INTRODUCTION

Today, as in the past, the triad, family, school, and community, is formed by institutions, in which a system of values should be built in order to give legitimacy and viability to the Nation. The school, with its own teaching nature is, without a doubt, the one in charge of guiding the axiological route that allows society to cohesion and build responsible citizens, ready to face the challenges that social, economic, cultural and political changes have brought, and that their participation would be to guarantee a prosperous, pacific and certainly happy country.

The objective of this book oneducating with values, proposed by Tamaulipas Integral Family Development (Sistema para el Desarrollo Integral de la Familia de Tamaulipas, DIF, for its initials in Spanish)is to complement the Tamaulipas Education Ministry’s program of civic education and ethics (SET,for its initials in Spanish). To contribute to the reinforcement school, family and society through education with values is one of the most important tasks of DIF Tamaulipas. School,because of its essence and vocation, because of its function and influence, and because of the time students spend there, becomes the perfect place to reinforce learning values among students, not only in its ethical approach, but also in preparing them as future active citizens participating in their duties with their Nation.

Two dimensions regarding educational systems

There are two dimensions regarding contemporary educational systems that give legitimacy and importance to the formation and preservation of the institutions in society, and to the incorporation of the following generations for their development. The first dimension is stated as the one having the function of transmitting knowledge through appropriate educational models where teaching is the main purpose the second dimension refers to accomplishing the complex process of forming students to integrate them to society as responsible peopleby educating them with values as a unique way of teaching, which prepare them for life, in their development as human beingsand to actively participate in the perfection of their own society.

For both dimensions, teaching and formation, there exists paradoxical situations, which some how limit their application. When teaching, not only does pertinent criteria complicate its functionality, but also –paradoxically- the increasing amount of knowledge that the geniuses of the scientific-technologic revolution constantly generate, and the frequent development of theories on society, culture, economy and politics, which encourages and renews social practice, to the point that school time available for teaching becomes limited. For formation, not only the available time is reduced, but because of its exceptional nature, its teaching becomes somewhat complex, due to the fact that it cannot separate the person who is learning from what has to be learnt, as it happens with other subjects in the curriculum, such as Physics, Chemistry, Biology, etc.

In other words, the aspects of subjectivity, emotions, affections, sensitivity and personal experiences need a different approach from the one who is solely transmitting knowledge. Because of the scarcity of time, it becomes necessary for the student to learn actively, to search for knowledge in available sources: libraries, Internet, cultural sections in the newspaper or magazines, and audiovisual aids from movies, television and theater.

It is clear that a world in constant change needs that the subjects of education become active. The main objective is to encourage and develop own learning, and to develop cognitive (motivational) skills, which prepare them for continuous learning. Simple repetition and memorization, encyclopedic teaching, discipline and textbook centered teaching are not sufficient to achieve new knowledge. This requires knowledge comprehension, giving importance to the significance of processes,students’ organization forms based in self-management of knowledge, the role of libraries as a teaching resource, the qualitative evaluations as well as the quantitative ones, and the careful use of new information technologies in the quest for knowledge.

The formation as an educational dimension doesn’t mean that it is a purely intuitive or reflexive approach. It must rely, the same as other aspects of learning on a group of systematic procedures that could take it to the continuation of a learnt event.

When we talk about the training of students with values, particularly in the first stages of learning, we are referring, not only to the acquisition of certain positive behaviors, butalso to the internalization of a group of values which shall guide them in their life and interactions in all the social areas where they have to be included and participate.

The problem of how to trigger this learning process of values, that becomes affected by the influence of multiple sociocultural behavioral models which are presented to the students on a regular basis, this fact takes us to consider a special way of teaching, that allows us to focus on what must be learnt, and could give them a certain autonomy against the perverse stimuli from other behavioral models. This way of teaching has been explained as learning through competencies.

In the same way that the students will have to learn a number of competencies to obtain a relevant, appropriate and useful education for their lives and their community participation, we must be aware that the teacher must be able to master competencesas well to educate the students with values. This implies the acquisition of a new role as a teacher, that must be not only as a mentor, but also as an adviser, counselor, tutor, friend, and partner in the knowledge construction of students, of course, without trying to replace their learning.

The objective of this book is precisely, not only giving the teacher a group of resources to improve the education with values, but also, to let the teacher work in personal achievement of the group of competencies that are necessary for teaching.

It is evident that the school has been transformed, and together with it, the knowledge that has to be taught to students. The most important actors have changed their roles, some of them for good, and others for worse. However, the school as an institution is still the citizens’ favorite, and also one of the most demanded by them. Its mission of being the place where knowledge is expected to acquirea better position, and opportunities of development within society, all this makes it vulnerable to all the critical situations of the same society. People expect too much from school, and in correspondence, not always has enough resources to satisfy all the demands that education imposes in this new era we are currently living.

Contemporary society imposes growing challenges to educational institutions and to those who are part of them, whether they are principals, teachers, students, or employees. Nevertheless, it keeps on being a niche where the new generations learn how to be part of the change and development of society. To summarize, we could say, that education with values allows us to discover who we are, how to improve, to whom and for whom we do it.

“Tell me which values you have and I will tell you who you are”, as the Stagirite philosopher would say.

The importance of values facing the challenges of contemporary Tamaulipas’ society

Tamaulipas’ society is not isolated from the changes that are happening in all societies in the world. These changes have deeply affected the lifestyles of its inhabitants, their costumes, traditions and rules for living. Having a territory that connects with the United States has brought not only some complications, but economic opportunities as well.

The changes brought by globalization, and particularly by the North America Free Trade Agreement, signed by the United States, Mexico and Canada, caused industrialization to widely develop and social, economic and demographic characteristics of this region radically change. Tamaulipas became a point of attraction to the people in southern Mexico, and also to people in other nations. Its population grew in a way that it affected its previous and well-balanced distribution in its main cities, becoming, an attractive point for employment and economic development. In the south, is the conurbation of Altamira, Tampico and Ciudad Madero, as an effect of the consolidation of oil extraction and petro chemistry industry, as well as for having two of the most important seaports in Mexico. In the north, the bordering region attracted most of the migration motivated by the national and international manufacturing industry implanted there or seeking an opportunity of migrating to the United States.

The speeding process of change in the Tamaulipas’ population to an industrial and service society had noticeable consequences. All this change was not entirely positive. It could be summarized in a relative crisis of values and mistrust to wards many of the institutions that regulate daily life.

Education with values is not a simple task. The school has to face the competence of many social agents whose influence is out of proportion because of the resources they have. The media and entertainment have invaded almost all the leisure time of children, teenagers, youth and adults, which contribute to the deterioration of many values and to their extreme relativity. They tend to show habits, costumes and norms that are prone to convert the audience into subjects of consumption, addicts to violent shows, and to the exposition to models of behaviors that are not legally accepted, or they weaken the consolidation of personal social networks.

It is not enough to simply mention that certain examples given in the media, or in neighborhood living, or even in the same family are negative, in order forstudents to avoid them. It is another approach that must be used. The exercise of this axiological teaching proposed covers the need of generating meaningful experiences, involving conditions, necessary reflections, and productive dialogues that result in a conscience of actions and a rationale of their consequences. No one can learn from someone else’s experience. That is, the students have to be able to “make it conscious”, to incorporate it not only to their knowledge background, but also to their everyday behavior when they are faced with conflicts presented in their lives.

Educational investigation has developed several procedures to make more efficient what we can design as complex learning; especially those that can be applied to various vital situations. From this class of transversal learning, values are conformed. Because of this, to make values beunderstood, it is necessary that they are interiorized and become part of the internal norms that control the actions of the person. Techniques that represent relatively complex environments are required, but within a scale that is manageable by the school and classroom environments.

Scenarios have the most versatility, adequacy, and adaptability to accomplish the objectives of an education with values.It is because of this characteristic that this technique has been selected, due to the fact that it allows a process of immersion of students in meaningful situations, in which they can activelysolve problems, dilemmas, and conditions, generating and building their own and shared learning.

The people of Tamaulipas and values.

In a recent study, sponsored by DIF Tamaulipas, onthe values of its states’ population, it was found that persons from Tamaulipas show a strong social orientation toward traditionalism, which enforces the problems of gender inequality, family violence, child abuse, paternalism, authoritarianism and low civic participation (Moreno Álvarez, 2004).

It was found in other studies from the main cities in Tamaulipas (Cappello, 1993, 1995 y 1996) that the people from this state tend to be passive in their social relationships; in their jobs’ activities, a significant percentage tends to be undisciplined; it is frequent that they avoid making decisions and assuming personal responsibilities. A big part of the population shows a tendency towards magical thoughts, and they blame destiny or bad luck for the failure of their actions. Regarding authority, most of the population shows certain ambivalence, because on one hand, they seem to be submissive in their presence, and on the other, they express hostility when they exercise authority over their subordinates.

They show fear and uncertainty towards the process of change. Their attitude about religion is positive, but often negative concerning church authorities. They love free time, and even though they like to enjoy nature, they don’t show respect for it. In a study conducted in Tamaulipas (Cappello, 1999), the people surveyed surprisingly considered that environmental pollution and destruction of green areas in the state were the least problematic issues.

However, they showed a positive attitude towards industrialization, commerce, and education. They expressed a strong concern about social violence, drug addiction, and organized crime. In general, they grant a low value to personal health.They expose their physical well being to conducts that will surely hurt them, and consider that tobacco, alcohol, and other addictions will cause them relative harm. Preventive health care is not common in many men. Women showed more concern, particularly associated with their roles as mothers, but personally, they consider that loss of health could be fatal.

Referring to ethical universal values, their orientation tends to relativism, where the majority of the population gives them little attention. It seems they are not worried about them.

Education in values must be differenced from teaching of values. In the first case, when students are educated in values, the judgment about men and his nature is the most important thing. We refer to the topics and teaching techniques that are required for the students to be able to systematically guide their behavior with the orientations that society consider as valuable. The teaching of values is focused on the instruction of conceptual, informative, and disciplinary aspects.

With the results of the investigations about values in Tamaulipas, it is seriously considered that education with values should be oriented in a very incisive way towards the formative aspect. It must be focused on the relationship between values and behavior, contextualizing the most conspicuous problems that communities, families, and individuals face.

I. FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATION IN VALUES BASED ON COMPETENCIES

School, education, and values.

Education and values have been considered as an obligated relationship to school since the former doesn’t finish its job in simple transmission of knowledge, but assumes the formation of students as one of its main functions, so that they can successfully face their lives, and maturely participate in a society that will demand from them as committed citizens.

The main aspect of this formation is the learning of values, from individual to collective, which reach their maximum significancefor exercising democratic coexistence.

Concept of values

From a Humanistic perspective, the supreme value is manhood –humanity- and the basic moral foundation of human society is its preservation, development, and perfection. Respect for life would be the value related with that preservation, emanating, extending and transferring to a complex group of facts, experiences, and behaviors pertaining to life, as peace preservation, health, environment, and public safety.

While responsibility to comply norms and obligations that improve the relationships of coexistence, institutions, and jobs, respond to the value of social and material development – the whole society- the quest for a fair and equitable society – in all dimensions of human existence: social, economic, cultural and political- would lead to perfecting human beings as citizens.

The conception of aaxiological pillar, considering the human being as a moral base, lies in three basic dimensions: Respect for life; Vocation for development, and Perfection achievement- Equity and Justice- that allow how to identify the way these values are expressed in different stages of educational development of the individual and society.

The “experienciation” is not achieved with the simple systematic exposition from concepts that integrate the value as a public and specific event represented on a cognitive category. The students should be incorporated with everything involving emotions and affections, in order to experiment what the value means. Education must start from emotions provoked by specific situations when students face dilemmas that offer experiencing values in personal and social life.

Education with values presents serious challenges for the teacher in different school levels. The management of students’ sensitivity implies the comprehension of the degree of emotional and cognitive maturity in the different ages of the students.

