists, the teacher will be able to determine the necessary concepts, procedures, and values to evaluate the civic and ethical competencies in each scenario.

  • For the follow up and control of group and individual evaluations, the teacher could use the evidence portfolio of each student, and could have a class portfolio, where the teacher gathers the products generated from team and group activities.
Topic organization of scenarios

Scenarios of education with values pretend to form students in the competencies for life, ethical behavior, and responsible citizenship. To fulfill this, the proposed scenarios have topics related with healthcare, accidents prevention, exercise of freedom through responsible decision making, organization and cooperation to complete an activity, protection of public and natural resources, dialogue to face conflict resolution, solidarity, and participation in natural disasters, rights and obligations or children, and youngsters, and democracy as an exercise to reach agreements for welfare.

This topics are adapted to the purposes and contents established in the subject of Civic and Ethical Formation, and they were chosen with the purpose to facilitate the implementation of scenarios in a vinculated and complementary way to the ctivities of the subject (SEP, 2009). In this sense, it is necessary to point out that for following the model of education with values, the teacher has the freedom to apply scnearios in a flexible manner, adapting, or creating formative activities or procedures different to the ones presented in the section of Teaching Strategy, considering the characteristics of the group, the conditions or the classroom, the timing, and the material resources of the students, and school, among other conditions.

A variety of possibilities is suggested in each scenario, from these, the teachers could choose those ones that could be adapted to the students’ necessities, and interests, with the objective of fulfilling the expected learning of students.


  • Field I

    Boys and girls develop their identity and prevent risks.

  • Competencies:

    Focus: Knowledge and care for yourself.

    Related: Management and problem solving.

  • Values:

    Respect for yourself and others, healt hcare and personal integrity.

  • Learning outcomes:

    Applies information on different means of healthcare and addiction prevention.

Scenario 1

Addiction prevention

Description

In this scenario, Jose, a 12 year old teenager, is pressured by his Uncle Enrique to drink some beer. The scenario is enriching because it intends for children to be come aware of social pressure that causes suffering to friends and family. Also, to learn, promote and practice values of respect for themselves and others, as well as of health care and personal integrity.

Scenario

At Jose's house his parents organize family gatherings every weekend. His Uncle Enrique, who was in town visiting, attended last weekend's party. He lives in a town in the middle of the state.

On Saturday afternoon, everybody arrived at Jose’s house. All the men immediately went under a mesquite tree to drink some beer and some to smoke, while women went to the kitchen to cook.

  • Workbook activities:

    Ask students, in an individual way to make a brochure to propose activities for addiction prevention, focusing on the values learnt in class.

    What did I learn in class?

  • Activities in the school environment:

    Make a consensus about the information on everybody’s individual brochures and make a single brochure as a team.

    Share them to all students in school.

“Jose, come here!” Uncle Enrique shouted, “Come on, hurry up!”.

“Yes, uncle... I’m going” Jose answered, coming to where Uncle Enrique was. “Yes?”.

“Look, Jose, drink from my beer” Uncle Enrique said offering him his drink. “Come on, give it a good sip!”.

“No, uncle, thanks!” Jose answered embarrassed.

“But why not, kid?” exclaimed Uncle Enrique, and he took Jose’s arm. “I’m telling you to drink it!”.

“Leave him alone, if he doesn’t want to, don’t force him”, intervened Jesus, Jose’s father.

“How come he doesn’t drink? Come on! He is already a big boy!” Uncle Enrique said, a little upset.

“But I don’t want to do it, uncle!” Jose said, trying to convincing him. “I don’t like it!”.

“Let the child alone, Enrique” said Jesus. “I’m going to buy some ice, I’ll be back.”

Then, uncle Enrique took advantage of his brother leaving to pressure Jose.

“Look, Jose, you have to drink upon your own will, or I will force youto!” Uncle Enrique said.

“I told you that I don’t want to! I don’t like it!”, Jose defended himself.

“If you don’t drink, you are not a man!” said his Uncle “Look, … Felipe, come here son!”.

“Yes, dad” Felipe answered.

“Look, son…take it, drink up” He was commanded; while giving him a cup of beer. “Show your cousin that you are a real man!”.

Felipe took the cup and gave it a big sip. Jose just stared at his cousin. Uncle Enrique, proudly showing off his son.

“So what, Jose?” said Felipe “Will you do it or not?”.

  • Evaluation Suggestions:

    Individual participation during questions Activity.

    Drawing general conclusions.

    Evaluation, through a rubric, of the elaboration of the brochure and focusing on the values learnt in class.

    Elaborating a brochure as a team.

Opening

  • Activate students previous knowledge from the scenario, using the following questions as a guide:

    Do you know how peer pressure works?

    Do you think children your age deal with peer pressure? Which ones?

Application

  • Ask a student to read aloud the scenario “To prevent addictions”, for the rest of the students.
  • Form teams and ask students to share opinions about the following questions to reflect and support the comprehension of the topics and values of the scenario:

    What is the problem presented in this scenario?

    Is it Uncle Enrique’s attitude correct? Why?

    Do you think that Jose has to drink beer, to demonstrate that he is a man? Why?

    Is Jose’s attitude correct? Why?

    Is the attitude of cousin Felipe correct? Why?

    What should Jose’s father do?

    Which values do the characters of this scenario practice?

Closing

  • A representative of each team will present their answers to the questionsin front of the class.
  • As a team, elaborate conclusions about the scenario, focusing on the respect for you and others; healthcare and personal integrity. Write them down on the notebook.
  • Field II

    Girls and boys learn to be free, independent and fair.

  • Competencies:

    Focus: Self-Regulation and responsible exercise of freedom.

    Related: Adherence to legality and sense of justice.

  • Valores:

    Freedom, responsibility, justice and respect.

  • Learning outcomes:

    Recognizing that respect to laws and human rights in their close context favors the coexistence.

Scenario 2

The accident

Description

In scenario “The accident”, Mariana’s father has a horrible accident, being a victim of irresponsibility and injustice of Mr. Roberto. The scenario is enriching because it intends children to become aware of some values like freedom, responsibility, justice and respect.

