INTRODUCTION

Today, as in the past, the triad, family, school, and community, is formed by institutions, in which a system of values should be built in order to give legitimacy and viability to the Nation. The school, with its own teaching nature is, without a doubt, the one in charge of guiding the axiological route that allows society to cohesion and build responsible citizens, ready to face the challenges that social, economic, cultural and political changes have brought, and that their participation would be to guarantee a prosperous, pacific and certainly happy country.

The objective of this book oneducating with values, proposed by Tamaulipas Integral Family Development (Sistema para el Desarrollo Integral de la Familia de Tamaulipas, DIF, for its initials in Spanish)is to complement the Tamaulipas Education Ministry’s program of civic education and ethics (SET,for its initials in Spanish). To contribute to the reinforcement school, family and society through education with values is one of the most important tasks of DIF Tamaulipas. School,because of its essence and vocation, because of its function and influence, and because of the time students spend there, becomes the perfect place to reinforce learning values among students, not only in its ethical approach, but also in preparing them as future active citizens participating in their duties with their Nation.

Two dimensions regarding educational systems

There are two dimensions regarding contemporary educational systems that give legitimacy and importance to the formation and preservation of the institutions in society, and to the incorporation of the following generations for their development. The first dimension is stated as the one having the function of transmitting knowledge through appropriate educational models where teaching is the main purpose the second dimension refers to accomplishing the complex process of forming students to integrate them to society as responsible peopleby educating them with values as a unique way of teaching, which prepare them for life, in their development as human beingsand to actively participate in the perfection of their own society.

For both dimensions, teaching and formation, there exists paradoxical situations, which some how limit their application. When teaching, not only does pertinent criteria complicate its functionality, but also –paradoxically- the increasing amount of knowledge that the geniuses of the scientific-technologic revolution constantly generate, and the frequent development of theories on society, culture, economy and politics, which encourages and renews social practice, to the point that school time available for teaching becomes limited. For formation, not only the available time is reduced, but because of its exceptional nature, its teaching becomes somewhat complex, due to the fact that it cannot separate the person who is learning from what has to be learnt, as it happens with other subjects in the curriculum, such as Physics, Chemistry, Biology, etc.

In other words, the aspects of subjectivity, emotions, affections, sensitivity and personal experiences need a different approach from the one who is solely transmitting knowledge. Because of the scarcity of time, it becomes necessary for the student to learn actively, to search for knowledge in available sources: libraries, Internet, cultural sections in the newspaper or magazines, and audiovisual aids from movies, television and theater.

It is clear that a world in constant change needs that the subjects of education become active. The main objective is to encourage and develop own learning, and to develop cognitive (motivational) skills, which prepare them for continuous learning. Simple repetition and memorization, encyclopedic teaching, discipline and textbook centered teaching are not sufficient to achieve new knowledge. This requires knowledge comprehension, giving importance to the significance of processes,students’ organization forms based in self-management of knowledge, the role of libraries as a teaching resource, the qualitative evaluations as well as the quantitative ones, and the careful use of new information technologies in the quest for knowledge.

The formation as an educational dimension doesn’t mean that it is a purely intuitive or reflexive approach. It must rely, the same as other aspects of learning on a group of systematic procedures that could take it to the continuation of a learnt event.

When we talk about the training of students with values, particularly in the first stages of learning, we are referring, not only to the acquisition of certain positive behaviors, butalso to the internalization of a group of values which shall guide them in their life and interactions in all the social areas where they have to be included and participate.

The problem of how to trigger this learning process of values, that becomes affected by the influence of multiple sociocultural behavioral models which are presented to the students on a regular basis, this fact takes us to consider a special way of teaching, that allows us to focus on what must be learnt, and could give them a certain autonomy against the perverse stimuli from other behavioral models. This way of teaching has been explained as learning through competencies.

In the same way that the students will have to learn a number of competencies to obtain a relevant, appropriate and useful education for their lives and their community participation, we must be aware that the teacher must be able to master competencesas well to educate the students with values. This implies the acquisition of a new role as a teacher, that must be not only as a mentor, but also as an adviser, counselor, tutor, friend, and partner in the knowledge construction of students, of course, without trying to replace their learning.

The objective of this book is precisely, not only giving the teacher a group of resources to improve the education with values, but also, to let the teacher work in personal achievement of the group of competencies that are necessary for teaching.

It is evident that the school has been transformed, and together with it, the knowledge that has to be taught to students. The most important actors have changed their roles, some of them for good, and others for worse. However, the school as an institution is still the citizens’ favorite, and also one of the most demanded by them. Its mission of being the place where knowledge is expected to acquirea better position, and opportunities of development within society, all this makes it vulnerable to all the critical situations of the same society. People expect too much from school, and in correspondence, not always has enough resources to satisfy all the demands that education imposes in this new era we are currently living.

Contemporary society imposes growing challenges to educational institutions and to those who are part of them, whether they are principals, teachers, students, or employees. Nevertheless, it keeps on being a niche where the new generations learn how to be part of the change and development of society. To summarize, we could say, that education with values allows us to discover who we are, how to improve, to whom and for whom we do it.

“Tell me which values you have and I will tell you who you are”, as the Stagirite philosopher would say.

The importance of values facing the challenges of contemporary Tamaulipas’ society

Tamaulipas’ society is not isolated from the changes that are happening in all societies in the world. These changes have deeply affected the lifestyles of its inhabitants, their costumes, traditions and rules for living. Having a territory that connects with the United States has brought not only some complications, but economic opportunities as well.

The changes brought by globalization, and particularly by the North America Free Trade Agreement, signed by the United States, Mexico and Canada, caused industrialization to widely develop and social, economic and demographic characteristics of this region radically change. Tamaulipas became a point of attraction to the people in southern Mexico, and also to people in other nations. Its population grew in a way that it affected its previous and well-balanced distribution in its main cities, becoming, an attractive point for employment and economic development. In the south, is the conurbation of Altamira, Tampico and Ciudad Madero, as an effect of the consolidation of oil extraction and petro chemistry industry, as well as for having two of the most important seaports in Mexico. In the north, the bordering region attracted most of the migration motivated by the national and international manufacturing industry implanted there or seeking an opportunity of migrating to the United States.

The speeding process of change in the Tamaulipas’ population to an industrial and service society had noticeable consequences. All this change was not entirely positive. It could be summarized in a relative crisis of values and mistrust towards many of the institutions that regulate daily life.

Education with values is not a simple task. The school has to face the competence of many social agents whose influence is out of proportion because of the resources they have. The media and entertainment have invaded almost all the leisure time of children, teenagers, youth and adults, which contribute to the deterioration of many values and to their extreme relativity. They tend to show habits, costumes and norms that are prone to convert the audience into subjects of consumption, addicts to violent shows, and to the exposition to models of behaviors that are not legally accepted, or they weaken the consolidation of personal social networks.

It is not enough to simply mention that certain examples given in the media, or in neighborhood living, or even in the same family are negative, in order forstudents to avoid them. It is another approach that must be used. The exercise of this axiological teaching proposed covers the need of generating meaningful experiences, involving conditions, necessary reflections, and productive dialogues that result in a conscience of actions and a rationale of their consequences. No one can learn from someone else’s experience. That is, the students have to be able to “make it conscious”, to incorporate it not only to their knowledge background, but also to their everyday behavior when they are faced with conflicts presented in their lives.

Educational investigation has developed several procedures to make more efficient what we can design as complex learning; especially those that can be applied to various vital situations. From this class of transversal learning, values are conformed. Because of this, to make values beunderstood, it is necessary that they are interiorized and become part of the internal norms that control the actions of the person. Techniques that represent relatively complex environments are required, but within a scale that is manageable by the school and classroom environments.

Scenarios have the most versatility, adequacy, and adaptability to accomplish the objectives of an education with values.It is because of this characteristic that this technique has been selected, due to the fact that it allows a process of immersion of students in meaningful situations, in which they can activelysolve problems, dilemmas, and conditions, generating and building their own and shared learning.

The people of Tamaulipas and values.

In a recent study, sponsored by DIF Tamaulipas, onthe values of its states’ population, it was found that persons from Tamaulipas show a strong social orientation to ward traditionalism, which enforces the problems of gender inequality, family violence, child abuse, paternalism, authoritarianism and low civic participation (Moreno Alvarez, 2004).

It was found in other studies from the main cities in Tamaulipas (Cappello, 1993, 1995 y 1996) that the people from this state tend to be passive in their social relationships; in their jobs’ activities, a significant percentage tends to be undisciplined; it is frequent that they avoid making decisions and assuming personal responsibilities. A big part of the population shows a tendency towards magical thoughts, and they blame destiny or bad luck for the failure of their actions. Regarding authority, most of the population shows certain ambivalence, because on one hand, they seem to be submissive in their presence, and on the other, they express hostility when they exercise authority over their subordinates.

They show fear and uncertainty towards the process of change. Their attitude about religion is positive, but often negative concerning church authorities. They love free time, and even though they like to enjoy nature, they don’t show respect for it. In a study conducted in Tamaulipas (Cappello, 1999), the people surveyed surprisingly considered that environmental pollution and destruction of green areas in the state were the least problematic issues.

However, they showed a positive attitude towards industrialization, commerce, and education. They expressed a strong concern about social violence, drug addiction, and organized crime. In general, they grant a low value to personal health.They expose their physical well being to conducts that will surely hurt them, and consider that tobacco, alcohol, and other addictions will cause them relative harm. Preventive health care is not common in many men. Women showed more concern, particularly associated with their roles as mothers, but personally, they consider that loss of health could be fatal.

Referring to ethical universal values, their orientation tends to relativism, where the majority of the population gives them little attention. It seems they are not worried about them.

Education in values must be differenced from teaching of values. In the first case, when students are educated in values, the judgment about men and his nature is the most important thing. We refer to the topics and teaching techniques that are required for the students to be able to systematically guide their behavior with the orientations that society consider as valuable. The teaching of values is focused on the instruction of conceptual, informative, and disciplinary aspects.

With the results of the investigations about values in Tamaulipas, it is seriously considered that education with values should be oriented in a very incisive way towards the formative aspect. It must be focused on the relationship between values and behavior, contextualizing the most conspicuous problems that communities, families, and individuals face.

I. FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATION IN VALUES BASED ON COMPETENCIES

School, education, and values.

Education and values have been considered as an obligated relationship to school since the former doesn’t finish its job in simple transmission of knowledge, but assumes the formation of students as one of its main functions, so that they can successfully face their lives, and maturely participate in a society that will demand from them as committed citizens.

The main aspect of this formation is the learning of values, from individual to collective, which reach their maximum significancefor exercising democratic coexistence.

Concept of values

From a Humanistic perspective, the supreme value is manhood –humanity- and the basic moral foundation of human society is its preservation, development, and perfection. Respect for life would be the value related with that preservation, emanating, extending and transferring to a complex group of facts, experiences, and behaviors pertaining to life, as peace preservation, health, environment, and public safety.