During development, children, teenagers and youth, besides absorbing knowledge from everywhere –formal and informal education- have a growing ability to get vital experiences that come from family role models, media, friends and surrounding community, reproducing the behavior of the observed models – consciously and unconsciously- whether good or bad, and interiorizing them as part of their identity and character. Therefore, the simple exposition as a vehicle to model axiological behaviors are insufficient. There must be another way of teaching, and another way of integrating themto the students’ curriculum.

Clyde Kluckhohn (1957), regarding values, considers that the inappropriate conceptions of the relationship between normative and existential propositions come from the disproportioned vision from existing differences and similarities among them. Lepley (1959), rejecting the emphasis that tends to exist between judgment of value and judgment of facts, claims it isa mere extrinsic distinction. According to Thorndike (1932), the judgment of value refers to the consequences of factual situations; and therefore, they are from the same type. The distinction between judgment of value and judgment of facts has a classifying nature; object of the former are the relationships via-end, and the latter, cause and effect relationships.

The integration of values in a system, a major factor in the characterization of particular structures (person, family, institutions), it becomes a necessary condition for the integration of motivations in a determined motivational system, which at the same time acts as a factor of identification of personality.

Finally, integration that forms personality, insofar it confers regularity tosocial behaviors and becomes predictable; becomes a necessary condition for role expectations to be formed around the social actors in interaction. Value integration in the personality system is made by a process of internalization that transforms value in a supplementary motivation of the action. Because of this, we must complement the approach of Kluckhohm with the interpretation that Moscovici gives to this process in the Theory of Social Representations (1986).

In most of contemporary educational systems, the so called values are the ones that are included for learning. And these values are the ones considered to support the proposal of education with the values that we present here.

The program of education with values, while taken in a general way by the educational institutions,isconsidered a triple axis –Organism, Ethics, and Environment- sometimes adding a module on civics. The program here in develops special treatments designed to address typical problems such as citizen morality -civic participation-, family and child violence -, problems in the environment- pollution, destruction of natural habitat, public gardens, recreational centers, forests, rivers, and coasts-, and public health problems and prevention- diseases, body hygiene, and collective health-, and finally, aspects of social and economic change in current circumstances: employment,business, efficiency, support, science and technology, personal development and collective progress. “Experience, contextualization, and active participation are the means for an education with values”. In other words, to incorporate the values to our behavior we must live by them, feel them, and get excited with them, as an intimate and external experience.

The school’s role in promoting values

The school in the 21st century has been transformed like all other institutions that are part of our current society. It is no longer an isolated element that allowed certain isolation from society problems, so a student, calmly, under the direction of the teacher, could learn norms for the reproduction of culture, for preparation, and complying society’s demands outside of school, as well as, adapting to the conditions that family and community impose.

The current school has moved from its initial isolation to the growing demands of a society moving towards post modernism, to the scientific-technological revolution, to the empire of massmedia, to the diversity of cultures, the socio economic ending of national borders, the growing demand of new roles, the cosmopolitanism of costumes, and to the expanding markets of globalization.

The school is involved in a constant demand. It is no longer a guarantee of school education, but has become somewhat a substitution of the family’s responsibility in forming students with values. School is demanded to be a center of knowledge and acceptance of external institutions to the preceding role, like the ones dedicated to healthcare, justice, politics, environment and new values appearing from the society’s internalization processes.

As Gilbert (2001) has said,student centered education, the integrated curriculum from preschool through high school, the construction of knowledge, the heterogeneous grouping, the cooperative study groups, the school as a community, the recognition of diversity, critical thinking, are all important, but, above all these aspects, education is a process of life.

On the other hand, school must instruct students for a democratic life. Gutmann (2001) advises that all the students must be prepared to participate as politically equal citizens, in the deliberate configuration of the future of society.

To sum up, we can say that students must be instructed in critical reflection. Rollano (2004) claims that school, in education with values must form human beings able to acquire those cognitive and affective skills that, in harmony, could help them coexist with the necessary balance and understanding to integrate themas individuals who belong to society, and also as a unique human being in the world surrounding him/her. We can consider that people and the whole society are in the middle of a crisis, and that, evidently, we are suffering a serious value crisis. This causes schoolto emerge with a very important role as a rescuer.

Ten approaches to develop education with values

In the educational environment and among experts in education with values, it is recognized that they are most frequently acquired through example ratherthan through recommendations, admonitions, punishments and rewards or by mere school instruction. There are several conditions that must be fulfilled by an effective education with values. Also, we have to consider the students’ experience, their context, and the events’ familiarity that are used to reach an axiological education. Outside their direct experience, their everyday context, and unusual conditions, or outside family perceptions, all education with values will have as a result undefiled achievements.

There are no written or specific rules to develop a strategy for education with values. However, we could present, as useful suggestions, a group of approaches that the teacher needs to take into account to teach education with values.

The first approach is to consider that it is not an easy or simple task; so, we have to accept that it is a complex task, of totalizing processes, of rich and diverse situations.

The second approach is to consider that education with values responds to a conception of “integrality” (forgive the neologism). In other words, a value could not be conceptualized as a divisible structure. No one could be considered half honest, or thirty percent honest. You are honest, or you are not honest.

The third approach is the consideration that values have the property of being transversal. This is, they could be applied to a great different number of facts, situations, objects and conditions.

The fourth approach refers to multidimensionality. Values possess the characteristic that, regardless the place where they were learnt, they could be applied to different areas of social interaction. The counter-values also have this characteristic, and that’s why they are considered dangerous.

The fifth approach considers the correspondence between universal and relative as a characteristic of values. This refers to the appropriate areas of application, the same application, and adequacy, and also the interpretation in the sociocultural diversity. For example, tolerance is considered as a universal value, but is restricted by what guides it. It is evident that, even in the culture of a racist group, this cannot be tolerated because it threatens the ethical implications of the same value.

The sixth approach refers to the fact that education with values takes as a foundation the “reality as educational space”. We educate with values, not for a purely abstract instance, but taking into account the real problems that the students face. Because of this, this kind of education goes beyond the purely scholar environments, and seeks to influence the family and proximal and broader community.

The seventh approach emphasizes that education with values must consider the relationship between the students and their development, in the double conception of growth and development skills of the person, and the development of the person as an intelligent, and ethical human being.

Private and public aspects are the main topics of the eighth approach that has to be considered. We can say that education allows the development of an individual personality with an individual values’ system, it is true that the limits between private and public are so narrow, because their relationship with the community is always close, and, each individual fact transcends to public life. That’s the reason why education is interested in preparing students as citizens.

The ninth approach refers to the idea that values are products of learning, but they are influenced by the students’ particularities, their social vocations, and their preferences about knowledge. This has to be considered as a triad of components: personality, vocation, and knowledge.

The tenth approach considers personal life, social realities, and citizenship. This implies knowing who the student is (his/her social reality, existing implications in training him/her to fully exercise his citizenship). An education with values is not complete if these three components are not contemplated, because, eventually, teachers need to consider these factors.

The concept of competencies in education with values.
What are competencies?

The didactic that allows with greater certainty this special type of learning, education with values, is the establishment of competencies.

From this point of view, what could we understand as a competency? The term is a product from formative models initially used in working environments, and, later on, in the world of schooling education, under the idea that it sets an alternative to satisfy the productive requirements in the job and the demands of life.

We are searching, with this procedure, that human actions become more efficient, but at the same time, we look for defining its components based on structures, and characteristics. This takes us to find different definitions that make us wonder, according to Zavala and Arnau (2007): What are competencies good for? Which is their field of involvement? In which situations should they be applied? And also ask: Are they aptitudes or skills? In any of these aspects are there other components? Also, to make clear the difference between competency and competent acting.

Let’s see some definitions about “competence”, and “competency” that let us recognize its basic components, in semantic and structural terms.

In the working area, McClelland (1973) defined competency as “that element that really causes a superior performance in a specific job”. As we can infer,this author implied quality in the results of the work.

Lloyd McLeary (Cepeda, 2005) defines it as “the presence of characteristics, or the absence of aptitudes that make a person qualified to perform a specific task, or to assume a definite role”. As we can observe, this definition pointsto manifested conditions: the existence or absence of aptitudes that make a person qualified to perform a specific task, or to assume a different role.

The Working International Organization (2004) defines competence as “the effective capacity to successfully accomplish a job activity completely identified”. It adds up to the former definitions, the terms of effective and successful capacity.

The Ministry of the Labor and Social Affairs of the Spanish Government (1995) defines competence as: “the capacity to apply knowledge, skills and attitudes to the performance of the correspondent task, including the capacity of response to unexpected problems, autonomy, flexibility, collaboration with the professional environment, and with the job’s organization”. As we can see, this definition adds onto the explicative area of competence, in addition to “applying knowledge, skills, and attitudes to the performance of the correspondent task”. Besides, it increases the capacity of response to unexpected problems, autonomy, and flexibility. This means, that it goes beyond mere semantics to a certain evaluative approach.

In the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2008)), ccompetence is defined as the ability to do something well, meanwhile, it also points out a difference with the word (competency) as an important ability required to perform a job. This suggests that in English, we have two words for two activities that may seem similar, but they refer to two levels of application of ability: to do something well, anything, and the required ability to perform a “task” well. This means, that rules are necessary, to perform a “task”. This second meaning is used in the definition of “competency” in the school processes, and in the external ones as well.

The Larousse Dictionary (2004) also defines competency by the application to commercial and industrial aspects, considering it as “the set of knowledge, qualities, aptitudes and aptitudes that allow to discuss, consult and decide everything concerning a task”. The definition becomes a broad explanation, and considers that the competency has a group of diverse structures whereby is defined what could be demanded in a job, implying that the knowledge could be applied, more than just theoretical.

The Organization for Cooperation and Development (OCDE, its initials in Spanish), which our country is a member, in its project, “Definition and Selection of Competencies” (2002) for the transformation of educational institutions, and educational programs, it explains competencies as “the ability to successfully accomplish the complex demands, through mobilization of psychosocial prerequisite. In this way, the results that the individual gets through his/her actions, selection or behavior according to the demands, are emphasized".

This definition is complemented with the following addition: “each competency is the combination of practical abilities, knowledge (including tacit knowledge), motivation, ethical values, attitudes, emotions, and other social and behavioral components that can be mobilized together so the action in a determined situation could be successful”. (Zavala y Arnau, 2007).

The presented definitions of competencies for educational and working environments have in common two aspects, they refer to three specific components: psychosocial properties of the person (attitudes, abilities, skills, values, etc.), qualitative orientation (success) towards a specific practice, and forms of action and performance procedures which are adequate to the performed task (efficiency and efficacy).

However, we can observe that the definitions and components attributed to “competency”, to the extent that they serve as parameters to accomplish more complex tasks, they become somewhat broader and lose certain specificity.

Actually, it is important not to forget that competency is a person’s attribute, because he/she is the receiver of the competency, the one who has to be competent. This person is the one who then acts following norms and specifications regarding the appointed task. Thus, we could say that in general terms, we could define competency as the possession of a group of abilities, knowledge, and aptitudes to develop a specific task with quality and efficiency, a specialized activity, or a required job subject to defined norms.

The aptitudes could refer to psychosocial aspects suchas attitudes, values, or skills. In educational terms, the competency implies the successful management of knowledge, aptitudes, attitudes and procedures to acquire a clearly specified learning in terms of applicability to problems, and real situations, or the practical accomplishment of the topics in a given curriculum.

When the subject to be learned -in this case, values- specifies competencies that are related with very abstract aspects, the teaching procedure gains more relevance, because it is the fundamental constitution, which should have the ability to facilitate the most generalization of what was learned. Thus, the technique of "scenarios" has been suggested.

Learning competencies through scenarios.

As we have previously mentioned, the challenge of educating with values not only implies the adoption of a theoretical and evaluative approach, but also, implies the didactic strategies from which is intended to form the students.