Scenario

Sofia and Mariana are studying in 5th grade in the same school and the same group. Both have been friends since first grade.

One day, at Mariana’s house, her father says to his wife: “Today we are finally opening the taco restaurant, woman, it has cost us so much effort, hopefully we will do well, so we can continue to afford Mariana’s school. I would like her to become a great doctor as she wants”.

Mariana’s mother answered: “Of course, my dear, you’ll see we will improve our daughter’s future…”

“Indeed, woman. Well, its five o´clock in the afternoon and I haven’t gone to get meat for the tacos, I´ll be back real quick”.

“Yes, my dear, be careful…”

  • Workbook activities:

    Ask students to write an ending for the scenario, using dialogues in which they could appreciate the way to solve the problems that both families are experiencing, and then, focus on the values of the exercise of freedom, justice and respect.

    What did I learn in class?

  • Activities in the school environment:

    Investigate the definitions of the next values, and include aside of these definitions cut outs and drawings about situations in which these values are respected:

    • Respect
    • Responsibility
    • Justice
    • Freedom

On the way, a dramatic accident occurs. Sofia´s father was driving irresponsibly and crashed his truck into Luis’s car, Mariana´s father. Luis got hurt real bad and was admitted in the hospital, because of the several fractures presented.

In the hospital lobby, Mariana’s mother told her daughter: “I don’t know that we are going to do, honey, your father is going to need a lot of medicines and we don’t have enough money…”

Mariana asked: “and what about the man who crashed against dad? Is he going to pay for dad´s injuries, mom?”

Her mother answered: “Look, honey, there he comes, lets ask him… Sir! Good evening…”

Roberto approached Mariana and her mother, saying: “Good evening ma´am, I’m so sorry for what happened, I promise you I’ll take care of everything, I will pay for the hospital expenses and I’ll replace your car. I only ask you to tell your husband to with draw the charges against me with the police so I can continue working and pay you everything. Also, my daughter Sofia told me she is classmates and great friends with your daughter Mariana… I assure you, I will pay you…”

Mariana’s mother answered: “Let me talk to my husband, I don’t think there will be problem, I hope it won´t. Also, as you say, our daughters are great friends”.

Mariana´s mother talked to her husband, and they agreed to drop the charges against Roberto with the appropriate authorities. Days and weeks passed by and they did not receive any news, and every time they try communicating with Roberto, they didn’t get an answer. The hospital bill increased every day, and Mariana’s mother didn’t know what to do to get money for medicine and school expenses for her daughter…

One day, Mariana’s mother decided to wait for Roberto at the school´s door where their daughters study…

When she saw him, she approached him, and said: “Good afternoon, Mr. Roberto, it’s good to see you, we have been looking for you for the last three weeks and we don’t get any answer not even by phone. I only wanted to know when you are going to pay for the accident damages since we really need the money…”

Mariana interrupted, saying: “Yes sir, my family really needs the money, you have to pay…”

  • Suggested Evaluation:

    Participation of boys and girls to answer the questions from the scenario.

    Elaboration of the ending of the scenario in the workbook.

    Results of the investigation about the values’ definition.

Sofia responded to Mariana´s comment: My dad doesn´t have to pay your parents, Sofia…

Mr. Roberto added: Ma´am leave us alone, it’s a thing from the past, I don’t owe you anything, get to work instead so you can pay your expenses. I don’t have to pay you anything, and if you keep bothering I will have to sue you…

When listening to Sofia´s dad, Mariana said to her: I don’t want you to speak to me again Sofia, I don’t want to be your friend anymore!...

She replied: Well, you also stop talking to me, Mariana…you and your mom are rude…

Seeing this situation, Mariana´s mother, disappointed, said to her daughter: Honey lets go, we will talk to your father about this…

Teaching Strategy

Opening

  • Activate children´s previous knowledge using the brainstorming technique. Use the next questions as a guide:

    What is freedom?

    What is justice?

    What is respect?

    What is responsibility?

Application

  • Ask students through listening to show their classmates the scenario “The accident”.
  • Ask students to share opinions about the next questions to reflect and support the comprehension of the scenario’s topics and values:

    What is the problem that the scenario presents?

Is Mariana’s parents’ attitude correct when they dropped the charges against Mr. Roberto? Why?

¿Do you think Roberto did correctly not paying Mariana’s parents? Why?

Do you think Sofia did correctly supporting her father? Why?

Do you think Mariana did correctly to stop talking to Sofia? Why?

What would you do if you were in the same situation as Sofia? Who would you support, your father or you best friend’s father?

What would you do if your family were in the same situation as Mariana?

Which values are focused on the characters of the scenario?

Closing

  • Drawing conclusions in teams about the reflection of the questions. Focus on the importance of values such as freedom, justice and respect, and foster the children’s participation in daily life cases, where they can see these values.
  • Field III

    Boys and girls working towards equity, against discrimination and carefor the environment.

  • Competencies:

    Focus: Respect and appreciation for diversity.

    Related: Self-regulation and responsible exercise of freedom.

  • Values:

    Tolerance, responsibility.

  • Learning outcomes:

    Recognizing situations of discrimination, inequality and intolerance to people and proposing alternative solutions.

Scenario 3

Grandmother Carmen

Description

In scenario “Grandmother Carmen”, Carmen, a 90-year-old lady faces discrimination and abandonment by her sons and daughter. Maria, her only daughter, doesn’t have enough time to stay with her as it should be, and her other sons don’t want to take the responsibility of taking care of her. They argue that Maria, being the only woman, has the obligation of taking care of her. The scenario is enriching because it pretends for children to be aware about discrimination towards elderly people. They will also learn, encourage and take to practice the values of tolerance and responsibility towards the elderly.

Scenario

Grandmother Carmen just turned 90 years old; she has a really big family, with 9 children, 40 grandchildren, 25 great grandchildren and 8 great-great grandchildren. Grandma Carmen would live alone in a small rural community, until she fell down, and broke her hip.