While responsibility to comply norms and obligations that improve the relationships of coexistence, institutions, and jobs, respond to the value of social and material development – the whole society- the quest for a fair and equitable society – in all dimensions of human existence: social, economic, cultural and political- would lead to perfecting human beings as citizens.

The conception of aaxiological pillar, considering the human being as a moral base, lies in three basic dimensions: Respect for life; Vocation for development, and Perfection achievement- Equity and Justice- that allow how to identify the way these values are expressed in different stages of educational development of the individual and society.

The “experienciation” is not achieved with the simple systematic exposition from concepts that integrate the value as a public and specific event represented on a cognitive category. The students should be incorporated with everything involving emotions and affections, in order to experiment what the value means. Education must start from emotions provoked by specific situations when students face dilemmas that offer experiencing values in personal and social life.

Education with values presents serious challenges for the teacher in different school levels. The management of students’ sensitivity implies the comprehension of the degree of emotional and cognitive maturity in the different ages of the students.

During development, children, teenagers and youth, besides absorbing knowledge from everywhere –formal and informal education- have a growing ability to get vital experiences that come from family role models, media, friends and surrounding community, reproducing the behavior of the observed models – consciously and unconsciously- whether good or bad, and interiorizing them as part of their identity and character. Therefore, the simple exposition as a vehicle to model axiological behaviors are insufficient. There must be another way of teaching, and another way of integrating themto the students’ curriculum.

Clyde Kluckhohn (1957), regarding values, considers that the inappropriate conceptions of the relationship between normative and existential propositions come from the disproportioned vision from existing differences and similarities among them. Lepley (1959), rejecting the emphasis that tends to exist between judgment of value and judgment of facts, claims it isa mere extrinsic distinction. According to Thorndike (1932), the judgment of value refers to the consequences of factual situations; and therefore, they are from the same type. The distinction between judgment of value and judgment of facts has a classifying nature; object of the former are the relationships via-end, and the latter, cause and effect relationships.

The integration of values in a system, a major factor in the characterization of particular structures (person, family, institutions), it becomes a necessary condition for the integration of motivations in a determined motivational system, which at the same time acts as a factor of identification of personality.

Finally, integration that forms personality, insofar it confers regularity tosocial behaviors and becomes predictable; becomes a necessary condition for role expectations to be formed around the social actors in interaction. Value integration in the personality system is made by a process of internalization that transforms value in a supplementary motivation of the action. Because of this, we must complement the approach of Kluckhohm with the interpretation that Moscovici gives to this process in the Theory of Social Representations (1986).

In most of contemporary educational systems, the so called values are the ones that are included for learning. And these values are the ones considered to support the proposal of education with the values that we present here.

The program of education with values, while taken in a general way by the educational institutions,isconsidered a triple axis –Organism, Ethics, and Environment- sometimes adding a module on civics. The program here in develops special treatments designed to address typical problems such as citizen morality -civic participation-, family and child violence -, problems in the environment- pollution, destruction of natural habitat, public gardens, recreational centers, forests, rivers, and coasts-, and public health problems and prevention- diseases, body hygiene, and collective health-, and finally, aspects of social and economic change in current circumstances: employment,business, efficiency, support, science and technology, personal development and collective progress. “Experience, contextualization, and active participation are the means for an education with values”. In other words, to incorporate the values to our behavior we must live by them, feel them, and get excited with them, as an intimate and external experience.

The school’s role in promoting values

The school in the 21st century has been transformed like all other institutions that are part of our current society. It is no longer an isolated element that allowed certain isolation from society problems, so a student, calmly, under the direction of the teacher, could learn norms for the reproduction of culture, for preparation, and complying society’s demands outside of school, as well as, adapting to the conditions that family and community impose.

The current school has moved from its initial isolation to the growing demands of a society moving towards post modernism, to the scientific-technological revolution, to the empire of massmedia, to the diversity of cultures, the socio economic ending of national borders, the growing demand of new roles, the cosmopolitanism of costumes, and to the expanding markets of globalization.

The school is involved in a constant demand. It is no longer a guarantee of school education, but has become somewhat a substitution of the family’s responsibility in forming students with values. School is demanded to be a center of knowledge and acceptance of external institutions to the preceding role, like the ones dedicated to healthcare, justice, politics, environment and new values appearing from the society’s internalization processes.

As Gilbert (2001) has said,student centered education, the integrated curriculum from preschool through high school, the construction of knowledge, the heterogeneous grouping, the cooperative study groups, the school as a community, the recognition of diversity, critical thinking, are all important, but, above all these aspects, education is a process of life.

On the other hand, school must instruct students for a democratic life. Gutmann (2001) advises that all the students must be prepared to participate as politically equal citizens, in the deliberate configuration of the future of society.

To sum up, we can say that students must be instructed in critical reflection. Rollano (2004) claims that school, in education with values must form human beings able to acquire those cognitive and affective skills that, in harmony, could help them coexist with the necessary balance and understanding to integrate themas individuals who belong to society, and also as a unique human being in the world surrounding him/her. We can consider that people and the whole society are in the middle of a crisis, and that, evidently, we are suffering a serious value crisis. This causes schoolto emerge with a very important role as a rescuer.

Ten approaches to develop education with values

In the educational environment and among experts in education with values, it is recognized that they are most frequently acquired through example ratherthan through recommendations, admonitions, punishments and rewards or by mere school instruction. There are several conditions that must be fulfilled by an effective education with values. Also, we have to consider the students’ experience, their context, and the events’ familiarity that are used to reach an axiological education. Outside their direct experience, their everyday context, and unusual conditions, or outside family perceptions, all education with values will have as a result undefiled achievements.

There are no written or specific rules to develop a strategy for education with values. However, we could present, as useful suggestions, a group of approaches that the teacher needs to take into account to teach education with values.

The first approach is to consider that it is not an easy or simple task; so, we have to accept that it is a complex task, of totalizing processes, of rich and diverse situations.

The second approach is to consider that education with values responds to a conception of “integrality” (forgive the neologism). In other words, a value could not be conceptualized as a divisible structure. No one could be considered half honest, or thirty percent honest. You are honest, or you are not honest.

The third approach is the consideration that values have the property of being transversal. This is, they could be applied to a great different number of facts, situations, objects and conditions.

The fourth approach refers to multidimensionality. Values possess the characteristic that, regardless the place where they were learnt, they could be applied to different areas of social interaction. The counter-values also have this characteristic, and that’s why they are considered dangerous.

The fifth approach considers the correspondence between universal and relative as a characteristic of values. This refers to the appropriate areas of application, the same application, and adequacy, and also the interpretation in the sociocultural diversity. For example, tolerance is considered as a universal value, but is restricted by what guides it. It is evident that, even in the culture of a racist group, this cannot be tolerated because it threatens the ethical implications of the same value.

The sixth approach refers to the fact that education with values takes as a foundation the “reality as educational space”. We educate with values, not for a purely abstract instance, but taking into account the real problems that the students face. Because of this, this kind of education goes beyond the purely scholar environments, and seeks to influence the family and proximal and broader community.

The seventh approach emphasizes that education with values must consider the relationship between the students and their development, in the double conception of growth and development skills of the person, and the development of the person as an intelligent, and ethical human being.

Private and public aspects are the main topics of the eighth approach that has to be considered. We can say that education allows the development of an individual personality with an individual values’ system, it is true that the limits between private and public are so narrow, because their relationship with the community is always close, and, each individual fact transcends to public life. That’s the reason why education is interested in preparing students as citizens.

The ninth approach refers to the idea that values are products of learning, but they are influenced by the students’ particularities, their social vocations, and their preferences about knowledge. This has to be considered as a triad of components: personality, vocation, and knowledge.

The tenth approach considers personal life, social realities, and citizenship. This implies knowing who the student is (his/her social reality, existing implications in training him/her to fully exercise his citizenship). An education with values is not complete if these three components are not contemplated, because, eventually, teachers need to consider these factors.

The concept of competencies in education with values.
What are competencies?

The didactic that allows with greater certainty this special type of learning, education with values, is the establishment of competencies.

From this point of view, what could we understand as a competency? The term is a product from formative models initially used in working environments, and, later on, in the world of schooling education, under the idea that it sets an alternative to satisfy the productive requirements in the job and the demands of life.

We are searching, with this procedure, that human actions become more efficient, but at the same time, we look for defining its components based on structures, and characteristics. This takes us to find different definitions that make us wonder, according to Zavala and Arnau (2007): What are competencies good for? Which is their field of involvement? In which situations should they be applied? And also ask: Are they aptitudes or skills? In any of these aspects are there other components? Also, to make clear the difference between competency and competent acting.

Let’s see some definitions about “competence”, and “competency” that let us recognize its basic components, in semantic and structural terms.

In the working area, McClelland (1973) defined competency as “that element that really causes a superior performance in a specific job”. As we can infer,this author implied quality in the results of the work.

Lloyd McLeary (Cepeda, 2005) defines it as “the presence of characteristics, or the absence of aptitudes that make a person qualified to perform a specific task, or to assume a definite role”. As we can observe, this definition pointsto manifested conditions: the existence or absence of aptitudes that make a person qualified to perform a specific task, or to assume a different role.

The Working International Organization (2004) defines competence as “the effective capacity to successfully accomplish a job activity completely identified”. It adds up to the former definitions, the terms of effective and successful capacity.

The Ministry of the Labor and Social Affairs of the Spanish Government (1995) defines competence as: “the capacity to apply knowledge, skills and attitudes to the performance of the correspondent task, including the capacity of response to unexpected problems, autonomy, flexibility, collaboration with the professional environment, and with the job’s organization”. As we can see, this definition adds onto the explicative area of competence, in addition to “applying knowledge, skills, and attitudes to the performance of the correspondent task”. Besides, it increases the capacity of response to unexpected problems, autonomy, and flexibility. This means, that it goes beyond mere semantics to a certain evaluative approach.

In the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2008)), ccompetence is defined as the ability to do something well, meanwhile, it also points out a difference with the word (competency) as an important ability required to perform a job. This suggests that in English, we have two words for two activities that may seem similar, but they refer to two levels of application of ability: to do something well, anything, and the required ability to perform a “task” well. This means, that rules are necessary, to perform a “task”. This second meaning is used in the definition of “competency” in the school processes, and in the external ones as well.

The Larousse Dictionary (2004) also defines competency by the application to commercial and industrial aspects, considering it as “the set of knowledge, qualities, aptitudes and aptitudes that allow to discuss, consult and decide everything concerning a task”. The definition becomes a broad explanation, and considers that the competency has a group of diverse structures whereby is defined what could be demanded in a job, implying that the knowledge could be applied, more than just theoretical.

The Organization for Cooperation and Development (OCDE, its initials in Spanish), which our country is a member, in its project, “Definition and Selection of Competencies” (2002) for the transformation of educational institutions, and educational programs, it explains competencies as “the ability to successfully accomplish the complex demands, through mobilization of psychosocial prerequisite. In this way, the results that the individual gets through his/her actions, selection or behavior according to the demands, are emphasized".