In this sense, several authors have manifested the suitability of “scenarios” as a teaching strategy to educate with values, due to its versatility, emulation of real situations close to the students’ lives; high motivational level that stimulates sensitivity, and the ability to propitiate the students’ engagement. (Brady, 2011; Noguera et al., 2000)

Therefore, a scenario connotes the use of a space where an action takes place, and an interaction of characters, representing a group of events, and physical and abstract components that grant meaning and certain limits to the events that happen within it, everything joined by a central argument.

Likewise, in its simplest expression, scenarios require from the performance of competencies that mobilize a group of knowledge, procedures and values, for decision making, and resolution of problematic situations that require value’s judgment and ethical reasoning.

It is worth noting that regarding the attitudinal component of competencies, the solutions to said problems, not only promote learning of a specific value, but also present an interrelationship between values due to the complex web of factors, situations, conditions, people, and groups of various interests that are conflicted in each scenario’s resolution.

Consequently, scenarios provide the participants with numerous resources to derive senses and meanings that allow them to understand the values and their importance in human and collective life, thanks to the immersion of mnemonic processes of reconstruction, recollection, evoking, and recognition of values, that facilitate their learning and transference to wider daily lifecontexts (Cappello, 2006).

Building upon the former principles, scenarios propose learning situations according to the students’ social, cognitive and moral level of development, being pre-school level the simplest and superior levels more complex.

Therefore, the topics that are brought up through scenarios have the characteristic of integrating arguments obtained from families’, schools’ and communities’ daily life’s experience.

Finally, it is convenient to point out that the teachers could introduce variations, changes or adjustments in the application of scenarios, depending on the schools’ conditions, the characteristics ofthe students and the group, the degree of participation of their parents, and the community context, as well as, the formation necessities established in the course syllabus. (Cappello, 2006).

Teaching competencies for the teachers of education with values.

Likewise students, we believe that who intends educating with values should master a number of competencies. This becomes particularly relevant, because the subject that the students should learn does not refer to material aspects or accessible knowledge that could be easily transmitted through an instructional methodology. The teacher must have certain competencies to allow him/her educate with values effectively.

Which competencies are the ones the teacher must have when educating with values? These, according to various authors (García y Puig, 2007:8), are a group of personal and professional attributes whose level of knowledge is improvable. Educating with values presents certain paradox to the teacher. Whoever he/she is and which ever educational level he/she has, as a human being and a citizen, he/she should be prepared for educating with values.

New ways of teaching advocate not for a selective orientation without foundations, but a mostly inclusive ways of teaching, assuringa trueequity of opportunities for everybody. This doesn’t mean stopping the efforts of the students in their academic responsibilities, but to guiding education to a closer teaching that allows teaching adaptation to the students’ characteristics.

This leads us to annul, in the educational community, prejudices against gender, culture, and socioeconomic class. Within the many competencies that the teacher must possess, there will always be seven basic competencies that the teacher must have when educating with values:

  • 1. To have a conscience that it is required a firm and broad education with values as a parallel to an educational revolution.
  • 2. To be himself/herself.
  • 3. To be able to recognize others.
  • 4. To facilitate dialogue.
  • 5. To regulate participation.
  • 6. To work in teams.
  • 7. To contribute to improve the school.

It is important for teachers have in mind that learning through competencies is a clear advance in teaching. However, we must understand that its application requires from a careful analysis, not only of what must be learned, but also, about its nature and components. In as much aswe get closer to topics that involve aspects with psychological and subjective dimensions, we will need a broader teaching demand, and the construction of learning based on more complex competencies. Definitely, when educating with values, success will be related to the level of competencies that the teachers have to form students in the complex world of values.

Evaluation of civic and ethical competencies: principles and instruments.

How do we evaluate the civic and ethical competencies that students learn and develop from the participation in educational processes when educating with values through scenarios?

Without a doubt, answering this question implies, on one hand, to have the characteristics of competencies’ assessment completely clear, and, on the other, to dispose of certain domain of the instruments that can be used to teach it.

In this sense, the strategy of education with values presented here assumes six key principles about the characteristics of evaluation of civic and ethical competencies, considering the orientation that are provided by the current official educational programs in our country, and supported by specialized literature. (Bolívar, 1998; San Martí, 2007; Zabala y Arnau, 2007).

1. Evaluating competencies inside problematic situations.

Learning civic and ethical competencies must be assessed byplacing the students in scenarios which show problematic situations more or less similar to those they can face in real life, that force them to analyze value choices, to perform ethical reasoning, and make decisions about the behavioral schemes more appropriate to solve those situations. That is, it is required to make a contextualized assessment from the experience of attitudes and values.

2. Evaluating competencies from the expected learning outcomes.

Each scenario establishes a group of expected learning outcomes and tasks constituting in the referents that the teachers could use to determine appropriate products and activities to obtain evidence, as well as the types of instruments and indicators of achievement. The foregoing, with the objective of aligning the teaching–learning–evaluating processes, performed in each scenario.

3. Evaluating competencies clearly defining the assessment activities.

This means that the teachers must define the products or evidences that they consider the most appropriate to observe the learning achieved by the students from their performance in each scenario. The assessment activities of competencies could be diverse, depending of the educational level, including written and graphic productions, collective projects, scripts, documentary investigations, records and attitude schemes of students, among others, that could be compiled in portfolios, or activity notebooks on an individual, team, or group level.

4. Evaluating competencies according to the type of knowledge.

Competencies consist of conceptual, procedural and attitudinal knowledge. Therefore, the teachers must specify the type and degree of knowledge they expect studentsto obtain from each of them. Considering that the manner each component learned is different, the teacher must evaluate them through activities and specific instruments, that allow observation and evaluation in the most integrated way possible, that informs of the knowledge students were capable of learning and mobilize in a specific scenario, or context where the performance of competencies are realized.

5. Evaluating competencies through instruments of formative and alternative assessment.

First of all, the assessment of competencies must be a formative evaluation that guides students in their process of learning and gradual development of certain competencies. Onthe other hand, it must be an alternative evaluation, understood as a compilation of evidences on how students process and complete real tasks in a given topic, like in the case of scenarios.

Unlike traditional assessment, alternative assessment allows teachers to perform four important evaluation activities: 1.To inform students of competencies to be evaluated.2. To document the students’ progress at a certain time, instead of comparing them with others. 3. To obtain information to adopt decisions on how to enablea learning environment that contributes in a greater manner developing competencies, attitudes and values, instead of punishing the civic, ethical and moral behavior of students. 4. To use instruments with explicit indicators of achievement and also share them with students, teachers, and parents.

Besides, competencies and values assessment must be placed in agreement with the system of values of the school and social communities in which students participate, trying to observe the consequences in the communities, depending on the way that values are applied and practiced.

6. Evaluating competencies implies assuming that learning and development are different in each student.

This requires understanding that students are not human beings that passively receive the environmental influences just like that; on the contrary, they are social agents that actively construct knowledge, attitudes, and values that are considered important to orientate their behavior.

This means that, at present, students build up their personal biographies beyond the institutionalized rules, through complex processes that allow them to set their own system of values, including values, norms, and roles that are offered by family, school, community, and media. Evidently, this process of construction varies depending on the different ages; on the first years it is focused on habits and norms, and in the teenage years it is based on the acquisition of a more complex ethical and moral reasoning.

Instruments to evaluate by competencies

According to Lopez and Hinojosa (2001), the evaluation of competencies is commonly made through two types of instruments of alternative assessment: observation techniques, and performance evaluation techniques. In our case teachers could perform the evaluation of the established competencies in the scenarios mainly through three observation instruments: comparison list, attitude scale, and rubric.

Here after, are presented, in an orientated mode, definitions, examples and general recommendations, to give some general guidance about the instruments that teachers could use to evaluate students’ competencies in each scenario implemented in class.

Check list

It consists of a list or words, phrases or sentences that, as indicators, allow the teacher to identify expected behaviors in the students’ performance in certain areas.

Such indicators must be based on knowledge, procedures, and attitudes that teachers intend to evaluate in the scenario, and must be written on the record sheet judgment, that will allow the assessment of the observed competencies. The phrases in the checklist must specify the sequence of indicators is considered fundamental for the assessment judgment. In front of each phrase,word or sentence, two value columns are included – Yes/No; Achieved/Not Achieved; Competent/Not Competent; etc – in which the observer will take note of everything addressed there, performed or not, by the observed student or group.

Example of check list; group observation

Recommendations to elaborate a checklist:

  • To identify each knowledge and behavior to be observed and make a list of them.
  • To organize the behaviors in the sequence that they are expected to occur.
  • To have a simple procedure to check what was observed.

Scale of assessment

Even though it is similar to the check list, the appreciation scale allows to detect the extent an individual shows each evaluated trait, from its absence or scarcity to the maximum possibility or certain attitude or behavior through a graphical, categorical, or numerical scale, where grading is polytomous. In other words,it is important that the instrument has a separate scale for each trait, attitude, or behavior that will be evaluated.

Example scale of assessment


Recommendations for elaborating a scale of assessment:

  • To determine the trait to be evaluated.
  • To define the trait.
  • To elaborate indicators – clearly observable – from the elaborated definition.
  • To specify the order or sequence of the indicators (if applicable).
  • To validate the logical relationship between the definition of the trait and the elaborated indicators through an expert’s judgments (content validation).
  • To select the type of scale to evaluate each indicator. The appreciation scales must be polytomous, rather numerical, categorical, or graphical.
  • To diagram the instrument.

Rubric

The rubric is an evaluation instrument based on a criteria scale and performance levels that allow determining the quality of students’ performance on specific tasks.

Regarding format or design, the rubric is characterized by three key elements that are placed on the left side; performance levels, in the upper side, and values or scores by level of performance in each evaluated criteria.

It is important to point out that rubric is an evaluation instrument designed among teachers and students, where in a negotiated and explicit manner, are established criteria and levels of performance that will be useful to evaluate the success of students in each criterion.

Example of rubric, bulletin board.


Recommendations for elaborating a rubric:

  • To select the objectives supporting the task or job that has to be completed.
  • To identify all the possible criteria to represent the behaviors or performances expected from the students while completing the task.
  • To organize criteria by levels of effectiveness.
  • To assign a numeric value according to the level of performance.
  • Each level must have behaviors or performance expected from the students, described.
  • Students should know in anticipation the evaluation criteria. Self-assessment using the rubric is recommended to the student.

II. DIDACTIC AND CURRICULAR ORGANIZATION IN THE SCENARIOS BASED ON CIVIC AND ETHICAL COMPETENCIES.

The presented strategy for education with values, it is supported by the approach based on competencies supporting the Preschool Education Program, 2004 (SEP, 2004), it is structured in three different sections. In the first one, the scenarios curricular organization is explained for the formation of civic and ethical competencies; in the second section, the teaching strategy suggested for working in the scenarios in the classroom, is presented. Finally, the topics’ organization of scenarios is desribed, according to the fundamental purposes preschool education.

Curricular organization of scenarios for the formation of competencies and values.

Scenarios are organized according to three different criteria:

Organization criteria 1: Gradual development of the competency

Scenarios are organized according to the criteria of the gradual development of competencies that expresses the Preschool Education Program 2004, specially, the ones which conformthe formative areas of personal and social development, exploration and knowledge of the world, language and communication, meeting the aspects of personal identuty and autonomy, interpersonal relations, nature, culture and social life, and oral language. However, providing various learning experiences, other competencies will gradually develop in a dinamic and interrelational manner.

Organization criteria 2.Selection of values according to the fundamental purposes or preschool education

The scenarios promote the formation of children to achieve the fundamental purposes of preschool education, especially the ones referring to children:

  • To develop a positive sense of themselves, to express their feelings and begin to act with autonomy, to regulate their emotions, and to show willingness to learn, and realize their accomplishments when doing activities, whether they are individual, and as a group.

  • That they are able to assume different roles in the game and other activities, to work in collaboration, to support each other among peers, to solve conflicts through dialogue, and to recognize and respect the rules of connivance, at school and outside of it.

  • That they get hold of values and principles that are necessary for life in community, acting based on respect to everyone else’s rights, the exercise of responsibilities, justice, tolerance, recognition, and appreciation of linguistic, cultural, ethnic, and gender diversity.