Now, she lives in Maria’s house, her only daughter, and her two grandchildren: Juan and Luisa. However, the grandmother is alone for the most part of the day since Maria has to work very early every day, and comes back until five in the afternoon.

Meanwhile, Juan and Luisa don’t spend time with her either, because either they are at the university or they go to the gym or do other activities in order to avoid her, because grandma requires a lot of attention, mainly to be heard. She loves to tell stories about her youth times...

Maria has complained constantly with her brothers that she doesn’t have all the responsibility for taking care of Grandma Carmen. However, they are always saying that she has the responsibility of taking care of her, because she is the only woman.

Grandma, aware of the situation lately seems sad, and doesn’t want to eat…

  • Workbook activity:

    Investigate about the following questions:

    - What are the forms of discrimination against the elderly, and what are they about?

    - What initiatives have been implemented to include elders, and what are they about?

    What did I learn about this lesson?

  • Workbook activity:

    In teams, ask for the elaboration of a poster where they can display different activities for elders’ inclusion. Focus on the values learnt during the class.

    Expose it in a school´s cultural activity. Ask students to share the topic and activities developed in class with their family.

  • Evaluation Suggestions:

    Individual participation during the questions activity.

    Elaborating the ending of the scenario created by the team. Evaluating trough a rubric or checklist if they emphasize on the values learnt.

    Workbook activity.

    Making bulletin boards in teams.

Opening

  • Activate students’ previous knowledge using the brainstorming technique. Starting with the following question:

    Do you know what discrimination to elders is about?

Application

  • Ask a student to read aloud “Grandmother Carmen” for the rest of the class.
  • Ask students to share opinions about the following questions to reflect and support the comprehension of the topics and values of the scenario:

    Which is the problem that is represented in the scenario?

    Is it correct that grandma Carmen had been alone for so long before her accident? Why?

    Is the treatment grandmother Carmen receives from Maria and her children correct? Why?

    Are Maria’s brothers right when they say that she has the absolute responsibility to care for Grandma Carmen because she is the only woman? Why?

Closing

  • Form teams and ask students to create an ending for the scenario in which they propose a solution to the problem, focusing in the importance of values like tolerance and responsibility. Write it down on their workbooks.
  • A representative for each team will expose to the whole class the ending proposed for the scenario. Draw conclusions as a team.Write it down on their workbooks.
  • Field IV

    Boys and Girls working toward sequity, against discrimination and caring for the environmental.

  • Competencies:

    Focus: Sense of belonging in the community, the nation and inhumanity.

    Related: Politic and social participation.

  • Values:

    Respect and environmental care, Responsibility, social participation.

  • Learning Outcomes:

    Identifying factors that help the development of interdependent relationships between people and social groups.

Scenario 4

El Cielo

Description

In the scenario “El Cielo”, Karla’s parents find themselves in the dilemma of supporting the construction of a tourist complex, which implies damaging a part of the ecological reserve, but it guarantees them a job; or joining the town people to defend the respect and protection of wildlife in El Cielo. The scenario is enriching because it pretends for children to learn, promote and practice the values of respect and caring for the environment, responsibility and social participation, and propose solutions to the cases as the one presented in this scenario.

Scenario

Mr. Jose, Karla’s father, works as a tour guide at the ecological reserve called “El Cielo”, one of the principal ecological reserves of the world, located in the municipality of Gomez Farias, Tamaulipas. Her mother, Mrs. Antonia, makes food to sale to tourists and sometimes also hosts them in her house, for a cheaper cost.

One day, during dinner, Mr. Jose tells Mrs. Antonia that at work, he heard a foreign company wanted to build a holiday resort — hotels, restaurants and themes parks—. But, in order to do that, they would have to destroy part of the reserve.

Days passed by and the town people found out about the Project. They organized a few meetings and decided to talk to the Major and tell him they were in disagreement.

Due to the constant protests, the project representatives talked to the people and said they would guarantee them jobs if they didn’t oppose to the construction.

Some accepted the offer, but most did not. Karla´s parents don’t know what to do.

If they decide to support the construction, Mr. Jose would have a better job with more income and would be able to support his family even more. Or, stay with his eventual income as a tour guide and join the protest team against the construction of the resort, to defend the respect and protection of the flora and fauna of El Cielo...

  • Workbook activities:

    Form teams and ask students to investigate about sustainable development to answer the following questions:

    Which are the solutions to the problem presented in this scenario?

    Students must be able to consider the values of respect, environmental care, and the responsibility that this implies.

    What I did learn from the lesson?

  • Activities in the school environment:

    In teams, ask for the elaboration of a poster with the proposed solutions to the problem in the scenario.

    Expose it in a school´s cultural activity.

  • Evaluation Suggestion:

    Individual participation during the questions activity.

    Evaluation, through a rubric, of proposals for solutions based on the investigation.

    Elaboration of a poster in teams.

Opening

  • To activate student’ previous knowledge implementing the brainstorming technique, using the following questions:

    Have you heard of the ecological reserve “El Cielo”?

    Do you know why is it recognized as a World Heritage?

Application

  • Ask a student to read aloud the scenario “El Cielo” for the rest of the students.
  • Ask students to share opinions about the following questions, to reflect and support the comprehension of the topics and values in the scenario:

    What is the problem presented in the scenario?

    Which decision must Karla’s parents take? Why?

    Do you think the construction project that will generate jobs should be done, although it damages the reserve’s wildlife and vegetation? Why?

    Which values can you observe in the topic of this scenario?

Closing

  • Draw conclusions about your reflection in teams.
  • Register the conclusions in your notebook.
  • Field V

    Solution of conflicts with adherence to human rights and without violence.

  • Competencies:

    Focus: Problem solution and management.

    Related: Social and politic participation, adherence to legality and sense of justice.

  • Values:

    Solidarity, social participation, justice.

  • Learning outcomes:

    To cooperate and participate in activities that demand starting a consensus and teamwork.