This definition is complemented with the following addition: “each competency is the combination of practical abilities, knowledge (including tacit knowledge), motivation, ethical values, attitudes, emotions, and other social and behavioral components that can be mobilized together so the action in a determined situation could be successful”. (Zavala y Arnau, 2007).

The presented definitions of competencies for educational and working environments have in common two aspects, they refer to three specific components: psychosocial properties of the person (attitudes, abilities, skills, values, etc.), qualitative orientation (success) towards a specific practice, and forms of action and performance procedures which are adequate to the performed task (efficiency and efficacy).

However, we can observe that the definitions and components attributed to “competency”, to the extent that they serve as parameters to accomplish more complex tasks, they become somewhat broader and lose certain specificity.

Actually, it is important not to forget that competency is a person’s attribute, because he/she is the receiver of the competency, the one who has to be competent. This person is the one who then acts following norms and specifications regarding the appointed task. Thus, we could say that in general terms, we could define competency as the possession of a group of abilities, knowledge, and aptitudes to develop a specific task with quality and efficiency, a specialized activity, or a required job subject to defined norms.

The aptitudes could refer to psychosocial aspects suchas attitudes, values, or skills. In educational terms, the competency implies the successful management of knowledge, aptitudes, attitudes and procedures to acquire a clearly specified learning in terms of applicability to problems, and real situations, or the practical accomplishment of the topics in a given curriculum.

When the subject to be learned -in this case, values- specifies competencies that are related with very abstract aspects, the teaching procedure gains more relevance, because it is the fundamental constitution, which should have the ability to facilitate the most generalization of what was learned. Thus, the technique of "scenarios" has been suggested.

Learning competencies through scenarios.

As we have previously mentioned, the challenge of educating with values not only implies the adoption of a theoretical and evaluative approach, but also, implies the didactic strategies from which is intended to form the students.

In this sense, several authors have manifested the suitability of “scenarios” as a teaching strategy to educate with values, due to its versatility, emulation of real situations close to the students’ lives; high motivational level that stimulates sensitivity, and the ability to propitiate the students’ engagement. (Brady, 2011; Noguera et al., 2000)

Therefore, a scenario connotes the use of a space where an action takes place, and an interaction of characters, representing a group of events, and physical and abstract components that grant meaning and certain limits to the events that happen within it, everything joined by a central argument.

Likewise, in its simplest expression, scenarios require from the performance of competencies that mobilize a group of knowledge, procedures and values, for decision making, and resolution of problematic situations that require value’s judgment and ethical reasoning.

It is worth noting that regarding the attitudinal component of competencies, the solutions to said problems, not only promote learning of a specific value, but also present an interrelationship between values due to the complex web of factors, situations, conditions, people, and groups of various interests that are conflicted in each scenario’s resolution.

Consequently, scenarios provide the participants with numerous resources to derive senses and meanings that allow them to understand the values and their importance in human and collective life, thanks to the immersion of mnemonic processes of reconstruction, recollection, evoking, and recognition of values, that facilitate their learning and transference to wider daily lifecontexts (Cappello, 2006).

Building upon the former principles, scenarios propose learning situations according to the students’ social, cognitive and moral level of development, being pre-school level the simplest and superior levels more complex.

Therefore, the topics that are brought up through scenarios have the characteristic of integrating arguments obtained from families’, schools’ and communities’ daily life’s experience.

Finally, it is convenient to point out that the teachers could introduce variations, changes or adjustments in the application of scenarios, depending on the schools’ conditions, the characteristics ofthe students and the group, the degree of participation of their parents, and the community context, as well as, the formation necessities established in the course syllabus. (Cappello, 2006).

Teaching competencies for the teachers when educating with values.

Likewise students, we believe that who intends educating with values should master a number of competencies. This becomes particularly relevant, because the subject that the students should learn does not refer to material aspects or accessible knowledge that could be easily transmitted through an instructional methodology. The teacher must have certain competencies to allow him/her educate with values effectively.

Which competencies are the ones the teacher must have when educating with values? These, according to various authors (García y Puig, 2007:8), are a group of personal and professional attributes whose level of knowledge is improvable. Educating with values presents certain paradox to the teacher. Whoever he/she is and which ever educational level he/she has, as a human being and a citizen, he/she should be prepared for educating with values.

New ways of teaching advocate not for a selective orientation without foundations, but a mostly inclusive ways of teaching, assuringa trueequity of opportunities for everybody. This doesn’t mean stopping the efforts of the students in their academic responsibilities, but to guiding education to a closer teaching that allows teaching adaptation to the students’ characteristics.

This leads us to annul, in the educational community, prejudices against gender, culture, and socioeconomic class. Within the many competencies that the teacher must possess, there will always be seven basic competencies that the teacher must have when educating with values:

  • 1. To have a conscience that it is required a firm and broad education with values as a parallel to an educational revolution.
  • 2. To be himself/herself.
  • 3. To be able to recognize others.
  • 4. To facilitate dialogue.
  • 5. To regulate participation.
  • 6. To work in teams.
  • 7. To contribute to improve the school.

It is important for teachers have in mind that learning through competencies is a clear advance in teaching. However, we must understand that its application requires from a careful analysis, not only of what must be learned, but also, about its nature and components. In as much aswe get closer to topics that involve aspects with psychological and subjective dimensions, we will need a broader teaching demand, and the construction of learning based on more complex competencies. Definitely, when educating with values, success will be related to the level of competencies that the teachers have to form students in the complex world of values.

Evaluation of civic and ethical competencies: principles and instruments.

How do we evaluate the civic and ethical competencies that students learn and develop from the participation in educational processes when educating with values through scenarios?

Without a doubt, answering this question implies, on one hand, to have the characteristics of competencies’ assessment completely clear, and, on the other, to dispose of certain domain of the instruments that can be used to teach it.

In this sense, the strategy of education with values presented here assumes six key principles about the characteristics of evaluation of civic and ethical competencies, considering the orientation that are provided by the current official educational programs in our country, and supported by specialized literature. (Bolívar, 1998; San Martí, 2007; Zabala y Arnau, 2007).

1. Evaluating competencies inside problematic situations.

Learning civic and ethical competencies must be assessed byplacing the students in scenarios which show problematic situations more or less similar to those they can face in real life, that force them to analyze value choices, to perform ethical reasoning, and make decisions about the behavioral schemes more appropriate to solve those situations. That is, it is required to make a contextualized assessment from the experience of attitudes and values.

2. Evaluating competencies from the expected learning outcomes.

Each scenario establishes a group of expected learning outcomes and tasks constituting in the referents that the teachers could use to determine appropriate products and activities to obtain evidence, as well as the types of instruments and indicators of achievement. The foregoing, with the objective of aligning the teaching–learning–evaluating processes, performed in each scenario.

3. Evaluating competencies clearly defining the assessment activities.

This means that the teachers must define the products or evidences that they consider the most appropriate to observe the learning achieved by the students from their performance in each scenario. The assessment activities of competencies could be diverse, depending of the educational level, including written and graphic productions, collective projects, scripts, documentary investigations, records and attitude schemes of students, among others, that could be compiled in portfolios, or activity notebooks on an individual, team, or group level.

4. Evaluating competencies according to the type of knowledge.

Competencies consist of conceptual, procedural and attitudinal knowledge. Therefore, the teachers must specify the type and degree of knowledge they expect studentsto obtain from each of them. Considering that the manner each component learned is different, the teacher must evaluate them through activities and specific instruments, that allow observation and evaluation in the most integrated way possible, that informs of the knowledge students were capable of learning and mobilize in a specific scenario, or context where the performance of competencies are realized.

5. Evaluating competencies through instruments of formative and alternative assessment.

First of all, the assessment of competencies must be a formative evaluation that guides students in their process of learning and gradual development of certain competencies. Onthe other hand, it must be an alternative evaluation, understood as a compilation of evidences on how students process and complete real tasks in a given topic, like in the case of scenarios.

Unlike traditional assessment, alternative assessment allows teachers to perform four important evaluation activities: 1.To inform students of competencies to be evaluated.2. To document the students’ progress at a certain time, instead of comparing them with others. 3. To obtain information to adopt decisions on how to enablea learning environment that contributes in a greater manner developing competencies, attitudes and values, instead of punishing the civic, ethical and moral behavior of students. 4. To use instruments with explicit indicators of achievement and also share them with students, teachers, and parents.

Besides, competencies and values assessment must be placed in agreement with the system of values of the school and social communities in which students participate, trying to observe the consequences in the communities, depending on the way that values are applied and practiced.

6. Evaluating competencies implies assuming that learning and development are different in each student.

This requires understanding that students are not human beings that passively receive the environmental influences just like that; on the contrary, they are social agents that actively construct knowledge, attitudes, and values that are considered important to orientate their behavior.

This means that, at present, students build up their personal biographies beyond the institutionalized rules, through complex processes that allow them to set their own system of values, including values, norms, and roles that are offered by family, school, community, and media. Evidently, this process of construction varies depending on the different ages; on the first years it is focused on habits and norms, and in the teenage years it is based on the acquisition of a more complex ethical and moral reasoning.

Instruments to evaluate by competencies

According to Lopez and Hinojosa (2001), the evaluation of competencies is commonly made through two types of instruments of alternative assessment: observation techniques, and performance evaluation techniques. In our case teachers could perform the evaluation of the established competencies in the scenarios mainly through three observation instruments: comparison list, attitude scale, and rubric.

Here after, are presented, in an orientated mode, definitions, examples and general recommendations, to give some general guidance about the instruments that teachers could use to evaluate students’ competencies in each scenario implemented in class.

Check list

It consists of a list or words, phrases or sentences that, as indicators, allow the teacher to identify expected behaviors in the students’ performance in certain areas.

Such indicators must be based on knowledge, procedures, and attitudes that teachers intend to evaluate in the scenario, and must be written on the record sheet judgment, that will allow the assessment of the observed competencies. The phrases in the checklist must specify the sequence of indicators is considered fundamental for the assessment judgment. In front of each phrase,word or sentence, two value columns are included – Yes/No; Achieved/Not Achieved; Competent/Not Competent; etc – in which the observer will take note of everything addressed there, performed or not, by the observed student or group.

Example of check list; group observation

Recommendations to elaborate a checklist:

  • To identify each knowledge and behavior to be observed and make a list of them.
  • To organize the behaviors in the sequence that they are expected to occur.
  • To have a simple procedure to check what was observed.

Scale of assessment

Even though it is similar to the check list, the appreciation scale allows to detect the extent an individual shows each evaluated trait, from its absence or scarcity to the maximum possibility or certain attitude or behavior through a graphical, categorical, or numerical scale, where grading is polytomous. In other words,it is important that the instrument has a separate scale for each trait, attitude, or behavior that will be evaluated.