  • That they feel confident to express themselves, dialogue, and speak in their mother language, to improve their capacity of listening, to expand their vocabulary, and enrich their spoken language when communicating in varied situations.

  • That they recognize that people have different cultural traits: languages, traditions, behaviors, and lifestyles.

  • That they become interested in the observation of natural phenomenon, and participate in situations of experimentation that give them the chance to ask, predict, compare, record, elaborate explanations, and exchange opinions about processes of transformation in the natural and social immediate world, and they get favorable attitudes towards care and preservation of the environment.

Just as competencies, these fundamental purposes are deeply related, and when the scenarios are developed and the didactic suggestions, here proposed, they will be favored in an interdisciplinary manner (SEP, 2004).

It is also emphasized the importance of promoting other values, as the respect for human dignity, justice, liberty, equality, equity, solidarity, honesty, and appreciation and respect towards the cultural and natural diversity (SEP, 2009:225).

According to the Axiological Model of Integral education proposed by Gervilla (2000), these values would be part of a bigger group of values, with their anti-values, classified from five dimensions of the person, as bodily, intellectual, affective, esthetic, moral, social, instrumental-economic, and religious (see Seijo, 2009). Based on this classification we could understand, for example, that freedom is considered as an individual or liberating value, meanwhile tolerance and justice are considered as moral values.

Categorization of values based on the Axiological Model of Integral Education of Gervilla (2000)

Criterio de organización 3. Desarrollo de los valores atendiendo a los principios pedagógicos que sustenta el Programa de Educación Preescolar

Los escenarios se han diseñado pensando en atender los principios pedagógicos que sustentan el Programa de Educación Preescolar, de manera que el trabajo cotidiano con los niños al educar en valores, se realice en un ambiente propicio para el aprendizaje y bajo prácticas congruentes con estos principios: a) características infantiles y procesos de aprendizaje, b) diversidad y equidad y c) intervención educativa (SEP, 2004:31).

Estos principios se han retomado como eje central al trabajar los valores a partir de escenarios, pues, si se analizan, se puede percibir la atención que se ha dado a los siguientes aspectos: las niñas y los niños llegan a la escuela con conocimientos que son la base para seguir aprendiendo; la función de la educadora es motivar a los niños para que aprendan; las niñas y los niños aprenden en interacción con sus pares; el juego potencia el desarrollo y el aprendizaje; la escuela, como espacio de socialización, debe propiciar la igualdad de derechos entre niños y niñas; los buenos resultados de la intervención educativa requieren una planeación flexible, que tome como punto de partida las competencias y los propósitos fundamentales que marca el Programa de Educación Preescolar (SEP, 2004).

Teaching structure of scenarios

The didactic structure of the scenarios used for the formation of competencies, civic and ethical values is based on key elements concentrated on Scenarios by Competencies Table, expecting that these could guide and facilitate its application to the teachers of the corresponding grades and blocks. This structure is now presented.

Description of scenario

It describes in general terms the group of topics and activities that students should complete through the scenario, and it is useful, therefore, to guide the teacher’s job.

Field

It specifies the name of the block corresponding with the scenario.

Competencies

It details the main and related competencies, whose acquisition is promoted through the scenario.

Expected learning

Enlists the expected learning from the scenario, associated to the expected learning of the block.

Values

Enlists the values in which the scenario is focused on.

Scenario

It consists in dilemmatic situations that students must actively solve, and with the help of teachers, relatives or community members, and who facilitate the construction of their own and shared meaningful learning about certain values. In other words, scenarios consist in problematic situations about personal and social life, in which students have to make decisions involving an ethical position, or a value judgment, through the development and application of civic and ethical specific competencies.

Teaching strategy

The teaching strategy offers a detailed sequence of the initial, developing and closing activities, that, as a suggestion, the teacher could use to implement the scenario in the classroom, including more activities for the practice of competencies in scenarios in school life, and in everyday life of students. The activities are designed to facilitate the evaluation of the conceptual, procedural, and attitud in all learning expected from them, implied ineach scenario. It is important to remember that these activities could be adjusted, according to the teacher’s experience, the contextual conditions and situations of the school and the formative needs of the classroom, with the aim that the scenario be sufficiently flexible for the effective teaching of values.

The teaching strategy of scenario in terms of beginning, developing and closingis designed to be implemented in the classroom lasting approximately 45 minutes; however, the school activities or everyday activities must be completed and checked in later sessions of the same subject of Civic and Ethical Formation, or in other subjects, through transversal job.

Evaluation

The evaluation of civic and ethical competencies learning is made in a formative way through the compilation of evidences related to activities and products such as:

  • The individual participation of students in the starting activities and the developing of the scenario.

  • The production of written exercises derived from the closing exercises of the scenario, both individual and team activities.

  • Products, activities, and individual or collective products established in the scenarios applying the civic and ethical competencies in school or everyday life of students. These products must be evaluated through rubrics or checklists designed by the teacher according to the indicators of performance, or performance criteria depending on their school grade and individual development. Through these rubrics, or checklists, the teacher will be able to determine the necessary concepts, procedures, and values to evaluate the civic and ethical competencies in each scenario.

  • For the follow up and control of group and individual evaluations, the teacher could use the evidence portfolio of each student, and could have a class portfolio, where the teacher gathers the products generated from team and group activities.
Topic organization of scenarios

In general terms, educational scenarios in values for preschool pretend to form students in the competencies for life, ethical behavior and responsible citizenship. To fulfill this, the proposed scenarios for preschool revolve around gender equity, public services, responsibility, children’s rights, respect for the environment, health habits, reject physical aggression and insults, and accomplishment motivation.

These topics are adapted to the purposes and contents established in the preschool education program and the competencies that intend to favor students, and were chosen with the objective of facilitating the implementation of these scenarios in a vinculated form and complementary to the develpoment of the formative areas, following the pedagogical principles which sustain this program. In this sense, it is necessary to point out that for the realization of this educational modelin values, the teacher has the freedom to apply scenarios in a flexible manner, adapting, or creating formative activities or procedures different from the ones presented in the teaching strategysection, considering the characteristics of the group, the conditions of the classroom, the timing, and the students’ material resources, and the school, among other conditions.

In the Table of Scenarios by Competencies teachers are provided with a quick and global overview of the formative fields, themes, values and expected learning for the gradual work of a certain competence in preschool education.

Learning assessment

Working with values with preschool children requires, just as in other learning processes, an assessment that allows determining the children’s degree of progress and development, regarding to competencies and defined purposes of education with values, and the education program of the educational level that corresponds.

Nevertheless, to achieve a successful assessment of working with values, the teacher must clearly understand the objectives and function of preschool evaluation. In this regard, it is acknowledged that “learning assessment is a process consisting in comparing or qualifying what children know and can do, their competencies regarding a situation at the beginning of the school period, a work period, or a sequence of activities, and concerning the goals or established purposes in the program of each educational level. It is a judgment based on the information gathered by the teacher, organized and interpreted in different moments during daily work and throughout the school year” (SEP, 2004).

There by, assessment will constitute the base for the teacher to analyze the work with values, in a systematic way, from the scenarios’ implementation, and may make considered and informed decisions about the necessary changes in his/her teaching behavior, so the children keep progressing in the development of competencies.

It will be veryimportant that the teacher keeps in mind that the Preschool Education Program 2004 proposes a formative qualitative assessment, which implies thorough observation, in order to register the attitudes and reactions of children permanently recorded and described in their journal when working with the scenarios and the suggested activities, to be able to identify some strengths and weaknesses in their teacher’s intervention that could be improving, or obstructing the work with values. This would allow modifying and adjusting to develop the activities according to the students’ characteristics, their previous knowledge and interests, and at the same time, to meet the learning necessities shown by preschoolstudents.

The teacher, when evaluating, should have to focus her attention in the daily development of competencies that are indicated in the scenarios, attentively observing and recording the job done, and the dialogue they have between peers, and also the manifestation of attitudes that are being promoted. In this way, it would be possible to evaluate the development of competencies in the children, fulfilling, at the same time, the basic purposes that preschool education indicates.

Parents, and specially the children, are important participants in the assessment process, because their point of view when developing scenarios and the suggested activities will be of great help to the teacher when collecting valuable information, which allows him/her to have a more complete vision of the children’s advances, in education with values.


  • Grade:

    Preeschool 3

  • Field:

    Exploration and Knowledge of the World.

  • Aspect:

    Culture and Social Life.

  • Competencies:

    Recognizes and understands the importance of human action in the improvement on family life, school and community.

  • Values:

    Responsibility, solidarity, respect.

  • Expected knowledge:

    To recognize the helping brigades that the community has.

    To know and respect the rules and norms of the groups, or helping corps.

    To share in a group about the preparation of the members of safety corpsand the kind of help they offer to the community.

Scenario 1

Civil protection brigade to the rescue

Description

Based on the knowledge on the occurrence of natural phenomena, preschool children will recognize the value of having community brigades or groups of protection and relief. In addition, they will know and appreciate thesupport givento the community.

Scenario

The local news program on TV announced that heavy rains were coming at sunset. As they were watching this at home, Carime and Katia were listening to the recommendations that the Civil Protection brigade was giving to people who lived in the different neighborhoods near the Grand Canal.

Since the river was overflowing, they recommended people to take shelter in places established in case of flooding.

Katia, feeling a bit scared of what might happen if the canal overflowed, ran home to her mother and asked her to run for their lives by fleeing to the nearest shelter.

  • Favored competencies:
  • Spoken language:

    - To obtain and share the information through several forms of oral expression.
    - To listen and tell literary texts which take part in the traditional oral expression.

  • Mathematical Thinking:

    To collect information about the agreed criteria, to represent the information graphically, and interpret it.

  • Written Language:

    To express the ideas you want to communicate graphically, and to verbalize them in order to produce a written text.

  • Artistic expression and appreciation:

    To represent characters, and real or imaginary situations through games and dramatic expression.

  • Culture and social life:

    To recognize and understand the importance of human action when improving family life, school and community.

Suddenly, a loud voice was heard on the streets. It was the Civil Protection Corps that weregiving orders to evacuate the houses:

“Attention, attention to all people, for your own safety, evacuate your homes and go to the nearest shelters!”

Carime´s grandmother heard the indication, but she refused to go to the shelter. Soon after, the house began to flood and their belonging, like the television, the refrigerator and beds, began to get wet.

Then Carime´s grandmother was very scared and Carime told her to leave the house quickly and go to the shelter. When they arrived, some people welcomed them with towels so they could dry themselves. They spent the night there, together with Katia and her mother.

The next day everything was a mess in the neighborhood. However, the Civil Protection team helped everyone return home safelyand fixed the houses that had been ruined.

What do you think Carime’s grandmother should have done from the beginning?


Which other actions do you think Civil Protection Brigades performed to fix the streets?


Teaching Suggestions

Opening:

  • Ask the children, before hand, to investigate about one or more public services in their community in case of natural disasters that are likely to happen in their community, ask them to bring the information to class.
  • Activate the students’ previous knowledge by inviting them to comment in groups what they investigated: they will explain what they found and they will share it with their classmates and tell them where they found the information.
  • Ask the children:

    What do they know about public services? Have they heard something about them? What are they for? Have they heard about Civil Protection services? Who belongs to this Organization?

  • “Let’s respect and care for the public services. Some of them help us prevent risks and dangersand they take care of our lives”.

Why do they train? What do they use to do their job? Have you seen them in action?

Application:

  • Organize the children and sit them on the floor in the center of the class; invite them to listen tothe scenario “Civil Protection Brigades to the Rescue”.
  • Ask questions about what happened in the scenario to propitiate reflection, analysisand group discussion:

    If you were in Carime’s case, what would you have done? How do you consider grandma’s decision? Did she do the right thing? What would have happened if they have not done what Civil Protection people asked to? Do you know someone who lives near a river? What could happen in case of a flood? Have you seen a rescue brigade? Where do they take the victims? What do these people do to help our daily lives? What should we do with our public services as Civil Protection? Can we take care of them? How?