Scenario 5

Uncle Salomon’s Family

Description

In the scenario “The Uncle Salomon’s Family”, Salomon is having an economic crisis and he is forced to live in his brother Antonio’s house. The conflict begins when Pedro, Antonio’s son, doesn’t agree to live with the family of his uncle Salomon. The scenario is enriching, because it intends to promote the reflection on the values of solidarity, social participation and justicein the children as well as to promote and practice these values in different areas of their daily life.

Scenario

A Thursday afternoon, while Maria’s family finished dinner at home, Uncle Salomon arrived.

“Hello, good afternoon!” Uncle Salomon said, greeting everybody.

“Uncle!” shouts Maria, on her way to greet him. “Didn’t you bring Lupita?”

“No, Maria, she stayed at home with your aunt and Felipe”, answered Uncle Salomon. “Antonio, brother, I came to talk to you”.

“How are you doing, Salomon!” answered Antonio, Maria’s father. “Come with me to the living room”.

Uncle Salomon looks worried and sad. Mr. Antonio brought him a cup of coffee.

“What’s the matter, brother, what do you want to talk about?” asked Mr. Antonio. “Is there any problem?”

“I’m having a rough patch, Antonio, I don’t have a job any more, my savings are running out, and the kids need many things for school, I have to pay rent…” sadly said Uncle Salomon.

Maria listened carefully in the kitchen.

“I don’t know what to do, I’ve been looking for a job, but I can’t find one. I’m desperate”.

“Keep calm, brother, we will see how to solve this, you and your family are not alone, we are here for you” said Mr. Antonio. “If you want, you can move into our house, we´ll make some room for you while you find something…”

“Thank you so much, Antonio!” answered Uncle Salomon. “Thanks for your support, I´ll speak to my family about this and I will tell you what we have decided”.

Both continued talking for a while. At sunset, Uncle Salomon left to his house to talk to his family about the proposal of Mr. Antonio. At Maria’s house, her father explained them the situation of Uncle Salomon.

“Look, children, your Uncle Salomon is going through a hard time” explained Mr. Antonio. “So I told him he could stay in our house for a while, until he finds a job and everything gets better”.

“Awesome, my cousins are going to live here! said Maria excited. “We can play all day!”

“Yes, Maria, you will go to school together and then play all afternoon”, answered Antonio. “I already talked to your mother and she says that you, Pedro, will share your room with Felipe, and Maria, you will share rooms with Lupita. So your uncle and aunt can stay in the guest’s room”.

    -
  • Workbook Activities:

    What would you do if a member of your family is in the same situation as Uncle Salomon?

    What did I learn from this lesson?

  • Activities in the school environment:

    Write a narrative about a difficult family situation that you have been through, and what the solution to the problem was. Reflect about whether it was the best way to solve it.

  • Evaluation Suggestion:

    Individual participation during the activity of the answers written in teams.

    Evaluation of the activity in the workbook.

    Narrative about a hard family situation they have been through, and the solution.

“No! I don’t want to share my room dad!” claims Pedro. “I like having my room to myself. On top of that, Felipe is going to want to play with my stuff…”

“I really would like for Uncle Salomon and everybody else to come live with us”, Maria said.

“But Maria, Lupita is going to grab your dolls and paintings!” Pedro insisted. “I say no dad! Also… It’s not our fault that Uncle Salomon has no of job!

Teaching Strategy

Opening

  • Activating students’ previous knowledge about the following questions:

    How many family members live in their house (father, mother and children)?

    Have you ever shared your house with other families?

    Have you ever had problems with them?

    What was the solution?

Application

  • Ask a student to read aloud the scenario “Uncle Salomon’s family” for the rest of the class.
  • Ask students to share opinions about the following questions, to reflect and support the comprehension about the topics and values in the scenario:

    What is the problem presented in the scenario?

    What do you think about Mr. Antonio’s attitude towards his brother?

    What would you do if you were Antonio?

    What do you think about Pedro’s attitude? Is it correct? Why?

    What do you think about Maria’s attitude?

Why is it so important that the family gives support to members that need it?

Which values are practiced by the characters in the scenario?

Closing

  • Make conclusions about the reflection in teams, emphasizing the values of solidarity, social participation and justice. Write them down in the workbook.
  • Field VI

    Problem solving related to human rights and without violence.

  • Competencies:

    Focus: Social and political participation.

    Related: Conflict management and solution.

  • Values:

    Solidarity, social participation, justice.

  • Learning outcomes:

    Cooperate and participate in activities demanding consensus and teamwork.

Scenario 6

Everybody united against mosquitoes

Description

In the scenario “Everybody united against mosquitoes”, children face the dilemma of doing or not the actions to combat mosquitoes. The stage is enriching, because it intends to promote the reflection about the values of solidarity, equity and justice in children as well as to promote and practice values in different areas of their daily life.

Scenario

It was Saturday morning… Carlos and Fernando were playing on the sidewalk, in front of their house. The news in the radio came on and the announcer forecasted the weather for next twenty-four hours. He announced heavy rain through out the whole city. The kids were playing in puddles last nights rain left, carefully sailing little paper boats on the surface. Clouds of mosquitoes were also on the same surface; some of them were flying near Carlos and Fernando.

Carlos shouted: “I just got stung by the mosquitoes, look at the mosquito bites in my arm!”.

Fernando said: “You don’t stand anything Carlos, there sure will be more mosquitoes if it continues raining”.

Carlos asked: “and what will we do?”.

Fernando said: “Well, we have to hold on like men...”

In that moment, Lucia and Ana arrived… Lucia said: “There are also a lot of mosquitoes in the park, we are all bit by them. There has been a lot of stagnant water in the fountain for many days, we need to do something for about it… don´t you think?”

“Let’s make a squad to finish them!” said Ana...

“How boring! And why us?” said Fernando.

“Fernando is right” said Carlos, “let’s continue playing with our little paper boats”

Lucia said: “You, as always, never help!”.