Example scale of assessment


Recommendations for elaborating a scale of assessment:

  • To determine the trait to be evaluated.
  • To define the trait.
  • To elaborate indicators – clearly observable – from the elaborated definition.
  • To specify the order or sequence of the indicators (if applicable).
  • To validate the logical relationship between the definition of the trait and the elaborated indicators through an expert’s judgments (content validation).
  • To select the type of scale to evaluate each indicator. The appreciation scales must be polytomous, rather numerical, categorical, or graphical.
  • To diagram the instrument.

Rubric

The rubric is an evaluation instrument based on a criteria scale and performance levels that allow determining the quality of students’ performance on specific tasks.

Regarding format or design, the rubric is characterized by three key elements that are placed on the left side; performance levels, in the upper side, and values or scores by level of performance in each evaluated criteria.

It is important to point out that rubric is an evaluation instrument designed among teachers and students, where in a negotiated and explicit manner, are established criteria and levels of performance that will be useful to evaluate the success of students in each criterion.

Example of rubric, bulletin board.


Recommendations for elaborating a rubric:

  • To select the objectives supporting the task or job that has to be completed.
  • To identify all the possible criteria to represent the behaviors or performances expected from the students while completing the task.
  • To organize criteria by levels of effectiveness.
  • To assign a numeric value according to the level of performance.
  • Each level must have behaviors or performance expected from the students, described.
  • Students should know in anticipation the evaluation criteria. Self-assessment using the rubric is recommended to the student.

II. DIDACTIC AND CURRICULAR ORGANIZATION IN THE SCENARIOS BASED ON CIVIC AND ETHICAL COMPETENCIES.

The presented strategy for education with values, it is supported by the approach based on competencies from the subject of Civic and Ethical Formation, and it is structured in three different sections. In the first one, the scenarios curricular organization is explained for the formation of civic and ethical competencies; in the second section, the teaching strategy suggested for working in the scenarios in the classroom, is presented. Finally, the topics’ organization of scenarios is desribed, according to the purposes and contents of this topic.

Curricular organization of scenarios for the formation of competencies and values.

Scenarios are organized according to two different criteria.

Organization criteria 1: Gradual development of the competency

Scenarios are organized according to the criteria of the gradual development of the civic and ethical competencies, which are established in the Civic and Ethical Formation subject (SEP, 2009). As an example, the next table shows a quick and global vision from the topics, values, and expected learning outcome for the gradual development of competency 1 (knowledge and care of one’s self) throughout school years.


Organization criteria 2. Values’ selection according to the Civic and Ethical Formation.

Scenarios promote the formation of students in the established values in the Civic and Ethical Formation: respect to human dignity, justice, freedom, equality, solidarity, responsibility, tolerance, honesty, appreciation and respect to natural and cultural diversity (SEP, 2009).

According to the Axiological Model from Integral Education proposed by Gervilla (2000), these values will be part of a greater group of values (with their respective counter values), classified from five dimensions of the person, as bodily values, intellectual affective, individual, esthetic, moral, social, instrumental-economic, and religious (see Seijo, 2009). According to this classification, we can understand, for example, that freedom is an individual and freeing value, meanwhile tolerance and justice are cosindered as moral values.

Values Categorization based on the Axiological Model from Integral Education of Gervilla(2000)

Teaching structure of scenarios

The didactic structure of the scenarios used for the formation of competencies, civic and ethical values is based on key elements concentrated on Scenarios by Competencies Table, expecting that these could guide and facilitate its application to the teachers of the corresponding grades and blocks. This structure is now presented.

Description of scenario

It describes in general terms the group of topics and activities that students should complete through the scenario, and it is useful, therefore, to guide the teacher’s job.

Field

It specifies the name of the field corresponding with the scenario.

Competencies

It details the main and related competencies, whose acquisition is promoted through the scenario.

Expected learning

Enlists the expected learning from the scenario, associated to the expected learning of the field.

Values

Enlists the values in which the scenario is focused on.

Scenario

It consists in dilemmatic situations that students must actively solve, and with the help of teachers, relatives or community members, and who facilitate the construction of their own and shared meaningful learning about certain values. In other words, scenarios consist in problematic situations about personal and social life, in which students have to make decisions involving an ethical position, or a value judgment, through the development and application of civic and ethical specific competencies.

Teaching strategy

The teaching strategy offers a detailed sequence of the initial, developing and closing activities, that, as a suggestion, the teacher could use to implement the scenario in the classroom, including more activities for the practice of competencies in scenarios in school life, and in everyday life of students. The activities are designed to facilitate the evaluation of the conceptual, procedural, and attitud in all learning expected from them, implied ineach scenario. It is important to remember that these activities could be adjusted, according to the teacher’s experience, the contextual conditions and situations of the school and the formative needs of the classroom, with the aim that the scenario be sufficiently flexible for the effective teaching of values.

The teaching strategy of scenario in terms of beginning, developing and closingis designed to be implemented in the classroom lasting approximately 45 minutes; however, the school activities or everyday activities must be completed and checked in later sessions of the same subject of Civic and Ethical Formation, or in other subjects, through transversal job.

Evaluation

The evaluation of civic and ethical competencies learning is made in a formative way through the compilation of evidences related to activities and products such as:

  • The individual participation of students in the starting activities and the developing of the scenario.

  • The production of written exercises derived from the closing exercises of the scenario, both individual and team activities.

  • Products, activities, and individual or collective products established in the scenarios applying the civic and ethical competencies in school or everyday life of students. These products must be evaluated through rubrics or checklists designed by the teacher according to the indicators of performance, or performance criteria depending on their school grade and individual development. Through these rubrics, or checklists, the teacher will be able to determine the necessary concepts, procedures, and values to evaluate the civic and ethical competencies in each scenario.

  • For the follow up and control of group and individual evaluations, the teacher could use the evidence portfolio of each student, and could have a class portfolio, where the teacher gathers the products generated from team and group activities.
Topic organization of scenarios

Scenarios of education with values pretend to form students in the competencies for life, ethical behavior, and responsible citizenship. To fulfill this, the proposed scenarios have topics related with healthcare, accidents prevention, exercise of freedom through responsible decision making, organization and cooperation to complete an activity, protection of public and natural resources, dialogue to face conflict resolution, solidarity, and participation in natural disasters, rights and obligations or children, and youngsters, and democracy as an exercise to reach agreements for welfare.

This topics are adapted to the purposes and contents established in the subject of Civic and Ethical Formation, and they were chosen with the purpose to facilitate the implementation of scenarios in a vinculated and complementary way to the ctivities of the subject (SEP, 2009). In this sense, it is necessary to point out that for following the model of education with values, the teacher has the freedom to apply scnearios in a flexible manner, adapting, or creating formative activities or procedures different to the ones presented in the section of Teaching Strategy, considering the characteristics of the group, the conditions or the classroom, the timing, and the material resources of the students, and school, among other conditions.

A variety of possibilities is suggested in each scenario, from these, the teachers could choose those ones that could be adapted to the students’ necessities, and interests, with the objective of fulfilling the expected learning of students.


  • Field I

    Boys and girls who grow and care for themselves.

  • Competencies:

    Focus: Knowledge and self care.

    Related: Respect and appreciation of diversity.

  • Values:

    Responsibility for health care, respect and appreciation of the environment. Cooperation.

  • Learning outcome:

    Acquires and maintains hygiene habits for health care and environmental care that help prevent diseases.

Scenario 1

Visiting the zoo

Description

In this scenario boys and girls will understand the importance of acquiring and maintaining some hygiene habits and environmental care as part of health care.

Scenario

Miss Anita took her students to the zoo to learn about the animals that live there.

“Listen children, let’s walk in order, I do not want you to get away from me” the teacher said. “I am pleased to see that everyone is clean and with a neat uniform. Congratulations!”.

“Thank you!” they all answered very excited.

“Now, let’s start the tour! We have a long morning ahead!” said the teacher happily.

The tour around the zoo was very fun and interesting. The animals that live in each of the different areas amazed the children. They went through the aviary, where they saw birds of incredible col ors, then the huge lions, giraffes with their spots and long necks,

  • Activities for the workbook:

    With the help of a family member, make a list of at least five activities you do every day to keep your personal hygiene and five activities you do to take care of the environment in your city. Make drawings and short phrases.

    What did I learn from the lesson?.

  • Activities for the school environment:

    Organize a clean up and personal hygiene campaign with the students in the classroom. This campaign has the purpose to promote personal hygiene habits (wear clean uniforms, bring clean shoes, clean and short nails), restructure and clean up the classroom and the environment, promote the separation of solid waste and recyclables, but above all to promote habits and values.

the scary crocodiles, and more animals!

“Well Children!” said Miss Anita “How about having lunch before returning to school?”

“Yes, yes!” they all shouted and they ran to sit down to start eating.

“Carmen!” shouted Federico “Could you come with me to wash my hands?”

“Sure, Federico” answered Carmen “I can use the chance to wash my hands before eating too!”.

After they went to wash their hands, Carmen and Federico sat down with their classmates to eat the lunch prepared by their mothers. Then, they observed how Renato and Paco were sharing some candy that they had brought in their backpacks to the other children, and everyone started to eat them.

When they finished, Carmen began to pick up the bag and the foil in which she had brought her tacos in and also picked up some trash that was around her. Meanwhile, Renato left his trash on the ground, and instead of helping Carmen, he started, along with other boys, to kick the trash and the bottles that were on the grass.

“Renato!” yelled Carmen “Why don’t you help me instead?”.

“To do what?” said Renato.

“Well, to pick up the trash, instead of kicking it” answered Carmen.

“No, we … and why?” asked Renato “I just want to play! Why would you pick it up? I am not going to help you”.

“Adelina!” shouted Carmen to her friend. “Do you want to help me clean the place where we ate?".

“Don’t listen to her, Adelina!” said Renato “It’s better if you come to play with us… It’s almost time to leave!”

Adelina was thinking….

  • (continuation...)

    to promote habits and values.

    With support from their parents, close the campaign with a gather up among the children, where fun activities are carried out in the classroom and healthy food and desserts are offered.

    Encourage reflection on the experience of participating in a Cleaning and Personal Hygiene Campaign. Every child will make a drawing and a brief text in his workbook to answer the following questions:

    What activities did you do in the Cleaning and Personal Hygiene Campaign?

    What do you think of having been involved in a Cleaning and Personal Hygiene Campaign?

Didactic Strategy

Opening

  • Activating prior knowledge of children by implementing the brainstorming technique. Use the following questions as a guide:

    Have you ever visited a zoo?

    What do you like the most about zoos?


Development

  • By listening to the reading , introduce the students to the scenario: “A visit to the zoo”.
  • Ask the students to share their opinions about the following questions to support the topic comprehension and values of the scenario:

    Why did Carmen and Federico wash their hands before eating?

    Do you think it is healthy to eat candies before a meal?

    What do you think about Renato´s attitude, when he didn´t want to help Carmen pick up the trash?

    What do you think about Carmen picking up garbage that was not hers?

    What do you think Adelina did? Did she help Carmen pick up the trash?

    Who do you think must pick up the trash?

    Why is it important to collect the trash and put it in cans when we eat in public places or when we walk down the street?