  • In groups, make a graph in the board where you put in the first column the students’ names; in the second column the helping brigade they know that are public servers of the communityand in the third column, how they help us.
  • Invite the parents, beforehand, to constructa fire truck, an ambulance, a boat and a Civil Protection truck with big box with their children.
  • Motivate and invite the children to go outside the classroom to play “Civil Protection to the Rescue” with what they previously did with their parents. The teacher will organize them in two teams: One team will imagine that a river is over flooding and will act it out; the other team will help them. The students are going to choose the role they want to act out (drivers, brigade members, rescuers, citizens) and they will assign the place that is going to help as a shelter.
  • Make the children reflect about the job of the Civil Protection Brigade and the service they provide for children, highlighting the value of solidarity.
  • In this activity, the teacher can complement the game with sounds of rain, storms, sirens and claxons.

Closing:

  • Draw in their notebook, what they liked the most of the “Civil Protection Brigade to the Recue” game.
  • Voluntarily, the students will talk about what they did in their notebooks and what they liked the most of this first aid service.

Evaluation

- Observe and register if the children talk about Civil Protection Brigades that exist in their community.

- Appraise if the children comment, in different games and situations, the importance of the first aids groups in the people’s life.

- Assess with their families’ help, if in the students’ daily life they respect public services that we have in the community.

- Listen attentively to the children’s participation when they talk about what they represented in the drawing to see if they identify the importance in people’s life.

- Observe the interactions in the game of the flooding, especially if the children respect and value the service that Civil Protection givesand if they display attitudes of solidarity to help others.



Helping resources

- Notebook.

- Colors, markers, pencils.

- Cardboard boxes.

- Colored Paper.

- Glue.

- Tape recorder .

- A CD with several sounds.



Portfolio Evidences

- Collect some of the students’ investigations.

- Choose a drawing that the children made.

- Photos taken during the activity.

- Photos taken during the visit of the Civil Protection member.

  • Grade:

    Preschool 3

  • Field:

    Personal and social development.

  • Aspect:

    Interpersonal relationships. Personal identity and autonomy.

  • Competencies:

    To learn about the importance of friendshipand to understand the value of trust, honesty and mutual support.

    To understand that there are different criteria, rules and external conventions to regulate their behavior in different areas in which they participate.

  • Values:

    Friendship, Solidarity, Love, Harmony.

Scenario 2

Best Friends

Descripción

From different experiences, preschoolers understand the importance of the value of friendship, and recognize mutual support and as essential to improve relationships with peers and others persons.

Scenario

On Saturday, Nicolas was very happy because it was his birthday. At lunchtime they gave him a surprise: on Sunday morning they would travel to his grandparents´ ranch to camp on the riversideand he could invite all of his friends.

As it was expected, Nicolas was happy and immediately called his friends to invite them to come. Pedro, Marcia, Lupita and Jose gladly accepted, because Nicolas was a great friend.

The next morning they went to the grandparents’ ranch. The road was long, but fun because they sang, shared their lunch and toys and told jokes together, proving to be good friends.

Finally they arrived and set up everything that was needed for camping.

  • Expected Knowledge:

    Understands the importance of friendship and mutual support.

    Participates and collaborate with peers in different activities.

    Establishes friendships with others.

Grandfather recommended the children to swim in the river along with their parents and they immediately went to put their swimsuits on. After playing a while, they went out to eat, but Jose could not find his backpack. He was having so much fun that he had not realized he had lost it.

Jose was very sad and he did not know what to do because his clothes, his pajamas and his toys were in the backpack. Immediately Pedro, Marcia, Lupita and Nicolas cheered him upand hugged him so he would not feel sad, showing their love and support. Jose had also helped them when they had had a problem, so everyone started looking for the backpack, until they found it.

Which other things do you think the children could have done to show their friendship and support to Jose?

What do you do to show your friendship to others?

Teaching Suggestions

Opening:

  • Previously, ask the children to interview a family member and a friend about what friendship is.
  • Discuss in the class these questions:

    Who are your friends? Why do you think they are your friends? What things should a friend do to help us?

Application:

  • Invite children to listen to the scenario “Best Friends”.
  • Ask students about the reading, so they can reflect and talk about:

    If one of your friends had a problem, as Jose did, how would you help him? Do you have friends? What do you do with them? What can we do to have friends? How can you take care of someone’s friendship?

  • Favored competencies:
  • Spoken language:

    - Collects and share information through several ways of oral expression.

    - Listen and tell literary stories,part of the oral tradition.

  • Interpersonal Relationships:

    Learns about the importance of friendship and understanding the value of trust, honesty and mutual support.

  • Personal identity and autonomy:

    Understands the existence of criteria, rulesand external agreements to regulate behavior in the different areas of participation.

  • Talks with children about what they have done to help their friends and what feelings they have.
  • Invite children to play “A good friend”, for this, children will choose a classmate to complete the activity, in a way that they get organized in pairs.

    In order to feel identified with their new friend, the children will make “The Friendship Bracelet” that is in their Workbook. To make it, they will work in pairs and will agree which color they want and how to decorate it. The teacher will suggest decorating the bracelets in the same way, so they can identify them easily.

    The deal will be that for one week, as they work together, when doing the activities, they will get to know thisfriend better, helping out, sharing materials orplaying during recess, in a way that interpersonal relationships are favored and develop bonds of friendship and mutual support among the members of the group.

Closing:

  • To finalize, the children will come up to the front go in pairs to talk about the experiences they had during the week: what they felt to make a new friend, how they helped each other and the things they shared. This will end with a reflection about the importance of having a friend and providing mutual support.
  • “Friendship must be taken care of with love, respect, confidence and mutual support in good times and bad times”.

Evaluation

- Listen and register what the children talk about friendship and the meaningit hasfor them.

- Observe children’s companionship when they interact, participate and collaborate when working with friends.

- Observe if children show affection, friendship and support towards their peers.



Support Resources

- Workbook.

- Markers, crayons, foamy.



Evaluation

- Collect some children-made evidences, as the bracelet of friendship.

- Take pictures or record friends in a video.

  • Grade:

    Preeschol 3

  • Field:

    Personal and social development.

  • Aspect:

    Interpersonal relationships. The natural world.

  • Competencies:

    Understands that people have different needs, points of view, cultures and beliefs and that they must be treated with respect.

    Recognizes that human beings are different, that we are all important and that we have abilities to participate in society.

  • Values:

    Respect, friendship, justice, love, and solidarity.

Scenario 3

All of us have the same rights

Descripción

From teaching situations proposed in this scenario, preschoolers will know and appreciate some human rights, especially those having to do with the care of people with disability, they will express their ideas about these rights and their feelings when they are not respected.

Scenario

It was a beautiful afternoon. Mario and Rosita were playing outside their house when suddenly they saw that new neighbors had arrived. The children were surprised when they saw that Paco, the new boy, could not walk. He was in a wheel chair and was wearing a pair of glasses. Rosita and Mario approached him and said:

“Hello, we are Mario and Rosita, we're your new neighbors! Would you like to play with us?”

But Paco replied:

  • Expected Knowledge:

    Knows some human rights, especially the care of people with disabilities.

    Understands the importance of respecting and upholding human rights.

    Recognizes and respects differences between people.

    Participates and assists in the promotion of human rights.

  • Favored Competencies:
  • Spoken language:

    - Collects and shares information through several ways of oral expression.

    - Listens and tells literary stories, part of the oral tradition.

“No thanks! People like me have few friends. We cannot play like everyone else and we hardly go to school because we are different from others”.

Rosita asked him:

“Why do you say that Paco? You have the right to go to kindergarten, to have friends and play! You're a valuable person like us! Look at yourself, you're very kind and very friendly!”

Paco answered:

“In the city where I lived, they didn’t accept me in kindergarten because I can’t walk and teachers said I can’t do all the activities that other children do”.

So Rosita and Mario started to tell to him about the rights people with disabilities haveand because the teacher had explained to them that everybody has rights. One of them was that they must be taken care of and valued by others, despite their physical appearance and whether they have money or not.

Rosita Said:

"You, Mario, and me, all people have rights and we can talk to enforce them!".

Rosita and Mario had the great idea of invite him to their kindergarten, where there were other kids like him, who had some disability, but who had been treated with affection and respect, just like them.

What do you think they did to start this idea?

How do you think this story ends?


  • Written language:

    Expresses the ideas you want to communicate graphically and to verbalize them in order to produce a written text.

  • Interpersonal relationships:

    Understand that people have different needs, points of view, cultures, and beliefs that must be treated with respect.

  • Culture and social life:

    Recognizes and understands the importance of human action in the improvement of family life, school and community.

  • Dramatic expression and plastic appreciation:

    Communicates and expresses creative idea by plastic representations, using various techniques and materials.

Teaching suggestions

Opening:

  • Instruct children at home wondering what is a right and what human rights are. They will be asked to bring images related with the topic to school.
  • Ask them about the topic in class and write their responses on the board. Together, make a list of human rights and place images to represent them.

Application:

  • Invite children to listen to the scenario “We all have the same rights”.
  • Ask questions about the scenario, in a way that allows reflection and dialogue.

    Rosita, Mario and Paco were talking about which right?; Did Mario and Rosita do the right thing with Paco? Why?; Do you think that Paco should not attend kindergarten because he is not able to walk?; What would you have proposed to Paco?; Do you think that children with disabilities should have the rights to go to school, play and have friends; Why?;How would you feel if you were Paco and didn’t have the chance to have friendsand attend school?; What can you do so people and children know their rights?

  • To emphasize the importance of respect towards the physical, social, and economic differences of people.
  • Children will share experiences about someone they know and has any disability; it may be a friend, relative, or someone they could have seen somewhere. They will share information about which disability this person has, how they treat that person, the attentions that this person receives, and which abilities or positive attitudes he/she has. From these experiences, they will express their ideas about whether their rights are respected or not, and they will make suggestions about how they can support that person.
  • Emphasize the importance of respect towards the physical, socialand economic differences of people;
  • “All the people are important, that’s why we have rights. Respect them and make them count”.

made with a sponge, or any material that allows it to turn easily. She will invite students to play. “Which is this right?” First, she will ask them to sit in a circle and individually; each of them will have the chance to throw the dice. Each student will try to guess which is the right; if it’s difficult for him/her, the rest of the group will help with clues to guess the right. To include more rights, the teacher could use two dices, throwing them randomly.

Closing:

  • To finish, the teacher will set a box full of slips of paper with all the mentioned rights (one for each kid, even if they are repeated). The teacher will ask the students to take one and the teacher will ask them to make a poster with the help of their families about the right they got (drawings, cut outs, phrases, or pictures could be suggested).
  • The products will be exposed outside the classroom the next day, with the title “We all have the same rights”. The children can participate in the exposition, sharing about the right they got.

Assessment

- Value the children’s comments about human rights from the presentation of illustrations and also about the ones of being solidary and fair with other people.

- Appreciate, with the help of their families, if the children talk, practice or respect the human rights in everyday situations.

- Observe if the children express their ideas to defend their rights in different situations, when they identify that they are not being respected.

- Observe if children show affective attitudes and mutual support towards the people, promoting their rights.



Supporting resources

- Images where you can observe human rights.

- Bond paper, or construction paper, markers, crayons.

- Sponge dices.

- Colored paper, markers, paint, colored pencils, magazines, scissors and glue.



Portfolio of evidences

- Keep the list of rights made by the children and the teacher.

- Take photos or record the game “Which right is this?”

- Collect some works from home, elaborated with the help of the students’ families.

  • Grade:

    Preeschool 3

  • Field:

    Personal and social development.

  • Aspect:

    Interpersonal relationships.

  • Competencies:

    To learn about the importance of friendship and understand the value of trust, honesty and mutual support.

  • Values:

    Responsibility, Solidarity, Collaboration, Friendship, Mutual support.