Fernando said: “Well, if you really want to do something, go do it yourself! But let us to play alone…”

“You are so rude, I hope the mosquitoes eat you!” answered Ana.

“Now it turns out that you want to save the world from the mosquitoes, ha, ha, ha, don’t make me laugh… everybody will call you the “mosquito terminator” ha, ha, ha”, Carlos laughed.

“And you, “the mosquitoes’ bodyguards”…” answered Lucia.

In that, Mariana and Toño arrived…

“What’s the matter, why are you fighting?” asked Toño.

“We can hear your discussion from a block away” said Mariana.

Lucia answered: “They are so rude, Ana and I want to organize a squad to terminate mosquitoes, there are more and more each day, and Carlos and Fernando don’t want to participate... I thought on using the pesticide and poison for ants from my garage. The tag says it kills any insect in seconds. Besides, we can take advantage that my mother is not home, so we won´t get in trouble.”

“It’s sounds like a good idea, if you want, I can help you.” said Mariana.

  • Workbook activities

    Investigating about dengue: symptoms, prevention and characteristics of mosquitoes as a transmission agent.

    What I did learn about this lesson?

  • Activities in the school environment:

    Based on investigation, elaborate posters for prevention against dengue.

    Place them at school and in the community.

  • Evaluation Suggestion:

    Participation of girls and boys to answer the questions of the scenario.

    Investigation about dengue

    Elaboration of posters in teams.

“Not me” said Toño, “I prefer to play with Carlos and Fernando…”

“¡Well said, Toño!” shouted Fernando. “Although, we could make another squad to terminate mosquitoes, but, instead of using insecticide, we can use some tools for cover the puddles and ask for some lime o something to throw on the puddles. We can ask my dad to see what he suggests”.

“If so, I’m joining your team...” answered Carlos. “Let’s go!”

“You are such a copycat, but we will beat you... come on, girls” Lucia said.

Teaching Strategy

Opening

  • To activate students’ previous knowledge using the brainstorming technique. Use the next questions as a guide:

    Do you think people have to get organized to solve problems of the common good? Why?

Development

  • Ask a student to read aloud the scenario “Everybody against mosquitoes” for the rest of the class”.
  • Ask students to share opinions about following questions, to reflect and support the comprehension about topics and values in the scenario:

    What it the problem in this scenario?

    Why should we get rid of mosquitoes?

    Should boys accept the decision of the girls?

    Which is the best idea to get rid of mosquitoes, boys’ or girls’ idea? Why?

Should Fernando ask his father what to use to get rid of mosquitoes? Why?

What plan would you propose to get rid of mosquitoes?

Why is it important for groups of people to meet and discuss community problems to find possible solutions?

Which values do the characters of this scenario practice?

  • Work in teams to discuss the scenario and give it an ending.

Close

  • In plenary session, a member for each team exposes his/her answers.
  • Draw conclusions in teams about the reflection, focusing in the values of solidarity, social participation and justice. Write it down on your workbook.
  • Field VII

    Boys and girls learn to be free, self-sufficient and just.

  • Competencies:

    Focus: Adherence to legality and sense of justice.

    Related: Self-regulation and responsible exercise of freedom.

  • Values:

    Justice, Equity.

  • Learning outcomes:

    To express through dialogue his/her point of view about daily life situations involving conflicts of values.

Scenario 7

Different behaviors

Description

In the scenario “Different behaviors” Linda, a little girl that studies 5th grade suffers because of her parents’ unfair treatment to her, they are more condescending and pay more attention to her sister Alejandra. The scenario is enriching, because it intends to promote on children the reflection on values of justice and equity, also to foster and practice those values in different areas of their daily life.

Scenario

Linda is a short, quiet and smart girl and studies the 5th grade of elementary school. She is a responsible student, got the best grades in her group. When she arrives home from school, she takes off her uniform, eats lunch with her family and then, does her homework. If she has time, she goes outside to play with her friends that live near and always returns home at curfew. Linda´s favorite hobby is drawing. Julio, her best friend, always says her drawings are amazing, but her parents don’t pay too much attention to her drawings.

Alejandra is Linda’s big sister and courses the second grade of junior high school,she is a very happy and popular teenager in school.

Unlike Linda, Alejandra is a student that doesn’t do homework and doesn’t like to study, but her parents don’t demand her good grades in school since she is a high performance athlete and belongs to the national athletics team, and has won some medals.

When she comes home from school, eats lunch according to her diet recommended by her coach and goes to practice all afternoons to the sports unit. Her parents go and cheer for her in all her competitions, while Linda stays at her grandparent’s house doing homework and drawing.

Linda and Alejandra share the bedroom. Alejandra is disorderly with her things, and although they once agreed both would clean the room Alejandra rarely does it and Linda ends up doing it. She has complained about this situation to her parents, but every time they end up defending Alejandra, saying she has to be concentrated for her trainings.

One time, Linda got a scholarship and told her parents that with the money she gets she would buy a computer to do her homework. Alejandra listened the conversation, and taking advantage that Linda was outside playing, took her money and spent it all in clothes for a party.

When Linda realized this, went and told her parents. Alejandra at first, denied, but then, accepted she took the money because she needed to pay for some things for her training...

However, her mother realized she was lying, and decided to punish her by forbidding her to go to the next athletics competition. Her father defended her arguing the competition was too important and Alejandra had to go. Her mother insisted she had to be punished…

  • Workbook activities:

    Ask students that, with the help of a member of their family, write an ending for the scenario, and propose a solution for the problem, focusing on the importance of values like justice and equity.

    What did I learn in this lesson?

  • Activities for the school environment:

    To form teams and elaborate a play script about the next topics:

    - Unfair treatment from parents to children.

    - Breaching family laws by children.

    - Propose solutions to problems.

    - To perform the dramatizations in a school´s cultural activity.

    -
  • Evaluation Suggestion:

    Individual participation during the questions activity.

    Individual elaboration of the scenario. Evaluate through a rubric or checklist if the pointed values are being emphasized.

    Elaborate a play script and performance of the dramatization.