  • Evaluating Suggestions:

    Children participation in answering the questions from the scenario.

    Making a list of personal hygiene and environmental care activities .

    Drawing and writing a brief text about the experience of having a Cleaning and Personal Hygiene Campaign in the workbook.

    Individual participation in the Cleaning and Personal Hygiene Campaign.

Closing

  • Ask the children about the importance of having hygiene habits and caring for the environment. Make a list on the board of ten hygiene and environmental habits that help prevent illnesses and caring for health. Children will copy the list on the workbook. .
  • Field II

    My responsibilities and my limits.

  • Competencies:

    Focus: Self regulation and responsible use of freedom.

    Related: Respect and appreciation of diversity.

  • Values:

    Freedom, Responsibility, Respect.

  • Learning outcome:

    Identifies emotions expressed by his/her classmates and respects different ideas.

    Organizes time and schedules to achieve short term goals in the school’s and family’s environment.

Scenario 2

The contest

Description

The scenario “The contest” reflects how girls and boys can decide, with a certain degree of freedom, participating in recreational activities they enjoy, as long as it is under authorization and adult supervision without neglecting their school duties.

Scenario

A Talent Contest was organized at Luz's and Ramon's school for children to participate doing what they love most.

“Look, look!” Felipe shouted excited “That ’s the poster of the Talent ContestMiss Griselda told us!”

“Oh, yes… I would love to participate!” said Ana.

“Ha, ha, ha!” Ramon laughed. “You ?... which talent do you have?”

“My dad says I sing very well!” Ana replied proudly “and I think it’s true!”

“Oh, Ana, you don’t sing, not even in the shower”, said Ramón.

  • Activities for the workbook:

    Ask students to draw two pictures with the following recommendations: First drawing: “What I like to do is…”. Draw him/her self performing the activity that he/she enjoys the most , or developing a talent, like singing, dancing, playing a musical instrument, playing sports, and so on. Second drawing: “My responsibilities at school are…” Draw him/herself performing those activities that are his/her responsibility and s/he has to carry out in order to dedicate some time to practice his/her favorite activities.

    What did I learn from the lesson?

  • Activities from the school environment:

    Organize among the students a talent contest that could be named “Young Talents” or “You are really valuable”, where children, with the support of their parents, choose to develop an artistic activity or show a talent they think they have.

    Organize the group in teams and help them organize and prepare their participation in the school contest.

“Well, if you say you sing well,then my brother Ramon and I know how to dance really great !” Luz said.

“Well, to say the truth, I doubt you know how to dance” Ana said.

“Stop saying things!” Felipe said, “We’d better go ask Miss Griselda to sign us all up, we’ll see who does it better or… maybe we can make a team!”.

“That would be really cool!” exclaimed Ana. “Besides, I heard that there’s a prize for the winner”.

“Well, let’s go look for the teacher!” Luz said very excited.

“Yes! Let’s go! All of them said.”

The children found Miss Griselda in the classroom and told her about their interest in participating on the talent contest. She was very happy to hear that her students wanted to show their skills to their parents, so she gave them all her support.

“I’m glad you want to participate, children!” said MissGriselda. “You’ll do great, you’ll see!”

“Thanks, Miss” said Luz “What we want is to ask you to help us sign up for the contest, please”.

“Of course!” she answered. “At recess time I will go to speak to the principal so you can participate. I just have a doubt, how will you get prepared? Next Tuesday the monthly tests begin and the contest is the following Monday!

“Don’t worry, we have everything under control” explained Ramón, after school we will meet to rehearse.

“And by Monday afternoon, after the rehearsal, we will go to our houses to study for the tests” said Felipe.

“But… Aren't we going to have very little time to study?” asked Ana.

“Of course not, Ana, you will see that an hour is enough. Besides, we must spend more time rehearsing for the contest if we want to win” said Felipe.

“I see that you have it all planned, I’m surprised of the way you got organized, but… Do your parents know about your plans? Do you know if they

  • (continuation...) As part of the previous activity, ask the group to make the contest prizes, using recyclable materials, alluding to the artistic talents, and give them to participants and winners of the talent contest.

    Have a space for the children to discuss in the classroom their experience of participating on the talent contest.

    Teamwork during the talent contest.

  • Evaluating Suggestions:

    Children participation in answering t he questions from the scenario.

    Drawings: - First drawing. “What I like to do is…”. Second drawing. “My responsibilities are…”.

are going to give you permission and if they are going to support you to enter the contest? Remember that it requires buying some costumes and that implies expenses for them ”. Also think what is more important, winning the talent contest or getting good grades in tests?”.

Teaching Strategy

Opening

  • Activating prior knowledge of children by implementing the brainstorming technique. Use the following questions as a guide:

    What is a contest?

    What is a talent?

    What do you understand by talent contest?

    Who can participate in a talent contest?

Development

  • By listening to the Reading, introduce the students to the scenario: “The Contest”.
  • Ask the students to share their opinion about the following questions to support the topic comprehension and values of the scenario:

    What do you think about Ramon doubting on Anna’s talent?

    What should the children do, spend more time preparing for the contest or for the final test? Why?

    Do you think an hour of studying will be enough to be prepared for the final tests?

    What do you think about what MissGriselda told them?

Why is it important to ask parents for permissionbefore registering in an artistic, academic or sport competition or contest?

Closing

  • Talk with children about the importance of appreciating and respecting the talents of others, to make decisions with support of parents and to participate in contest without neglecting school duties.
  • FIELD III

    We all need each other.

  • Competencies:

    Focus: Respect and appreciation for cultural diversity.

    Related: Sense of belonging to a community, a nation and to humanity.

  • Values:

    Respect to cultural diversity, Tolerance.

  • Learning outcome:

    Identifies and respects people from the community who have a different language, religion, education, ways of dressing and living.

Scenario 3

The girl on the flowery dress

Description

The scenario aims that boys and girls learn the importance of respecting all the people and groups in daily life.

Scenario

It was a Wednesday afternoon in Soto La Marina, Tamaulipas. The weather was nice with fresh air throughout the city. Lucía came home from school, she changed her uniform to shorts and a tank top; and then she went downtown with her mother to buy groceries.

After buying some things, Mrs. Angelica, Lucia’s’ mother, stopped to buy some cheese from a blond lady with blue eyes, she was with a girl just like Lucía, and she was wearing a flowery dress and a white piece of cloth on her head.

“How much does it cost? Asked Mrs. Angelica, referring to a big piece of Chihuahua cheese as people call it,

  • Activities for the workbook:

    With help from a relative, draw a comparative chart in which you can contrast your features and cultural customs with the Mennonite Community. You can do it by writing the similarities and differences in physical characteristics, languageand ways of dressing, religion, education, children’s responsibilities at home and ways of entertainment.

    What did I learn from the lesson?

  • Activities for school environment:

    Organize an activity for cultural and social exchange between a Mennonite Community and children from the school. To do this, ask the Civilian head ofthe nearest Mennonite Community to participate, invitehim to share details on their origins, culture, language, education, activities and products to the children of the school. In the same way, organize children from the group to explain their cultural customs.

It’s delicious, especially for making 'quesadillas'”, Lucia’s favorite food.

“150 pesos” Said the blond lady, with a low voice.

While Mrs. Angelica was buying the cheese, some butter and a loaf of whole grain bread; Lucia was trying to make the blond girl, who was about 7 years old, talk.

“What’s your name?” asked Lucia. “Why do you dress like that? You look like one of my dolls! Ha, ha, ha! Aren’t you hot? Come on, tell me your name!” asked Lucía. “What’s your school’s name? I haven’t seen you in mine”

When Mrs. Angelica saw what was happening she separated Lucia from the girl and they walked away quickly.

Just a few steps away Mrs. Angelica asked Lucia why she was laughing at the girl.

“I heard what you were saying. Don’t you see they dress like that because they are Mennonites?”

“And what does Mennonites mean mother?” asked Lucia.

“Well, Mennonites is a group of foreign people who initially came to Mexico with permission of the Mexican government. They have lived in Tamaulipas and in other parts of Mexico, like in Chihuahua for a while”, answered Mrs. Angelica. “Now they are Mexicans, like you and me. But they have their own language, culture, education, religion and dress code. They live in a very different way than us. For example, Mennonite kids go to their own schools, where the children learn to speak German and Spanish, while girls only learn German. For that reason the girl couldn’t answer you”

“Also” said Mrs. Angelica, “in Mennonite families, because of their religion, they don’t allow children to go to the movies, play videogames, surf the internet or dance in family gatherings. On the other hand, at an early age, children have to take part of the house work, besides finishing the school activities”.

“And where do Mennonites live, mommy?” asked Lucia.

“They live in a small community next to your grandfather’s ranch. They are very organized workers, and engaged in agriculture

and livestock. They live in their own communities and they have little relation with their neighbors, except when they go out to sell their products, like the lady and her daughter…”

“Hey, mom, and then how do Mennonite children have fun? What things do they learn at their school? If I see them, can I speak to them? Do you think the little girl and I could be friends? Would you let me be her friend?”

“I don’t know, dear, why are you asking so many questions?” asked Mrs. Angelica, as they walked back home carrying grocery bags.

Teaching Strategy

Opening:

  • Activate prior knowledge of children by implementing the brain storming technique, to identify some physical or cultural characteristics of the community members. Use the following questions as a guide:

    Which physical and cultural characteristics do people have in your community?

    Do you know any people from a different community?

    What differences do you see between his/her characteristics and yours?

    What difference do you find between his/her language and his/her way of dressing?

Development:

  • By listening to the reading introduce the studentsto the scenario: “The girl on the flowery dress”.
  • Ask the students to share their opinions about the following questions to support thetopic comprehension and values of the scenario:

    Why do you think Lucia laughed at the Mennonite girl’s dress?

    What do you think about Mrs. Angelica’s explanation to her daughter?

    What do you think about Mennonite traditions and customs?

  • Evaluating Suggestions:

    Children’s participation in answering the questions from the scenario.

    Comparative chart of Mennonite and own traits.

    Children’s attendance and participation in an event of cultural and social interaction with the Mennonite community.

What else do you know about Mennonites and their lives?

Have you ever laughed or mocked at other people because of the way they dress or live?

What would you think if someone mocks ofthe way you talk or dress? What would you say to her/him?

Why do you think it is important to respect different cultures, languages and ways of dressing from people who live in your city or community?

Closing:

  • Draw conclusions from the comments of the students, emphasizing the necessity to respect, tolerate and appreciate the differences between people with different culture and language living ‘in your community, and explaining how differences help people and entity development.
  • Field IV

    We all need each other.

  • Competencies:

    Focus: Sense of belonging to a community, the nation and humanity.

    Related: Respect and appreciation to cultural diversity.

  • Values:

    Respect and appreciation of cultural diversity. Tolerance.

  • Learning outcome:

    Distinguishes and respects ideas and beliefs of similar or different forms of living.

Scenario 4

We are all different, so we are important!