  • Expected learning:

    To become aware of the sense of friendship and mutual support.

    To learn about the importance of collaboration in a shared task, or shared goal.

    To participate and collaborate with adults, boysand girls in different activities.

Scenario 4

It’s better if we all help

Description

With the experiences in the following scenario, children analyze and reflect on the importance of joint participation and mutual support among group members to perform various activities or situations involving teamwork to achieve a common goal.

Scenario

It was Saturday afternoon, a cool and beautiful day. Fabian and his friends, Rafael and Emiliano, decided to spend the afternoon at Daniela’s house, a kindergarten friend. Fabian had a huge puzzle he had received as a gift and wanted to put it together at his friend’s house.

When they arrived to Daniela’s house, they had an unpleasant surprise. They saw that the roof had collapsed because of the heavy rains.

  • Favored Competencies:
  • Spoken language:

    - Obtains and shares the information through several forms of oral expression.

    - Listens and tells literary texts which take part in the traditional oral expression.

  • Interpersonal relationships:

    Gradually interiorizes the norms of relationship and behavior based on equity confidence, honesty and mutual support.

  • Plastic expression and appreciation:

    Communicates and expresses ideas, feelings and fantasies creatively through plastic representations, using various techniques and materials.

They went with Daniela. She was very sad and they immediately hugged her. Daniela, a bit scared and told them:

“Sorry guys but I guess we can’t play today, they are fixing the roof and a lot of things have been broken and we haven’t finish yet!”

Mrs. Norma, Daniela’s mom, was exhausted of cleaning and picking things up here and there while some neighbors were just watching her and reading the newspaper.

Fabian had an wonderful idea and told his friends:

“What if we help Daniela and her family? They will finish faster!”

The children thought that if they all cooperated they could solve the problem fasterand this is how they got organized: Daniela´s father started to fix the roof with wood while her mother handed him the tools. Daniela and Fabian picked up the trash and put it in garbage bags. Rafael helped moving the furniture and Emiliano went to his house to bring food for Daniela and her family because they hadn’t eaten anything at all.

After a few hours, the chores had been successfully completed. Fabian said:

“It is a beautiful house Daniela! The roof now is greatand everything seems to be in order!”

The neighbors came closer and asked Daniela’s parents if they had fixed the roof by themselves.

“No, these kids helped us. Their support was really important because we fixed the house all together and it was easier and quicker! We all cooperated!” answered Daniela’s father

“Yes!” Daniela said, “Thanks to my friends’ help and the work we did together, our house is beautiful againand that makes me feel so happy. Come onfriends, let’s sit in the living room and put Fabian’s puzzle together!”

Before they started, Fabian went to his house to bring some snacks. Jorge helped serving lemonade and Daniela brought some pieces of cake. They had a wonderful afternoon together.

  • “Helping each other is a value that makes your heart bigger and makes us stronger as a team”.

Teaching suggestions

Opening:

  • Ask the group beforehand to investigate about the topic of solidarity, mutual support and collaboration.
  • Activate the children’s previous knowledge about the next questions:

    Has someone heard something about solidarity? Does someone like to help others? When should we help others? Whom could we help in our family, or at school? ; How can we do this?

Application:

  • Invite children to listen to the scenario “If we all help it’s better”.
  • Ask questions about the scenario “If we all help, it’s better”, in a way that it allows reflectionand dialogue among them:

    What could have happened if the children hadn’t helped Daniela and her family? Was the neighbors’ attitudecorrect? If you were Daniela’s neighbor, what would you have done? Do you think it’s important that we all help and support each other? Why? What did Daniela’s friends do to show her their love and support? In which other situations can we help others? How can we help at home? Would you like to be helped when you need it? Why? Have you helped or supported someone in need? How? What have you said to let them know that you support themand to make them feel better?

  • Invite the children to play “We all help Daniela”. To do this, they will organize in teamsand children will be told to help Daniela to build her house. For this, they will divide the tasks; in a way that among all of them they can build only one houseand they could value the collaboration, mutual supportand collective work as a way to achieve a common goal.

    The first team will build the walls with cardboard boxes or wood, construction blocks, or other materials that they have at hand;

the second team will build the roof with foamy, construction paper, or fabric; the third team will make doors and windows with cardboard or foamy.

The teacher will promote the participation and collaboration of all the members of the teams, in a way that each one of them could do something to build Daniela’s house.

  • When each one of the teams has finished its part of the house, they will comment within their teams how they helped to accomplish the tasks; each student has to mention the actions s/he did.
  • Children will be asked to express their emotions about building the house, what they felt about collaborating among alland what could have happened if only one of the students had built it (which difficulties would s/he havefaced); also, they will be asked to give their opinions about the advantages of collaboration.
  • Closing:

    • Talk at home about the ways in which they can help and support other people in different situations. With the help of their parents, children will make a representation in their notebook about the value of solidarity.
    • The next day, the children should talk about the work done.


    Supplementary activity:

    Invite children to participate in a campaign to help the ones in need; clothes donation, Red Cross collaboration, support to the elders; helping in disasters; among others, to make them live the value of solidarity.

    Assessment

    - Observe and register if children talk about the importance of friendship and mutual support.

    - Observe if children collaborate in games and different school activities with other children or adults.

    - Identify if children are capable of helping someone in need.

    - Assess if children propose actions for helping others when they need it.

    - Identify if children represent different situations in which they practice the value of solidarity.

    Supporting resources

    - Cardboard or wooden boxes.

    - Construction blocks.

    - Foamy, construction paper, or fabric, cardboard.

    - Paint, brushes, colored paper, markers, cut outs.

    - Scissors and glue.



    Portfolio of evidences

    - Photos of the house built.

    - Works made by the children representing the value of Solidarity.

    • Grade:

      Preschool 3

    • Field:

      Exploration and knowledge of the world.

    • Aspect:

      The natural world.

    • Competencies:

      Participates in the natural environment conservationand proposes measures to preserve it.

    • Values:

      Responsibility; Respect for the environment; Care of the environment to which s/he belongs.

    • Expected learning:

      Understand that they are part of an environment that needs and must be cared for.

      Learn basic forms of recycling to betterhis/her surroundings.

      Practices and proposes actions to take care of the environment.

    Scenario 5

    The 3 r’s of recycling

    Description

    From experiences in this scenario, preschoolers will learn the importance of protecting the environment and various measures to reduce pollution, raising awareness of its harm to our environment.

    Scenario

    One afternoon, Lucy was very bored in her house, so she decided to turn on the T.V. and watch her favorite cartoon: “The Planet’s Adventures”. The new episode was about saving the Earth because people were destroying it with pollution everywhere,water and airand were damaging animals and plants. People were not realizing that this could bring sickness and evendeath.

    Lucy started to think and was sad to see all these images of polluted places and wondered:

    • Favored competencies:
    • Spoken language:

      - Listens and tells literary texts that take part in the traditional oral expression.

      - Obtains and shares the information through several forms of oral expression.

    • Nature:

      Participates in the conservation the natural environment and proposes measures for preservation.

    • Plastic expression and appreciation:

      Communicates and expresses ideas, feelings and fantasies creatively through plastic representations, using various techniques and materials.

    How can we help to reduce pollution? What can we do so people can dump trash in its place?

    While these images where passing, the cartoon hero, “Super R”, explained that in order to take care of our environment it is important to reduce pollution by using the “Three R Rule”.

    “Super R” said: “Remember, you must do this in the correct order: reduce, reuse and recycle”.

    “Reduce: It is important to choose products with less wrappings as well as to usejust the necessary energy. Also, we have to reduce the use of toxic products, such as batteries”.

    “Reuse: As long as we start reusing more products, we’ll use less energy. This can help our economy too”.

    “Recycle: The transformation of materials that have been used into new products to be consumed again. You can recycle paper, cardboard, plastic, glass, metal, etc. It is important to keep in mind that in order to recycle we have to separate each material”.

    Super R” ended saying: “Recycling is one of the most important actions to save our planet from pollution, so each one’s duty is to separate waste at home. In order to make the recycling process easier, the inorganic waste must be separated in three different bags or containers: glass and plastic in one;paper and cardboard together in another. The organic wastes should be in a separate bag or container”.

    When the program ended, Lucy felt worried about helping dumping waste in the correct place and reduce pollution at home, school and community.

    If you were Lucy, what would you do to take this important information to the people in your school and community?

    • “If we want to help the environment, we should all reduce, reuse, and recycle”.

    Teaching suggestions

    Opening:

    • Previously, ask children to investigate with their relatives or neighbors about pollution. .
    • Activate students’ previous knowledge from the following questions:

      Do you know what pollution is? What causes it? How does a polluted place look like? What can be done to not pollute our environment?

    Application:

    • Invite children to listen to the scenario “The 3 r’s of recycling”.
    • Ask questions about the scenario, in a way that allows reflection and dialogue among them:

      What information did Lucy learn while watching TV? Why is it important to separate trash? Do you remember the rule of the 3Rs? Which is the correct way to separate trash? What is recycling? Are these actions done in your house? Do you know someone who separates trash? What would you do at school and community for people to recycle trash? In which other ways can we respect and take care of our environment?

    • Organize children in six teams to play “The 3 R’s of recycling”; three teams will build the containers for recycling trash, one per team. Each team will label the container: Plastic, Glass or paper-cardboard; they will make a drawings, or paste cut outs related to their container.

      Another team will make some badges with the letter “R” to be identified in the next activity. The badges will be made with the creativity of studentsand with the help of their teacher; they could be nametags, caps, bracelets, vests, etc.

      The last two teams will make some posters or brochures with phrases and drawings related to “The 3R’s of Recycling” to spread the information at school and in the community.

      The teams will work simultaneously in the previous activities.
    • Invite children to walk around the community to collect trash; also atschool, after recess. For this, they will have some pins, made by their classmates and they will identify themselves as “Super “R” Group”. Likewise, they will take advantage of that walk to hand out the brochures with informationandshow the posters made at school to friends, neighbors and other classmates.
    • Back in the classroom, the trash collected will be placed in the corresponding containers. To do this, each child will take an object and say where the trash belongs and why.

    Closing:

    • To finish, children will do the activity “The 3 R’s of Recycling” in their notebook, where they have three containers. Invite the children to write with the help of the teacher the name of the types of trash in each of the containers: glass, plasticand paper-cardboard and color them with crayons, or paint them to identify them, cut from magazines, supermarket flyersand other printed materials, different products or trashand paste them in the corresponding container.
    • Ask children to talk about the importance of recycling trash at home and at school. They will be asked:

      What could happen if everybody threw the trash anywhere? What can we do in the community so neighbors could recycle? How does this action help decrease the amount of trash? Which other things could we do to take care of our environment?

    Assessment

    - Observe and register if the children comment on everyday situations about “The 3 R’s of Recycling”.

    - Appreciate, with the help of their family, if children perceive the importance of keeping the environment clean and free from contaminants.

    - Identify if children recycle waste in different situations at school or at home.

    - Observe and assess the children’srecycling suggestions.

    - Listen to the comments that children make during the recycling activities and the environmental care.



    Supporting resources

    - Colored paper, markersand crayons.

    - Scissors and glue.

    - Magazines and brochures.

    - Waste products.

    - Containers or plastic bins.

    - Construction paper, color paper, glitter, cut outs, paint.

    - Foamy, ribbons, buttons, labels.



    Portfolio of evidences

    - Photos of the community walk.

    - Photos of the containers.

    - Evidences of some students’ workbooks.

    - Save some of the teams’ badges.

    - Keep some brochures and posters made by children.

    • Grade:

      Preschool 3

    • Field:

      Physical development and health.

    • Aspect:

      Health promotion.

    • Competencies:

      Practice basic preventive and safety measures to preserve their health, toprevent accidents and risks in school and outside.

    • Values:

      Self-care, Responsibility.

    • Expected learning:

      Learn the importance of being healthy and practice healthy habits in their daily life.

      Identify the food pyramid.

      Learn the importance of getting shots and eating right.

      Learn basic actions to take care of their health.