Teaching Strategy

Opening

  • Activating students’ previous knowledge using the brainstorming technique. Starting with the following questions:

    What are rules?

    What are laws?

    What is legality?

    What is justice?

Application

  • Ask a student to read aloud the scenario “Different behaviors” to the rest of the class.
  • Ask students to share opinions about the next questions, to reflect and support the comprehension of the topics and values in the scenario:

    What is the problem presented in the scenario?

    Is Alejandra’s attitude correct by giving more importance to sports than to her studies? Why?

    Is it fair that Linda has to do the activities that correspond to Alejandra? Why?

    Is Alejandra’s attitude correct when she stole her sister’s money? Why?

    Is the treatment Linda and Alejandra receive from their parents fair? Why?

    Which values are presented in this scenario?

Closing

  • Drawing conclusions in teamsfrom the reflection, focusing in the values of justice and equity. Write them down in your workbook.
  • Field VII

    Life and democratic government.

  • Competencies:

    Focus: Comprehension and appreciation for democracy.

    Related: Social and politic participation.

  • Values:

    Democratic participation, tolerance, freedom.

  • Learning outcomes:

    To recognize in democratic mechanisms how dialogue, voting, consensus and dissent, is a way to favor making agreements.

Scenario 8

What do we do with the government support?

Description

In the scenario “What do we do with government support?” we see that people from Los Nogales community have a problem agreeing and deciding where to invest the economic support that the government is giving them. The scenario is enriching, because it intends to foster the reflection about the values of participation and exercising democracy, tolerance to different points of view and freedom of will in children. It also intends for children to promote and practice those values in different areas of their daily life.

Scenario

The people of a rural community called Los Nogales are very happy because the mayor just announced the Government would give them an economic support for the needs of this community. For this to happen, they have to decide which need want to meet with this economic support and make a document to present the Government.

Mr. Felipe, the community representative, called a meeting to treat the situation.

“Well, now we just have to send the document to the governor. What will we do with the money they give us?” asked Mr. Felipe

“I think that we must invest it to fix the roads, as you can see when it rains we can’t get on the high ways because the crossings get full of water and we can’t drive through” said Mr. Julian.

“Well, I think we should buy some fattened pigs, raise them and sale themto have more income” said Mr. Pedro.

“No, no, no, I think we must invest it in a machine to bring water out of the well and send it to our houses, so we won’t have to carry it, just like our neighbors from El Fresno did” interrupted Mr. Francisco.

“The best thing we could do is invest in materials and fix our houses”, said Mr. Fernando.

The hours passed by, the discussion became more intense and people didn’t seem to agree.

  • Workbook activities:

    Individually, propose an ending for the scenario, retaking the reflections made in class and the values of participation and democratic exercise, tolerance to different points of view and freedom of will.

    What I did learn about this lesson?

  • Activity for the school environment:

    Discuss student’s proposals.

  • Evaluation Suggestion:

    Individual participation during the questions activity.

    Elaboration of the end of the scenario.

Opening

  • To activate students’ previous knowledge by using the brainstorming technique on the topic of the scenario from the following questions:

    What is democracy?

    Why is the dialogue so important as a means when making decisions?

Application

  • Ask a student to read aloud the scenario “What do we do with the Government support” to the rest of the class.
  • Form teams and ask students to share opinion about the following questions to reflect and support the comprehension on the topics and values in the scenario:

    What is the problem presented in the scenario?

    Which are the functions of a representative like Mr. Felipe?

    What proposals must Mr. Felipe make, so he can decide how to invest the money?

    What aspects must the people consider before making a decision?

    Why is democracy so important?

    Which values are practiced during the democratic process?

Close

  • In plenary, a member of each team exposes his/her answers.
  • In the same way, drawing conclusions, focusing on values like participation and the democratic exercise, tolerance to different points of view, and freedom of will. Enrich students’ participations with ideas associated to democracy, guiding them to reflect about dialogue, vote, consensus and dissent in collectively made decisions.

Appendix 1

Glossary for education in values

Citizenship: It comes from the Latin voice civitas. It is defined in terms of responsibility, in the sense of corresponsabilization.

Citizenship is the belonging to a political community and it is constituted in several terms in different societies. It is linked to freedom (taken as a part of natural right, in other words, universal), or justice, or one and the other, and in this sense, it is identified with the exercise of three classes of human rights.

  • 1. Civil rights. For example: to life, to expression, to property.
  • 2. Political rights. For example: to electoral decision, to political party and union association.
  • 3. Social rights. For example: to work, to education, to health.

Currently, the idea of citizenship covers rights and duties/obligations: considered as coessential for being members of a community. More precisely, we could say that the new citizenship gathers the rights of freedom and equality, with the rights of solidarity. In this sense, the concept of citizenship joins the one of democracy andis characterized by the need of reconciling the demands of participation, on one side and on the other, the ones of justice with the ones of the market.

Civic: Respectful behavior of citizens about the norms of public coexistence.

Competency: Ability to successfully achieve the complex demands through mobilization of the psychosocial prerequisites, in a way that the individual results, reached through action, selection, or behavior according to the demands, are emphasized. Similarly, we can say that it refers to a successful intervention in a concrete problem-situation through actions in which attitudinal, procedural and conceptual actions are mobilized.

Democracy: It is derived from the Greek word demos, which means “town” and kratos that means “town’s government and authority”. Nowadays, the concept of democracy is not limited to a determined form of government; it refers to a set of norms for social and political coexistence.

Democracy as a lifestyle is a form of life based on the respect to human dignity, freedom and rights of each and all of the members of a community.

Democracy as a form of government implies the participation of the people ingovernment action through suffrage and the exercised control over what is done by the State.

Human rights: Set of prerogatives, which are inherent to a person’s nature, indispensablefor the integral development of an individual who lives in a society legally organized. These rights, established in the constitution and laws, must be recognized and guaranteed by the State.