Description

In the scenario “We are all different, so we are important!”, Che’eni, a child originative from a town of Oaxaca that arrives to the north of the country discovers that his customs and traditions are different from his new classmates, he is in a dilemma about preserving his identity as a zapotec boy or acting like his new classmates. The scenario is enriching because it aims that children learn, promote and put into practice values of tolerance, appreciation and respect of cultural diversity.

Scenario

On the way to school screams were heard from a distance “Marisela, Jose! Wait, wait!”

“Marisela wait, someone is calling us”, said José “It seems to be the new kid, we must wait for him.

“Oh, it is true”, said Marisela, “What did he say his name was?

  • Activities for the workbook:

    With help from a relative, make a collage of images in a cardboard with magazine clippings, newspapers, and so on, where people with different physical, social and cultural characteristics of our state or country appear. Write a short sentence that expresses and accompanies the values in the images of the collage.

    What did I learn from the lesson?

  • Activities for the school environment:

    Organize an activity in the school to exhibit the students’ collages, which show some of our characteristics as Mexican, highlighting the customs and traditions we share.

“Oh! I don´t remember it very well” said Joseph. “He has an odd name that I had never heard before”.

“Hello!” The child greeted when he caught up with them “How are you?”

“Hi!” Answered Jose “I’m fine!”

“What about you?”, asked Marisela. Hey, what did you say your name was?”

“My name is Che’eni”, answered the child.

“What a strange name!” Said Marisela.

“Wow! That’s an odd name!” said José “where are you from?”

“My family and I come from a town in Oaxaca. My name there is very common” explained Che’eni “It has Zapotec origins and it means dawn”.

“Really?” Jose asked surprised. “So you are like the Zapotec people we see in our history book”.

“Yes”, answered Che’eni, “my family has that origin”.

“Hey, hey” Marisela asked again. “And why do you wear that strange bag? Referring to the “guishiapa” (backpack) where Che’eni was carrying his books, “We have backpacks with wheels because the books are very heavy, I think you should tell your parents to buy one for you”.

“In the town where I used to live, all the childrenwear ‘guishiapas’ and our parents make them”.

“Hey, Che’eni, and you also speak very strange, you must speak like us. If you don’t, the kids will laugh at you” said Jose.

“Are you saying that because I speak Zapotec?” asked Che’eni.

At the entrance of the school, Miss Berta welcomed them: “Come on, kids, we almost close the door”.

Che’eni came into the classroom and he kept thinking about what his partners told him.… At recess, Che’eni wanted to take his “chiflok” (a piece of hollow wood from the wonder tree, to which small pieces of ceiba tree fruit are inserted under pressure and expelled at high speed) and show it to his partners, but he hesitated when he saw the children with their videogames and even some of them with cellphones.

Miguel approached him and told him mockingly: “Don’t tell me you don’t know those things, Che’eni, ha, ha, ha, ha! You’re weird!”

Miguel’s friends were laughing at Che’eni, and they said: “Your pants and shirt are so weird”.

When Cintia heard what the boys were saying, she said: “Ignore them, Che’eni, come on, show me what you hide”, referring to the ‘chiflok’. At that moment thebell rang...

The teacher, who observed whathad happened, told the children back in class: “Kids, today we will talk about an important subject. Why do some of you think that Che’eni is weird? What would happen if you were to live in Che’eni’s town? Who will be the weird one there?”

Teaching Strategy

Opening:

  • Activate prior knowledge of children byimplementing the brainstorming technique to identifysome physical and cultural characteristics of classmates. Use the following questions as a guide:

    Which physical and cultural characteristics do your classmates have?

    Do you know a classmate from another state or country?

    What differences do you see between his/her features and yours?

    What differences do you find between his/her language, games and customs?

Development:

  • By listening to the reading introduce the students tothe scenario: “We are all different, so we are important”
  • Ask the students to share views about the topics and values of the scenario:

  • Evaluating Suggestions:

    Children participation in answering the questions from the scenario.

    List of conclusions about respect for cultural diversity made in the workbook.

    Collage of physical and cultural characteristics of different social groups from Tamaulipas and Mexico.

What’s the problem that is presented to Che’eni in his new school?

Why does Joseph tell Che’eni that he shouldn’t speak Zapotec language? Is it right? Why?

What do you think Che’eni thought after Joseph and Marisela’s comments? Do you think Che’eni should change his way of being? Why?

Why do you think it is important to respect and appreciate cultural diversity?

What values should Che’eni’s classmates learn and practice?

Closing:

  • Make a list of five conclusions from the comments of the students, emphasizing the necessity to respect differences between people from different regions of the same country. Discuss the importance of identifying and promoting ties of pride and belonging that we should have from the different groups of which we are part of, and explain his/her role in the development of the personal identity. Also, emphasize the appreciation, respect and tolerance values to cultural diversity from classmates and people in general. Students will write them in their workbook.
  • Field V

    Set up agreements and solve conflicts.

  • Competencies:

    Focus: Management and resolution of conflicts.

    Related: Self-regulation and responsible usage of freedom.

  • Values:

    Respect others, Dialogue, Peace.

  • Learning outcome:

    Proposes coexistence rules among children in the classroom.

Scenario 5

We have a problem in the classroom!

Description

The scenario is rewarding because it aims children to recognize conflict as a component of human coexistence, also that its management and resolution demands active listening, dialogue, empathy and the rejection of all forms of violence.

Scenario

In the middle of the class Mary, the principal’s secretary, entered the classroom looking for MissEmilia and asked her to go to the principal’s office for a meeting. So the children wouldn’t beunattended, the teacher asked Mary to stay with them until she returned. Everything was fine until, suddenly, in the back of the classroom Imelda complained...

“Ouch!” yelled Imelda “Why did you hit me, Rafael?”

“Because you threw my lollipop!” answered Rafael screaming.

  • Activities for workbook:

    With the help of a relative, write a list of principles about peaceful solutions for conflicts.

    What did I learn from the lesson?

  • Activities for daily life environment:

    Cut out from newspapers, magazines, brochures, sheets, and so, images of people who are in conflict; stick them in the workbook, and next to the image write how they can solve the conflict or disagreement.

“Hey, why did you do that? You’ll see!” said Rafael, pulling Imelda’s hair. She started screaming.

“Hey, let go of me!” cried Imelda.

“Hit her!” said Francisco “We won’t be able to play with the videogame, she broke it!”

“Stop, let go of me, Rafael, it hurts!” cried Imelda.

“Enough, children!” said Mary loudly from the desk.

“But, Mary! He hit me!” moaned Imelda and started to cry.

“It is her fault, Mary! She threw my lollipop and it is no longer edible!”

Mary, who wasn’t as patient as Miss Emilia, immediately got exasperated with the problem...

  • Evaluating Suggestions:

    Children participation in answering the questions from the scenario.

    List of principles to peacefully manage and solve conflicts.

    Images of people that are in conflict that are incorporated to the workbook. Next to the illustration, a brief text that says how the conflict could be solved.

Teaching Strategy

Opening:

  • Activate prior knowledge of children by brainstorming,guided by the following questions:

    What is Peace?

    Do you know what conflicts are and why they arise?

Development:

  • By listening to the reading introduce the studentsto the scenario: “We have a problem in the classroom”.
  • Ask the students to share views about the following questions to support topic comprehension and values of the scenario:

    What was the cause of the problem between Imelda and Rafael?

    What do you think about Rafael’s, Imelda’s and Francisco’s behavior?

    How do you think they should have solved the conflict?

    What will the teacher tell them when she comes back to the classroom? How do you think the story ends?

    Have you ever fought with a classmate? Why?

    Why is it important to respect and talk with others when there is a conflict?

Closing:

  • Discuss with the group about the importance of promoting values such as respect, tolerance and dialogue, recovering at least five conclusions or principles about peaceful conflict solutions that children have concluded with the teacher’s help. Write down in the workbook those principles.
  • Field V

    Set up agreements and solve conflicts.

  • Competencies:

    Focus: Social and political participation.

    Related: Sense of belonging to the community, the nation and humanity.

  • Values:

    Social participation, Cooperation, Respect, freedom of speech.

  • Learning outcome:

    Identifies spaces and forms of collective participation to attend issues of common interest.

    Participates in actions requiring collective wellbeing.

Scenario 6

A responsible citizen

Description

TThe scenario “A responsible citizen” offers a view of Pablo’s worries for the carelessness, in which the city is. He identifies the need he and his classmates Catalina, Rafael, Lupita, Adela and Felipe have to be aware of the situation. Pablo shares his idea with them and together they implement a plan to be responsible citizens. Catalina and Rafael show different opinions from Pablo, which lead them to a lack of consensus.

Scenario

On the way to school, Mrs. Chela, pushed carefullyher son Pablo’s wheelchair, while she talked about her life…

“Old times! When I was child I also went to school, like you right now! But in those years I lived in the countryside and you live in the city”

“And… How is the country side, mom?” Pablo asked.

  • Activities for the workbook:

    Individually write the conclusions of the team.

    What did I learn from the lesson?

  • Activities for daily life environment:

    Organize students to make on a cardboard a graffiti with topics related to freedom of respectful expression to the image of the city, doing a school exhibition with them.

“Well, imagine, my son, the countryside is a beautiful place, full of enormous trees, whose branches move with the wind and you can hear the birds singing all day. Close to my house there was a river full of colorful fish and leaping frogs croaking on the stones all the time”

“What is that, mom?” asked Pablo.

“What, son?”

“Those scribbles that are on the school fence?”

“Well, that is known as “graffiti” answered Mrs. Chela.

“You know, mom? Inside the school there is also “graffiti”, because the children write on the restroom walls” said Pablo worried and thoughtful. “I will tell everyone in recess what I saw, to find out what my partners think about that”.

Pablo looked forward for the bell to ring to go out to recess and, after a while, the bell rang.

“What happened?” Catalina asked, looking at Pablo’s face.

“Today, when I was coming to school withmy mom, we passedby a place with the walls painted with letters and drawings in different colors, and when I saw that, I recalled the restrooms and the walls in our school”.

Rafael replied: “Yes, Pablo, they draw really cool things”.

“How can you say they’re cool, if they are ruining the walls of our city?”

Catalina said that when she grew up she would like to be like them, to paint those letters and to draw using a lot of colors. And Pablo told her that that was not right.

In that moment, Lupita and Felipe arrived, and they got involved in the conversation.

“We agree with Pablo, we must apply the “ABC” Plan!” Lupita shouted suddenly.

“And what does the alphabet have to do with it, if we already know it?” said Catalina, moving her head.

“Look, “ABC” means A BRAVE CITIZEN!” said the girl excited.

“Well Catalina and I don’t want to be in any plan. On the contrary! Someday we would like to learn how to draw as well as those people that do “graffiti” exclaimed Rafael.

Teaching Strategy

Opening:

  • Activate prior knowledge of children by implementing a brainstorming technique. Guided by the following questions:

    What is graffitti?

    Who makes them and where do they make them?

    What is freedom of expression?