    Scenario 6

    Growing healthy

    Description

    When working this scenario and some of the suggested activities, preschoolers will do activities to promote their health. In particular, they will identify the Food Pyramid and the vaccines, as central actions for improving healthy habits.

    Scenario

    One morning, when arriving to school, the preschoolerssaw some nurses in the yard, which made them feel worried. As the children went to their classrooms they were talking about what they had seen. Some of them were worried and scared of nurses; one of them was Santiago, he said he wanted to go home with mommy.

    The teacher was in the classroom, but she only listened to the children until the class began. She saw her students’ worries, so the first thing she did was to ask them what they were talking about.

    Quickly Santiago asked: “What are the nurses doing here?”

    • Favored Competencies:
    • Spoken language:

      - Obtains and shares the information through several forms of oral expression.

      - Listens and tells literary texts that take part in the traditional oral expression.

    • Health Promotion:

      Practices basic preventive and safety measures to preserve health, to prevent accidents and risks .

    • Dramatic expression and theatrical appreciation:

      Represents characters and real or imaginary situations through play and dramatic expression.

    • Culture and social life:

      Recognizes and understands the importance of human action in the betterment of family life, in school and in the community.

    And Sofia answered: “I think they are here to give us shots, Santiago!”

    “Is that good, teacher?” Santiago asked concerned.

    “Look children, nurses are excellent persons; they love children very much andthey’re indeed visiting us to give all the preschoolers their vaccines. They’ve also come to tell us about the importance of having proper nutrition to grow healthy and strong.” said the teacher in a reassuring way.

    Immediately, the children’s chatter was heard again, but Sofia intervened to calm her classmates exclaiming:

    “There’s nothing to worry about! Last week I went with my grandpa José to the healthcare center so he could get his shots. He told me it hurt just a little. It was like a small pinch. The nurse who assisted him told me that a vaccine would make him stronger to protect him of many illnesses.

    The children calmed down with Sofia’s comments.

    Rachel intervened also saying: “I also went with my mom to the hospital the other day and a nurse told us about the importance of a balanced diet by eating fruits and vegetables”.

    Then, the teacher said: “What your classmates say is true. For you to grow healthy, you should get your vaccines and have a balanced diet”.

    “Teacher”, Santiago said, “My mom says that I didn’t get my shot when I was four years oldand that I eat a lot of chips and soda. Is that bad, teacher?

    How do you think the teacher answered?

    How do you think this story ended?

    Teaching suggestions

    Opening:

    • Ask children beforehand, to investigate at home about the health topic: eating right, the food pyramid, vaccines; invite them to bring illustrations or cutoutsonthe topics, vaccination records, etc.
    • Ask children questions about their eating and vaccination habits:

      Does anyone know whyit isimportant to have a good health? How can we be healthy? Have you heard about eating right? Have you heard about vaccines?Have you ever gotten a vaccine? Does anyone know how vaccines and eating right related with people’s health?

    Application:

    • Invite children to listen to the narrative of the scenario “Growing healthy”.
    • Ask children questions about the scenario, in a way to allow reflection and dialogue:

      What do you think the teacher responded to Santiago? What could Santiago do if he wasn’t vaccinated?Is it OK to eat chips and soda?Willit help him to have good health and grow healthy? What would you do if you were Santiago?What do you suggest to grow up as healthy kids? What other things can we do to grow healthy?; Which other actions can we take to have a good health?

    • Invite four mothers or fathers to participate in the activity “Growing healthy” so each of them coordinate a working area in the classroom with the children.
    • Corner 1: “The Food Pyramid”. In this area, the teacher placesa picture of the food pyramid on the wallandsome cutouts on the table, related to the food groups in the pyramid, food wrappings, clay, butcherpaper, markersand glue.
    • Children will be asked to elaborate the food pyramid with the materials, using the picture as a model. They will present
    • “You’re health is very important, take care of it! Eat nutritious food and remind your family to have you vaccinated”.

    their finished work and will talk about good nutrition, about which foods from the pyramid are consumed at homeand the importance of following a balanced diet.

    Corner 2: “The cooks”. In this area, toy food will be placed, cutouts, food wrappings and food in good condition, which take part of the Food Pyramid. The task will be to play being cooksand prepare food from the ones in the pyramidgroups; each kid will say which foods s/he choseand which group they belong to. The illustration of the pyramid can be placed on the wall, so the children can use it as a model. They could make chef hats and chef jackets for the representation.

    Corner 3: “Vaccines”. In this area, the teacher will place the illustration of a vaccination record on a wall so children can use it as a model. A mom will wear a nurse uniform, or they will invite a mom who is a nurse. The “nurse” will hand out some vaccination records, so they can explore them, she will explain about the basic vaccines they should getand the diseases they prevent, she will show children the material they use to apply vaccinesand she will pretend to give a vaccine to a baby doll; besides, she will teach them how to write onthe vaccination record. Use items to decorate the area like a doctor’s office.

    At this point, children will talk on the importance of getting their vaccines to be in good health: Which vaccines have they gotten? Why do they believe they are important? Who can apply the shots and where?

    Corner 4: “Let’s play shots”. In this corner, children will represent doctors and nurses in applying vaccines and talk about its importance in health and in the prevention of illnesses. Accordingly, the teacher will place materials to help children perform the drama and play freely, taking care of not losing the teaching objective. The materials will be baby dolls, cribs, nurse hats, stethoscopes, white suits, toy syringes, cotton, plastic containers and blank vaccination records made with white paper so children can fill them out.

    Note: The areas should be worked simultaneously (25 minutes approximately) and then rotating so everyone can workin all 4 corners. Prepare the material for the whole class since all of them will be in all the corners.

    • The parents and the teacher will coordinate and support the children while working. The teacher will ask the parents to attend, beforehand so she can explain the purpose of the corners, and their function in them, and the materials which they will use.
    • After completing the four areas, the children will make a circle with the parents. The teacher will give children a toy microphone, so children could ask questions related to the topic:

      Which groups form the food pyramid? Which food was prepared in the areas?; Why are vaccines important?; Which vaccines must be given to children?; What can we do in order to have a good health?; and some other questions that could help them reflect about the experienced lived in the areas.


    Closing:

    • Finish, the children will represent with drawings, cut outs, or different materials in their notebook, the food pyramid; in the next page, they will paste a copy of their vaccination cardand they will write their names on it. Children will be invited to expose their works.
    • They will end up with this reflection:

      What do you propose to have a good nutrition? What do you suggest for following the application of vaccines properly?

    Evaluation

    - Observe and register if children talk about the importance of being healthyand taking care of themselves from practicing good healthy habits.

    - Assess with the help of their families, if children in everyday situations (especially in the recess, or lunch time) change their eating habits.

    - Observe if children identify the Food Pyramid and the groups that form it..

    - Assess if children talk about the importance of vaccinesand the basic plan for vaccination..

    - Assess the dramatic representations of children and the comments they make about the topic.

    - Appreciate the graphic representation of children about the topic.



    Support Resources

    - Illustration of the Food Pyramid.

    - Vaccination records.

    - Cut outs of the food groups that are part of the pyramid and products’ wrappings.

    - Clay, a piece of construction paper, markers and glue.

    - Toy fruits and vegetables, food in good condition, products’ wrapping.

    - Magazines, colored pencils, markers, paint.

    - Nurses’ hats, white suits, syringes, cotton, bottles and empty boxes of drugsand other materials to support dramatization.



    Portfolio of evidences

    - Photos of the four corners.

    - Save the pyramid made by the children.

    - Collect evidence from the workbook and some copies of the vaccination cards.

    • Grade:

      Preschool 3

    • Field:

      Personal and social development. Exploration and knowledge of the world.

    • Aspect:

      Personal identity and autonomy.

    • Competencies:

      Gradually interiorize the norms of relationship and behavior basedon equity and respect.

      Recognize that human beings are different, that we are all importantand that we have abilities to participate in society.

    • Values:

      Respect, friendship, tolerance, patience, and prudence.

    Scenario 7

    I speak with respect.

    Descripción

    When developing this scenario and the teaching suggestions proposed here, preschoolers understand the importance of respect as an attitude of life to enhance their personal development and understand that dialogue based on affection and prudence is the best means to understand each other and relate with others.

    Scenario

    Raul and Wendy live in Valle Azul neighborhood, located very close to the kindergarten. In the afternoon they got together to organize a surprise birthday party for Melissa, a cute little girl who attends kindergarten with them.

    The next day, without Melissa knowing about it they told the rest of the group about the surprise party. They distributed the invitations and activities. Lupita was assigned to receive guests and hand out whistles and party caps, to which she responded with a bad attitude. She was frowning behind Melissa’s back and said ugly words and bad things about her physical and economical condition.

    Melissa is dark skin and thin girl; she has limited resourcesand Lupita didn’t like that at all, so she didn’t want her to help in the party’s organization.

    • Expected Learning:

      Understands the importance of respect for their colleagues and to others.

      Meets some values that allow a better coexistence: respect, honesty and tolerance.

      Expresses feelings and gradually controls impulsive behavior and words that affect others.

      Considers the consequences of his words and his actions to himself and others.

      Avoids verbally insulting peers and others.

    Enrique, another classmate that was observing Lupita, shared the same ideaand both told Wendy in a rude and hostile manner:

    “Look, Wendy, we don’t want you to organize Melissa’s party, we don’t like her, she doesn’t have any money! If you make the party we won’t be your friends anymore!”.

    How do you think the story ended?

    Teaching suggestions

    Opening:

    • Before hand, ask children to talk to their parents or relatives about the value of respectand what must be done to respect other people.
    • Activate previous knowledge, from the next questions:

      What is respect? What do respectful people do? Would it be important to respect the others? Why? What are insults? What do you understand by threat? Is it all right that we threaten people? Why? How do you think people feel when they are threatened or insulted? What can you do to avoid insulting others?

    Application:

    • Invite children to listen to the scenario: “I talk with respect”.
    • Ask questions about the scenario, in a way that it allows reflection and dialogue among them:

      Do you think they had the party? What do you think Wendy responded to Lupita and Enrique? How do you think Melissa felt when she heard what they were saying about her? Do you think Lupita’s attitude was correct? Why? Would you participate in Melissa’s party? Why? Is it correct to insult and threaten others? Is it correct to place others aside because of their physical and economic condition? What would you say to Lupita and Enrique? What would you tell Melissa?

    • Favored Competencies:
    • Spoken language:

      - Obtains and shares the information through several forms of oral expression.

      - Listens and tells literary texts that take part in the traditional oral expression.

    • Culture and social life::

      Recognizes and understands the importance of human action in the improvement of family life, school and community.

    • Interpersonal relationships:

      Gradually internalizes the norms of relationship and behavior based on equity and respect.

    • Written language:

      Expresses the ideas you want to communicate graphically and to verbalize them in order to produce a written text.

      How can we say what we think without offending others? Do you think it is important to treat people with respect? Why? Which words could we use to not offend others?

    • Invite children to play “Speaking with respect”. For this, the teacher will draw the scenario characters in a bond paperandwill tape them on the board. The teacher will askthe children to tag the nameeach character. After this, children will be asked about the attitudes shown on stageand it will be written next to the character. Then, children will talk about how they think the character felt when acting one way or another; what they felt when they were insulted will also be registered. In this activity, children may help with writing.
    • Among all the children of the group, they will comment who were the characters that acted properly, showing attitudes of respect and affection towards others. These characters will have a positive sign. After this, they will talk about who acted in the wrong wayand they will draw a cross next to them.
    • Children will be asked their opinion to express phrases that help improve the relationships with other people and make reference to friendship, admiration, care and correct ways to ask for things and other phrases that help children to say what they think and feel without offending others.
    • Give children big cards in different sizes and colors to write phrases and decorate them creatively.
    • When they finish the card, they will deposit it inside a box called “The respect chest”.
    • The teacher will explain children that “The Respect Chest” is very valuable, because inside of it, we can find phrases that can help us have a good relationship with others.
    • Children will be organized in a circle to take one card out of the chest and read the phrase of respect, care or admiration. To support the reflection about this value, the teacher will deposit other phrases and drawings regarding respect. The teacher will ask children if this phrase or action deserves to be in the box of treasures, or notand she will ask children to defend their ideas.
    • “If I express my ideas and feelings with love and respect, I will be a great person”.