We are all obligated to the respect human rights of others. However, according to the constitutional mandate, the ones with greater responsibility in this sense are the government authorities, that is, men and women in public office. The duty of protecting human rights represents for the State, the demand of providing and maintaining the necessary conditions, in justice, peace and freedom, so that people could really enjoy all their rights. The common welfare supposes that public power must do everything it takes to, gradually, overcome inequality, poverty and discrimination.

Dialogue: It comes from the Latinso dialogues and the Greek διάλογος. Currently, it still has an eminent normative value. The dialogue implies to talk, discuss, ask and answer between associated people in a common interest of investigation. The principle of dialogue implies philosophical and religious tolerance, in a positive and active sense and therefore, not the kind of tolerance where different points of view exist, but the one where equal legitimacy and good will to understand reasons. A growing appreciation of dialogue is accompanied by a growing appreciation and thanks to in that atmosphere- dialogue concretely lives and persists.

Human dignity: "The principle of human dignity" enunciated by Kant means the requirement as a second formula of the categorical imperative: "Act so as to treat humanity, whether in your person or in the person of another, always as an end and never merely as a means".

Education with values: Process to induce civic education in scholars, based on the active participation of their insertion in the social, cultural, political and economical contexts of their community, their province (states) and their nation.

Values education must be understood, from the constructivist perspective, as a set of natural situations and scenarios, assisted by the experience of teachers, allowing students to build their civic personality in interaction with their peers, their teachers and own sociocultural context of the institution and the social group they belong to.

Equity:It comes from the Latin aequitas, from aequus, equal; from the Greek επιεικεία, virtue of justice in a concrete case.

It is customary beneficial temperance. It is a propensity to be guided, or to fail, for the feeling of duty, or awareness, and the rigourous prescriptions of justice and the strict text of law.

It is the appealing to justice to correct the law that expresses justice. The same nature of equity is the correction of law when it is shown to be insufficient by its universal character. The law necessarily has to have a general character, and, because of this, sometimes shows to be imperfect, or with a difficult application to particular cases. In such cases, equity intervenes to judge, not from the law, but from justice and that the same law is conducted to do. Justice and equity are not the same things; equity is superior, not to justice per se, but what is formulated in a law that by reason of universality is subjected to error.

Ethics: Science of behavior. There are two fundamental concepts of this science, namely: 1) the considered end science directed to behavior of mankind and the means to achieve and to deduce such end, both end and means of mankind's nature; 2) the considered impulse science of human behavior and intends to determine it with the aim to direct or discipline behavior itself.

Honesty: Attribute of human quality that consists in behaving and expressing with sincerity and coherence (tell the truth) according to the values of truth and justice.

Identity: It comes from the Latin identitas.Set of traits of an individual or a community.These characteristics differentiate the individual (or groups of individuals) from each other. Identity is also linked toconsciousness that a person has about himself.

National identity is manifestedmainly through language, traditions and customs, common history, general values, aspirations as a people, the ethnic composition of the population, the specific culture they have generated, etc.

Equality: Principle that grants all citizens equal rights.

You can describe the moral and legal equality as that by which an individual who is subject to certain conditions or privileges has the same possibilities as another in the same conditions.

Justice: It originates from the Latin termiustitia and allows denominating one of the four cardinal virtues, one inclined to give everyone his belongings.

It is a value determined by society. It was born from the necessity of keeping peace among the members of a community. It is the group of rules that establish an appropriate frame for people and institutions, authorizing, prohibiting and allowing specific actions in individual and institutional interactions.

Moral: Pertaining or related to the actions or characters of a person, from the perspective of good and evil.

Libertad: Comes from the Latin libertas, -atis, of equal meaning. Capability mankind possess to act according to own will, throughout life; therefore, responsible for own actions.

Reciprocity: It comes from the Latin reciprocitas and it refers to the mutual correspondence of a person or thing with another. It is the principle of universal relationship of things in the world, principle by which a community is formed, an organized whole.

Respect: From the Latin respectus, it means attention, consideration. The term refers to moral and ethical issues. The recognition of self-dignity or someone else’s dignity is a behavior originated in this acknowledgment.

Commonly, respect is known by the endeavor of recognizing others, or himself/herself; a certain dignity that is required to be protected.

Respect is the consideration that someone has a value in itself and is set to reciprocity, mutual respect and mutual recognition.

Responsibility: It is the virtue or habitual disposition to assume the consequences of people’s own decisions, responding for them. It is the ability to respond for their own acts. It is all that concerns me in an exclusive way and that I can’t humanly reject.

Solidarity: Solidarity: The root refers to conduct in-solidum, that is, that the destinies of two or more people join. Therefore, to show solidarity is not only to help, but involves a commitment to that to which you are given the solidarity. In the most basic sense, solidarity is supposed to be practiced without distinction of gender, race, nationality, religion, or political affiliation. Solidarity is moved only by the conviction of justice and equality.

Tolerance: Respect for the ideas, beliefs or practices of others, when they are different, or contrary to the ones we have.

Values: Principles that allow us to guide our behavior in function of self realization. They are fundamental beliefs that help us prefer, appreciate and choose some things instead of others, or one behavior instead of another. They are also a source of satisfaction.

Truth: It comes from the Latin veritas. It is the validity or effectiveness of cognitive processes. By means truth generally the quality by which a cognitive procedure is effective or any succeeds. Truth, in general, is understood as the quality through which a cognitive procedure is efficient or successful.

Virtue: Designates any capability or Excellency that belongs to any thing or being. Its specific meanings could be reduced to three: 1)general capability or potential, 2) Capability or Human potential; 3) Capability or potential, of moral nature.

Appendix 2

Resources to learn more about education in values
Bindé, J. (2004). ¿Hacia dónde se dirigen los valores?, México, Fondo de Cultura Económica

Currently, there is a weakening and a crisis of values, which has been mainly produced by globalization only worried by technical progress; which in essence, has led to an increased materialism that has proven to be incapable of guiding actions and remains indifferent to the strength of values. This value crisis is manifested in the use of terms such as “nihilism”, “loss of meaning”, “values’ disappearance”, or “civilization shock” and values which are supposedly irreducible.