Development:

  • By listening to the reading introduce the students tothe scenario: “A responsible citizen”
  • Ask the students to share views about the following questions to support topic comprehension and values of the scenario:

    Which of the characters from the scenario do you identify yourself with?

    Is it right to damage communityby scratching and painting walls of other people?

    Should or shouldn’tpeople be allowedto paint graffiti on the walls of the city?

    Is it correct to do damage our school by scratching and painting walls, chairs, restrooms, and so on?

    How could we collaborate to keep our school clean?

    Is it important for all of us to take care and keep the city and the school clean?

  • Evaluation Suggestions:

    Children participation in answering the questions from the scenario.

    Making an individual graffiti where the respectful freedom of expression about the image of the city is promoted.

Closing:

  • As a group, draw conclusions for each question, guiding the student’s opinion to respect him/her self and others and promoting teamwork to solve problems in the community and school. Write the answers in the workbook.
  • FIELD IV

    Standards and rules for harmonious coexistence.

  • Competencies:

    Focus: Adherence to legality and sense of justice.

    Related: Self-regulation and responsible use of freedom.

  • Values:

    Respect to human rights, Social Justice, Freedom.

  • Learning outcome:

    Identifies situations of bullying that can lead to lack of respect of the human rights.

    Carries out actions that promote the defense of human rights.

Scenario 7

The new kid of the class

Description

“The new kid of the class” in tends that children think about the importance of avoiding situations of bullying and take actions to defend the rights of all people, and especially to respect children.

Scenario

It was monday on the third week of August and David arrived to his new school, coming from another one located in the downtown area.

At the end of the Honors to the Flag Ceremony, David and the rest of the children from the school, returned to the classroom. David was so happy and excited because it was the first day in his new group and he hoped to make new friends.

When he entered the classroom, the teacher introduced him to the class.

  • Activities for the workbook:

    With help from a relative register five actions to avoid bullying.

    What did I learn from the lesson?

  • Activities for the school environment:

    With the help of the family, create a poster with drawings and phrases related to actions to avoid bullying and exhibit it around the school.

    Invite the parents and students from other grades in advance to attend to the poster exhibition.

“Children!” The Miss Leticia said, “This is David Cabeza de Vaca, a very nice kid who comes from another school. I hope that from now on you consider him as your friend. Let’s give him a round of applause to welcome him”

All the children warmly applauded, except for Juan, who at the back of the class told his friends, Alberto and Ruben, to get ready to welcome him.

It was time for recess and David went out of the classroom with Isabel and Martín, his new friends from the group. David was about to take out the sandwich his mom had packed for him, when Juan and his friends arrived.

“Do you know what happens with new kids in my group?” asked Juan. You are not Bull head you are Donkey head!”

Alberto and Rubén laughed.

“What a delicious sandwich!” said Juan, snatching it away from David. “Oops, it fell down!” Referring to the soda he had in the other hand.

“Pick it up, hollow head!” Juan ordered David.

“Yes, pick it up!” said Alberto and Ruben.

David, astonished and frightened, picked it up without saying anything.

“Very good, you little donkey head!” said Juan to David.

“Let me see... What do you have here?” said Alberto, taking twenty pesos that David had in his backpack.

“Look at this fool, he has nice playing cards” said Ruben “With the one of the Black Magician I will be able to complete my collection”.

David stood still and looked down to the ground…

“Starting tomorrow”, said Juan to David “you will do whatever we ask you to do. You will do our homework and you will give us your money to spend. And don’t even think on telling your parents or you will be sorry!”

“Yes” David said with a low and trembling voice.

Martin kept silent and paralyzed, as he observed everything. He was very afraid of Juan, because he did the same to him before.

Then, Isabel told Juan “Hey, don’t do that to David, you are treating him like as if he were your servant, and he isn’t!”

  • Evaluation Suggestions:

    Children participation in answering the questions from the scenario.

    List of five actions in the workbook.

    Individual poster of actions to prevent and report bullying.

Juan replied to Isabel: “You better stay out of this, curly head. Who do you think you are to defend him? And don’t say anything, don’t go and tell the teacher! If you say anything, you already know what could happen to you...

Isabel was silent and thinking.

Teaching Strategy

Opening:

  • Exploring prior knowledge of children about the human rights topic, byimplementing a brainstorming technique using the following question:

    Do you know what bullying is?

Development:

  • By listening to the Reading introduce the studentstothe scenario: “A new kidin class”.
  • Ask the students to share views about the following questions to support topic comprehension and values of the scenario:

    What’s the problem that is presented to David when he arrived to his new school?

    What do you think about the way Juan, Alberto and Ruben behaved?

    What do you think of what Isabel did? What would you do instead?

    How do you think the story ended?

    Is it important to report bullying to the teachers and tell your parents? Why?

Closing:

  • Discuss with children the importance of avoiding and reportingbullyingsituations among peers, to ensure that the human rights are being respected within the school.
  • Write on the board a list of five actions to avoid bullying.
  • Field IV

    Standards and rules for harmonious coexistence.

  • Competencies:

    Focus: Understanding and appreciation of democracy.

    Related: Social and political participation.

  • Values:

    Equity, Democratic Participation.

  • Learning outcome::

    Describes functions that correspond to any authority from his/her immediate context.

Scenario 8

The group representative

Description

In scenario “The group representative” we find a common situation in the classrooms: The election of a representativeof the group. Students from MissEsmeralda are involved in a process that implies the democratic election of the representative of the group, but they have the dilemma of what a representative is, which functions are required and what criteria should be considered for election. The scenario promotes values such as equality and democracy.

Scenario

The principal of the school visited the group that morning. She was talking with MissEsmeralda and with the children about a number of activities to be carried out throughout the school to gather resources to improve the building. She suggested them to elect a representativefor the group to know her plans and instructions, and communicate them to the rest of the classmates.When the principal went out, muttering started in the classroom.

“Miss Esmeralda, What did the principal mean by asking us to elect are presentative for the group?” asked Adriana.

  • Activities for the workbook:

    With the help of the family, make a list of five representatives from the family, school and community environment, explaining their functions or their role in a democratic life.

    What did I learn from the lesson?

  • Activity for the school environment:

    To organize an election of a group’s representative activity and do it through democratic procedure, so children can experience the processes of proposing, voting, counting and electing a representative.

“Yes, I don’t know what that is” said Esteban “Who or what is it?”

“A group’s representative is a person who represents a group” Pedro started to speak, “Well, is the person who gives orders to all the children in the classroom, ha, ha, ha.”

“That is not true”, shouted Cristina who was at the end of the row. My older brother was the representative of his group last year and he always was in charge of getting photocopies”.

“Me, I want to be a representative, to boss everyone around”, shouted Esteban.

“Yes, to go get photocopies and run our errands, ha, ha, ha” said Adriana.

“Wait children” interrupted Miss Esmeralda, when she saw the children had different ideas about what it meant to be a representative. We need to agree on whom to elect to represent the group.

“Then I pick Cristina”, said Adriana, she always gets 10.

“I think Pedro could be the representative”, shouted Rafael, he always makes us all laugh.

“Do you think that is how you choose a representative?” asked Miss Esmeralda.

“Then how teacher?” said Adriana.

“The candidate must tell us what he or she will do during the time that he or she represents the group”, answered the teacher.

Cristina and Pedro remained thoughtful, worried... Whatare they going to propose to be elected?

  • Evaluation Suggestions:

    Children participation in answering the questions from the scenario.

    List of representatives in the workbook.

    Participation in the election of the representative for the group.

Teaching Strategy

Opening:

  • Activate prior knowledge of children by implementing a brainstorming technique. Use the following questions as a guide:

    What is a representative?

Development:

  • Invite children to hear the scenario “I can do great things”.
  • Introduce scenario: “The group’s representative” by reading it to the students.
  • Ask the students to share views about the following questions to support topic comprehension and values of the scenario:

    What problem arises in Miss Esmeralda’s classroom?

    What aspects do children need to consider when electing their group representative?

    What are the functions of a representative?

    Do girls have the same rights to be representative as boys? Why?

    How should they elect their representative?

    What is democracy?

Closing:

  • The teacher will write short phrases about the functions and roles of the representatives in the democratic life, that children can register in their workbook.
  • The teacher will write short phrases about the functions and roles of the representatives in the democratic life, that children can register in their workbook.

Appendix 1

Glossary for education in values

Citizenship: It comes from the Latin voice civitas. It is defined in terms of responsibility, in the sense of corresponsabilization.

Citizenship is the belonging to a political community and it is constituted in several terms in different societies. It is linked to freedom (taken as a part of natural right, in other words, universal), or justice, or one and the other, and in this sense, it is identified with the exercise of three classes of human rights:

  • 1. Civil rights. For example: to life, to expression, to property.
  • 2. Political rights. For example: to electoral decision, to political party and union association.
  • 3. Social rights. For example: to work, to education, to health.

Currently, the idea of citizenship covers rights and duties/obligations: considered as coessential for being members of a community. More precisely, we could say that the new citizenship gathers the rights of freedom and equality, with the rights of solidarity. In this sense, the concept of citizenship joins the one of democracy andis characterized by the need of reconciling the demands of participation, on one side and on the other, the ones of justice with the ones of the market.

Civic: Respectful behavior of citizens about the norms of public coexistence.

Competency: Ability to successfully achieve the complex demands through mobilization of the psychosocial prerequisites, in a way that the individual results, reached through action, selection, or behavior according to the demands, are emphasized. Similarly, we can say that it refers to a successful intervention in a concrete problem-situation through actions in which attitudinal, procedural and conceptual actions are mobilized.

Democracy: It is derived from the Greek word demos, which means “town” and kratos that means “town’s government and authority”. Nowadays, the concept of democracy is not limited to a determined form of government; it refers to a set of norms for social and political coexistence.

Democracy as a lifestyle is a form of life based on the respect to human dignity, freedom and rights of each and all of the members of a community.

Democracy as a form of government implies the participation of the people ingovernment action through suffrage and the exercised control over what is done by the State.

Human rights: Set of prerogatives, which are inherent to a person’s nature, indispensablefor the integral development of an individual who lives in a society legally organized. These rights, established in the constitution and laws, must be recognized and guaranteed by the State.

We are all obligated to the respect human rights of others. However, according to the constitutional mandate, the ones with greater responsibility in this sense are the government authorities, that is, men and women in public office. The duty of protecting human rights represents for the State, the demand of providing and maintaining the necessary conditions, in justice, peace and freedom, so that people could really enjoy all their rights. The common welfare supposes that public power must do everything it takes to, gradually, overcome inequality, poverty and discrimination.

Dialogue: It comes from the Latinso dialogues and the Greek διάλογος. Currently, it still has an eminent normative value. The dialogue implies to talk, discuss, ask and answer between associated people in a common interest of investigation. The principle of dialogue implies philosophical and religious tolerance, in a positive and active sense and therefore, not the kind of tolerance where different points of view exist, but the one where equal legitimacy and good will to understand reasons. A growing appreciation of dialogue is accompanied by a growing appreciation and thanks to in that atmosphere- dialogue concretely lives and persists.

Human dignity: "The principle of human dignity" enunciated by Kant means the requirement as a second formula of the categorical imperative: "Act so as to treat humanity, whether in your person or in the person of another, always as an end and never merely as a means".

Education with values: Process to induce civic education in scholars, based on the active participation of their insertion in the social, cultural, political and economical contexts of their community, their province (states) and their nation.

Values education must be understood, from the constructivist perspective, as a set of natural situations and scenarios, assisted by the experience of teachers, allowing students to build their civic personality in interaction with their peers, their teachers and own sociocultural context of the institution and the social group they belong to.

Equity:It comes from the Latin aequitas, from aequus, equal; from the Greek επιεικεία, virtue of justice in a concrete case.

It is customary beneficial temperance. It is a propensity to be guided, or to fail, for the feeling of duty, or awareness, and the rigourous prescriptions of justice and the strict text of law.

It is the appealing to justice to correct the law that expresses justice. The same nature of equity is the correction of law when it is shown to be insufficient by its universal character. The law necessarily has to have a general character, and, because of this, sometimes shows to be imperfect, or with a difficult application to particular cases. In such cases, equity intervenes to judge, not from the law, but from justice and that the same law is conducted to do. Justice and equity are not the same things; equity is superior, not to justice per se, but what is formulated in a law that by reason of universality is subjected to error.

Ethics: Science of behavior. There are two fundamental concepts of this science, namely: 1) the considered end science directed to behavior of mankind and the means to achieve and to deduce such end, both end and means of mankind's nature; 2) the considered impulse science of human behavior and intends to determine it with the aim to direct or discipline behavior itself.

Honesty: Attribute of human quality that consists in behaving and expressing with sincerity and coherence (tell the truth) according to the values of truth and justice.

Identity: It comes from the Latin identitas.Set of traits of an individual or a community.These characteristics differentiate the individual (or groups of individuals) from each other. Identity is also linked toconsciousness that a person has about himself.

National identity is manifestedmainly through language, traditions and customs, common history, general values, aspirations as a people, the ethnic composition of the population, the specific culture they have generated, etc.

Equality: Principle that grants all citizens equal rights.

You can describe the moral and legal equality as that by which an individual who is subject to certain conditions or privileges has the same possibilities as another in the same conditions.

Justice: It originates from the Latin termiustitia and allows denominating one of the four cardinal virtues, one inclined to give everyone his belongings.

It is a value determined by society. It was born from the necessity of keeping peace among the members of a community. It is the group of rules that establish an appropriate frame for people and institutions, authorizing, prohibiting and allowing specific actions in individual and institutional interactions.

Moral: Pertaining or related to the actions or characters of a person, from the perspective of good and evil.

Libertad: Comes from the Latin libertas, -atis, of equal meaning. Capability mankind possess to act according to own will, throughout life; therefore, responsible for own actions.

Reciprocity: It comes from the Latin reciprocitas and it refers to the mutual correspondence of a person or thing with another. It is the principle of universal relationship of things in the world, principle by which a community is formed, an organized whole.

Respect: From the Latin respectus, it means attention, consideration. The term refers to moral and ethical issues. The recognition of self-dignity or someone else’s dignity is a behavior originated in this acknowledgment.

Commonly, respect is known by the endeavor of recognizing others, or himself/herself; a certain dignity that is required to be protected.

Respect is the consideration that someone has a value in itself and is set to reciprocity, mutual respect and mutual recognition.

Responsibility: It is the virtue or habitual disposition to assume the consequences of people’s own decisions, responding for them. It is the ability to respond for their own acts. It is all that concerns me in an exclusive way and that I can’t humanly reject.

Solidarity: Solidarity: The root refers to conduct in-solidum, that is, that the destinies of two or more people join. Therefore, to show solidarity is not only to help, but involves a commitment to that to which you are given the solidarity. In the most basic sense, solidarity is supposed to be practiced without distinction of gender, race, nationality, religion, or political affiliation. Solidarity is moved only by the conviction of justice and equality.

Tolerance: Respect for the ideas, beliefs or practices of others, when they are different, or contrary to the ones we have.

Values: Principles that allow us to guide our behavior in function of self realization. They are fundamental beliefs that help us prefer, appreciate and choose some things instead of others, or one behavior instead of another. They are also a source of satisfaction.

Truth: It comes from the Latin veritas. It is the validity or effectiveness of cognitive processes. By means truth generally the quality by which a cognitive procedure is effective or any succeeds. Truth, in general, is understood as the quality through which a cognitive procedure is efficient or successful.

Virtue: Designates any capability or Excellency that belongs to any thing or being. Its specific meanings could be reduced to three: 1)general capability or potential, 2) Capability or Human potential; 3) Capability or potential, of moral nature.

Appendix 2

Resources to learn more about education in values
Bindé, J. (2004). ¿Hacia dónde se dirigen los valores?, México, Fondo de Cultura Económica

Currently, there is a weakening and a crisis of values, which has been mainly produced by globalization only worried by technical progress; which in essence, has led to an increased materialism that has proven to be incapable of guiding actions and remains indifferent to the strength of values. This value crisis is manifested in the use of terms such as “nihilism”, “loss of meaning”, “values’ disappearance”, or “civilization shock” and values which are supposedly irreducible.

Cappello, H. (2004). El caso de los Congresos Internacionales sobre la Familia del DIF Tamaulipas: Construcción de políticas sociales, identidad colectiva y ciudadanía, Tamaulipas, DIF Tamaulipas

Analyzes the case of International Conferences of DIF Tamaulipas Family, explaining how the institutions in the State-Nation are a fundamental part of the process to create a common collective identity, a civic-political consistent character and an awareness of the most important problems and virtues in the community.

Chávez, M. (2010). Formación cívica y ética. Oferta de actualización para maestros, México, Instituto Nacional de Evaluación Educativa (INNE)

Document that presents the conceptual frame and the results of the documental analysis of the course materials, workshopsand strategy notebooks for teachers of civic and ethical formation. The study was conducted with the purpose of exploring at what extent these materials satisfy the needs of teaching formation to teach that subject. http://www.inee.edu.mx/archivosbuscador/2009/04/INEE200904118-formacioncivicayeticacompleto.pdf

Cortés, M. (2004). Una mirada psicoeducativa a los valores, España, Prensas Universitarias de Zaragoza

Theoretical and practical contents about moral development and its educational side that are seeking empowering personal, moral and ethical growth in students and, at certain point, to point out criteria and ethical education strategies for the professional development in the educational environment with the new technologies.

Education in values and Education for Development

International organization dedicated to education in values. In its website it offers multiple educational resources (videos, documents) about education in human rights, for the citizenship, for the peace, among other key topics linked to education in values. http://www.educacionenvalores. org/spip.php?rubrique8

Hoyos, G. et al. (2001). La educación en valores en Iberoamérica, Madrid, Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos (OEI)

Different Latin American experts present their perspectives about education with values. Among the analyzed topics, the role of education with values for the construction of democratic societies facing the society of knowledge, are the highlighted topics; in addition, it makes an interesting introduction of some teaching strategies and specific evaluation of education with values.

Luengo, F. y Moya, J. (2008). Escuela, familia, comunidad: Claves para la acción, España, Wolters Kluwer España, S.A.

Democratic education is not the onlysole responsibility and competence of the teachers; but involves all citizens in different levels and with complementary activities: education professionals, family, municipalities, civic associations, trade unions and democratic schools.

This work gathers ideas, resources and experiences that have been used to fight for that final objective since project Atlántida: close collaboration betweenschool, family and society, all together.

Martín, X. y Puig, J.M. (2007). Las siete competencias básicas para educar en valores, Barcelona, Graó

To educate with values, we need certain domain in seven competencies; to be one-self; to recognize others, to facilitate dialogue, to regulate participation, to work in teams, to form a school community and to work in a network. The work proposes that education with values is an essential occupation that teachers suggestfor mastering certain competencies.

Moreno, A. y Méndez, P. (2004). Familia y sociedad: Un estudio sobre los valores de los tamaulipecos, Tamaulipas, DIF Tamaulipas

The prevalent Cosmo-vision in the state of Tamaulipas is analyzed and interpreted, as well as the social manifestations that will be more common in the upcoming years. It reflects ideas, attitudes and values of Tamaulipas’ people in a way that these are known, appreciated and prepared for facing a new century.

Mota, G. (2006). Educación cívica y ciudadana: una visión global, México, Santillana

Proposes the need of strengthening dignity, identity and indispensable civil participation in the social construction of new democratic societies, based on jointly agreed upon and informed decisions. Because of the importance of this topic, this is a book of interest for the teachers of any level and also for scholars, academic, researchers and concerned citizens andbetter said, busy, with the development and consolidation of democratic life, that each day is more rooted in our country and some other Hispanic ones.

Navarro, G. (2000). El diálogo. Procedimientos para la educación en valores, España, Desclée de Brouwer, S.A.

Adolescence is a critical stage in the formation of adult personality and in morality consolidation. It is the critical moment when the individual discovers rationality and autonomy, but at the same time, s/he uses this wonderful capability of thinking by him/herself against traditional thinking, authority and morality. This often results in a crisis of values, whose uncertain culmination could leave their personality and moral judgment rooted in mere conventionalism void of principles. For them, it becomes necessary to elaborate strategies that propitiate and develop the fondness for rational thinking as a means to elaborate norms and discover values to facilitate coexistence and the solution of conflicts through dialogue.

Ochoa, A. (2010). La formación del docente para la asignatura de Formación Cívica y Ética: el caso de Querétaro, México, Congreso Iberoamericano de Educación, Metas 2021

The article reports the opinion of the teachers on the formation to teach the subject Civic and Ethical Formation and it points out some suggestions from the same teachers to improve these processes of formation. http://www.chubut.edu.ar/descargas/secundaria/congreso/DOCENTES/R1223_Ochoa.pdf

Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos (OEI), Valores

This is a web site with several publications of investigations, programs and educational resources on education with values, developed in Latin America. http://www.oei.es/valores.php

Rollano, D. (2004). Educación en valores. Teoría y práctica para los docentes, España, Ideas Propias

It gives a guide about the basic contents of education with values and mentions the very important role values have in the personal and social development of the individual. It presents an approach for education with values and it also covers the need for an integral education.

SEP (2011). Encuentro Educación y Valores para la Convivencia en el siglo XXI, 4-9 abril, México

Experts and international leaders encounter with the Mexican educational community to analyze in a critical way the civic and ethical values required for the Mexican citizen formation in the XXI century. The website grants access to the interesting lectures of the conferences’ keynote speakers and the different panels of discussions and forums analyzingwhat has been made. http://www.educacionyvalores. mx/estructura/actividades-academicas

UNESCO, Valores para vivir

International initiative supported by UNESCO, dedicated to the promotion of education with values. The web page in Spanish contains references to the programs, educational materials and formation courses. http://www.valoresparavivir.org/ index.php?lang=spanish

References

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Table of Contents

Book of Values

VALUE EDUCATION | Second Grade Elementary 25