Cappello, H. (2004). El caso de los Congresos Internacionales sobre la Familia del DIF Tamaulipas: Construcción de políticas sociales, identidad colectiva y ciudadanía, Tamaulipas, DIF Tamaulipas

Analyzes the case of International Conferences of DIF Tamaulipas Family, explaining how the institutions in the State-Nation are a fundamental part of the process to create a common collective identity, a civic-political consistent character and an awareness of the most important problems and virtues in the community.

Chávez, M. (2010). Formación cívica y ética. Oferta de actualización para maestros, México, Instituto Nacional de Evaluación Educativa (INNE)

Document that presents the conceptual frame and the results of the documental analysis of the course materials, workshopsand strategy notebooks for teachers of civic and ethical formation. The study was conducted with the purpose of exploring at what extent these materials satisfy the needs of teaching formation to teach that subject. http://www.inee.edu.mx/archivosbuscador/2009/04/INEE200904118-formacioncivicayeticacompleto.pdf

Cortés, M. (2004). Una mirada psicoeducativa a los valores, España, Prensas Universitarias de Zaragoza

Theoretical and practical contents about moral development and its educational side that are seeking empowering personal, moral and ethical growth in students and, at certain point, to point out criteria and ethical education strategies for the professional development in the educational environment with the new technologies.

Education in values and Education for Development.

International organization dedicated to education in values. In its website it offers multiple educational resources (videos, documents) about education in human rights, for the citizenship, for the peace, among other key topics linked to education in values. http://www.educacionenvalores. org/spip.php?rubrique8

Hoyos, G. et al. (2001). La educación en valores en Iberoamérica, Madrid, Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos (OEI)

Different Latin American experts present their perspectives about education with values. Among the analyzed topics, the role of education with values for the construction of democratic societies facing the society of knowledge, are the highlighted topics; in addition, it makes an interesting introduction of some teaching strategies and specific evaluation of education with values.

Luengo, F. y Moya, J. (2008). Escuela, familia, comunidad: Claves para la acción, España, Wolters Kluwer España, S.A.

Democratic education is not the onlysole responsibility and competence of the teachers; but involves all citizens in different levels and with complementary activities: education professionals, family, municipalities, civic associations, trade unions and democratic schools.

This work gathers ideas, resources and experiences that have been used to fight for that final objective since project Atlántida: close collaboration betweenschool, family and society, all together.

Martín, X. y Puig, J.M. (2007). Las siete competencias básicas para educar en valores, Barcelona, Graó

To educate with values, we need certain domain in seven competencies; to be one-self; to recognize others, to facilitate dialogue, to regulate participation, to work in teams, to form a school community and to work in a network. The work proposes that education with values is an essential occupation that teachers suggestfor mastering certain competencies.

Moreno, A. y Méndez, P. (2004). Familia y sociedad: Un estudio sobre los valores de los tamaulipecos, Tamaulipas, DIF Tamaulipas

The prevalent Cosmo-vision in the state of Tamaulipas is analyzed and interpreted, as well as the social manifestations that will be more common in the upcoming years. It reflects ideas, attitudes and values of Tamaulipas’ people in a way that these are known, appreciated and prepared for facing a new century.

Mota, G. (2006). Educación cívica y ciudadana: una visión global, México, Santillana

Proposes the need of strengthening dignity, identity and indispensable civil participation in the social construction of new democratic societies, based on jointly agreed upon and informed decisions. Because of the importance of this topic, this is a book of interest for the teachers of any level and also for scholars, academic, researchers and concerned citizens andbetter said, busy, with the development and consolidation of democratic life, that each day is more rooted in our country and some other Hispanic ones.

Navarro, G. (2000). El diálogo. Procedimientos para la educación en valores, España, Desclée de Brouwer, S.A.

Adolescence is a critical stage in the formation of adult personality and in morality consolidation. It is the critical moment when the individual discovers rationality and autonomy, but at the same time, s/he uses this wonderful capability of thinking by him/herself against traditional thinking, authority and morality. This often results in a crisis of values, whose uncertain culmination could leave their personality and moral judgment rooted in mere conventionalism void of principles. For them, it becomes necessary to elaborate strategies that propitiate and develop the fondness for rational thinking as a means to elaborate norms and discover values to facilitate coexistence and the solution of conflicts through dialogue.

Ochoa, A. (2010). La formación del docente para la asignatura de Formación Cívica y Ética: el caso de Querétaro, México, Congreso Iberoamericano de Educación, Metas 2021

The article reports the opinion of the teachers on the formation to teach the subject Civic and Ethical Formation and it points out some suggestions from the same teachers to improve these processes of formation. http://www.chubut.edu.ar/descargas/secundaria/congreso/DOCENTES/R1223_Ochoa.pdf

Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos (OEI), Valores

This is a web site with several publications of investigations, programs and educational resources on education with values, developed in Latin America. http://www.oei.es/valores.php

Rollano, D. (2004). Educación en valores. Teoría y práctica para los docentes, España, Ideas Propias

It gives a guide about the basic contents of education with values and mentions the very important role values have in the personal and social development of the individual. It presents an approach for education with values and it also covers the need for an integral education.

SEP (2011). Encuentro Educación y Valores para la Convivencia en el siglo XXI, 4-9 abril, México

Experts and international leaders encounter with the Mexican educational community to analyze in a critical way the civic and ethical values required for the Mexican citizen formation in the XXI century. The website grants access to the interesting lectures of the conferences’ keynote speakers and the different panels of discussions and forums analyzingwhat has been made. http://www.educacionyvalores. mx/estructura/actividades-academicas

UNESCO, Valores para vivir

International initiative supported by UNESCO, dedicated to the promotion of education with values. The web page in Spanish contains references to the programs, educational materials and formation courses. http://www.valoresparavivir.org/ index.php?lang=spanish

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Table of Contents

Book of Values

VALUE EDUCATION | Fifth Grade Elementary 25