    Closing:

    • Invite children to do the activity “Speaking with respect”, shown in their Workbook. For this, children will be asked to paste a sticker or a symbol in the actions they must take to express to others their ideas, or feelings with respect.
    • Talk about the work doneand reflect upon the following questions:

      What happens if I insult or threat others with my words? What can I do to communicate with others with respect?



    Evaluation

    - Observe and register if children talk about the importance to respect others.

    - Observe if children respect their classmates in everyday situations.

    - Identify if children are able to recognize verbal expression that imply respecting others.

    - Listen to the children’s comments when they talk about the characters and attitudes.

    - Observe and listen to the comments of the children when they elaborate respectful phrases.



    Supporting resources

    - Bond paper

    - Big drawings of the characters in the scenario

    - Colors, markers, pencils

    - Colored cardboards

    - Glue and scissors

    - Stickers, foamy, glitter

    - Big trunk of cardboard, or box

    - Tape



    Portfolio of evidence

    - Collect some of the messages in the cards.

    - Keep the characters elaborated in bond paper.

    - Choose and keep some elaborated works by the student in their notebook.

    - Photos of the activities.



    • Grade:

      Preschool 3

    • Field:

      Personal and social development. Exploration and knowledge of the world.

    • Aspect:

      Personal identity and autonomy.

      Culture and social life.

    • Competencies:

      Recognizes own qualities and abilities and the ones of their classmates.

      Establishes family and community relationships between the present and the past through objects, everyday situations and cultural practices.

    • Values:

      Responsibility, Patience, Effort, Perseverence.

    • Expected learning: :

      Recognizes when a bigger effort is necessary in order to achieve goals.

      Imagine his or her futureand express his/her ideas about what s/he would like to be and do as a member of society.

    Scenario 8

    When I grow up

    Description

    From this scenario and the teaching activities that are proposed here, the preschoolers will recognize that they have the ability to achieve goals and whatever they want being responsible and making an effort.

    Scenario

    The school’s term was about to end in the kindergarten. They were talking about the new one ahead of them and their way to elementary school. So the teacher asked the little ones, what they would like to do when they grew up.

    Martha answered she would love to be a veterinarian, so she could heal all sick animals.

    Rolando expressed: “I’m going to be a carpenter, like my dad!”

    The rest of the students expressed they’d like to be architects, teachers, police officersand nurses. One of them wanted to have a restaurantand a girl wanted to have a clothing store...

    Luis answered he didn’t want to be anything.

    The teacher asked him in surprised, “Why do you say you don’t want to be anything. Luis?”.

    • Favored Competencies:
    • Spoken language:

      - Obtains and shares the information through several forms of oral expression.
      - Listens and tells literary texts that take part in the traditional oral.

    • Artistic expression and appreciation:

      Represents characters and real or imaginary situations through games and dramatic expression.

    • Culture and social life:

      Recognizes and understands the importance of human action in the improvement of family life, school and community.

    So he answered: “Because I don’t know how to read. I think I’m too little and I won’t be able to study if I don’t learn. I just can’t, teacher!”

    The teacher told the children that little by little they would learn everything they wanted, but in order to achieve that they needed to do something very important.

    “And what is so important teacher?” asked Martha.

    “Well, study! Give your best effort to achieve what you want to be when you grow up”.

    Luis smiled, saying: “I want to be an airplane pilot! And when I come to visit you, teacher, I will take you on a big airplane!”

    What do you think happened to Luis when he grew up?

    Teaching suggestions

    Opening:

    • Ask children, beforehand, to investigate about what their mothers, fathers, uncles, aunts, or siblings doand what their job is. Then, they will talk about this in the classroom.
    • Activate the children’s previous knowledge through the following questions:

      What would you like to be when you grow up? Why? Do you know what you are going to do when you work in the future? What do you need to achieve what you want?

    • Artistic expression and appreciation::

      Represent characters and real or imaginary situations through games and dramatic expression.

    Application:

    • Invite the children to listen the scenario “When I grow up”.
    • Ask questions to the children about the scenario, in a way that reflection and dialogue are promoted among them:

      What do you think Luis should do to be an airplane pilot? What happens if Luis doesn’t strive for being a pilot? Do you think he will be able to make it? What will happen to him? What do you have to do to be what you want?

    • Invite children to play “When I grow up”, for this, the teacher will prepare clothes, accessories, toys and objects to allow the representation of different professions by the children. With their costumes on, they’ll be asked to dramatize what they want to be and to mention what they need to do to achieve it.
    • Invite some parents to talk with the children about the Jobs they do and what they had to do to achieve it; preferably ask those that have an office or profession to visit, so in a simple way they share their experience about the process they lived to achieve their dreams.
    • The teacher can write a script parents can follow during the conversation.

    Closing:

    • Give the children diverse materials to present what they’d like to be when they grow up and what will they do to achieve it.
    • “Dreaming is beautiful, but more beautiful is to achieve our dreams. If you put an effort, you can achieve what you want”.

    Evaluation

    - Observe and register if the children talk about the importance of respecting other people.

    - Observe if the children respect their classmates in daily situations.

    - Observe if the children recognize verbal expressions that involve respecting others.

    - Listen to the children’s commentaries talking about the characters and their attitudes.

    - Observe and listen to the commentaries the children make when elaborating respectful phrases.



    Support Resources

    - Bond paper sheets.

    - Large drawings of the scenario characters.

    - Colored pencils, markers pencils.

    - Colored cardboard.

    - Scissors and glue.

    - Stickers, foamy, glitter.

    - Big trunk of cardboard, or box.

    - Tape.



    Portfolio of Evidence

    - Collect some messages from the cards.

    - Keep the elaborated characters in bond paper.

    - Choose and keep some elaborated works by the students.

    - Photos of the activities.



    Appendix 1

    Glossary for education in values

    Citizenship: It comes from the Latin voice civitas. It is defined in terms of responsibility, in the sense of corresponsabilization.

    Citizenship is the belonging to a political community and it is constituted in several terms in different societies. It is linked to freedom (taken as a part of natural right, in other words, universal), or justice, or one and the other, and in this sense, it is identified with the exercise of three classes of human rights.

    • 1. Civil rights. For example: to life, to expression, to property.
    • 2. Political rights. For example: to electoral decision, to political party and union association.
    • 3. Social rights. For example: to work, to education, to health.

    Currently, the idea of citizenship covers rights and duties/obligations: considered as coessential for being members of a community. More precisely, we could say that the new citizenship gathers the rights of freedom and equality, with the rights of solidarity. In this sense, the concept of citizenship joins the one of democracy andis characterized by the need of reconciling the demands of participation, on one side and on the other, the ones of justice with the ones of the market.

    Civic: Respectful behavior of citizens about the norms of public coexistence.

    Competency: Ability to successfully achieve the complex demands through mobilization of the psychosocial prerequisites, in a way that the individual results, reached through action, selection, or behavior according to the demands, are emphasized. Similarly, we can say that it refers to a successful intervention in a concrete problem-situation through actions in which attitudinal, procedural and conceptual actions are mobilized.

    Democracy: It is derived from the Greek word demos, which means “town” and kratos that means “town’s government and authority”. Nowadays, the concept of democracy is not limited to a determined form of government; it refers to a set of norms for social and political coexistence.

    Democracy as a lifestyle is a form of life based on the respect to human dignity, freedom and rights of each and all of the members of a community.

    Democracy as a form of government implies the participation of the people ingovernment action through suffrage and the exercised control over what is done by the State.

    Human rights: Set of prerogatives, which are inherent to a person’s nature, indispensable for the integral development of an individual who lives in a society legally organized. These rights, established in the constitution and laws, must be recognized and guaranteed by the State.

    We are all obligated to the respect human rights of others. However, according to the constitutional mandate, the ones with greater responsibility in this sense are the government authorities, that is, men and women in public office. The duty of protecting human rights represents for the State, the demand of providing and maintaining the necessary conditions, in justice, peace and freedom, so that people could really enjoy all their rights. The common welfare supposes that public power must do everything it takes to, gradually, overcome inequality, poverty and discrimination.

    Dialogue: It comes from the Latinso dialogues and the Greek διάλογος. Currently, it still has an eminent normative value. The dialogue implies to talk, discuss, ask and answer between associated people in a common interest of investigation. The principle of dialogue implies philosophical and religious tolerance, in a positive and active sense and therefore, not the kind of tolerance where different points of view exist, but the one where equal legitimacy and good will to understand reasons. A growing appreciation of dialogue is accompanied by a growing appreciation and thanks to in that atmosphere dialogue concretely lives and persists.

    Human dignity: "The principle of human dignity" enunciated by Kant means the requirement as a second formula of the categorical imperative: "Act so as to treat humanity, whether in your person or in the person of another, always as an end and never merely as a means".

    Education with values: Process to induce civic education in scholars, based on the active participation of their insertion in the social, cultural, political and economical contexts of their community, their province (states) and their nation.

    Values education must be understood, from the constructivist perspective, as a set of natural situations and scenarios, assisted by the experience of teachers, allowing students to build their civic personality in interaction with their peers, their teachers and own sociocultural context of the institution and the social group they belong to.

    Equity:It comes from the Latin aequitas, from aequus, equal; from the Greek επιεικεία, virtue of justice in a concrete case.

    It is customary beneficial temperance. It is a propensity to be guided, or to fail, for the feeling of duty, or awareness, and the rigourous prescriptions of justice and the strict text of law.

    It is the appealing to justice to correct the law that expresses justice. The same nature of equity is the correction of law when it is shown to be insufficient by its universal character. The law necessarily has to have a general character, and, because of this, sometimes shows to be imperfect, or with a difficult application to particular cases. In such cases, equity intervenes to judge, not from the law, but from justice and that the same law is conducted to do. Justice and equity are not the same things; equity is superior, not to justice per se, but what is formulated in a law that by reason of universality is subjected to error.

    Ethics: Science of behavior. There are two fundamental concepts of this science, namely: 1) the considered end science directed to behavior of mankind and the means to achieve and to deduce such end, both end and means of mankind's nature; 2) the considered impulse science of human behavior and intends to determine it with the aim to direct or discipline behavior itself.

    Honesty: Attribute of human quality that consists in behaving and expressing with sincerity and coherence (tell the truth) according to the values of truth and justice.

    Identity: National identity is manifestedmainly through language, traditions and customs, common history, general values, aspirations as a people, the ethnic composition of the population, the specific culture they have generated, etc.

    National identity is manifested mainly through language, traditions and customs, common history, general values, aspirations as a people, the ethnic composition of the population, the specific culture they have generated, etc.

    Equality: Principle that grants all citizens equal rights.

    You can describe the moral and legal equality as that by which an individual who is subject to certain conditions or privileges has the same possibilities as another in the same conditions.

    Justice: It originates from the Latin termiustitia and allows denominating one of the four cardinal virtues, one inclined to give everyone his belongings.

    It is a value determined by society. It was born from the necessity of keeping peace among the members of a community. It is the group of rules that establish an appropriate frame for people and institutions, authorizing, prohibiting and allowing specific actions in individual and institutional interactions.

    Moral: Pertaining or related to the actions or characters of a person, from the perspective of good and evil.

    Libertad: Comes from the Latin libertas, -atis, of equal meaning. Capability mankindpossess to act according to own will, throughout life; therefore, responsible for own actions.

    Reciprocity: It comes from the Latin reciprocitas and it refers to the mutual correspondence of a person or thing with another. It is the principle of universal relationship of things in the world, principle by which a community is formed, an organized whole.

    Respect: From the Latin respectus, it means attention, consideration. The term refers to moral and ethical issues. The recognition of self-dignity or someone else’s dignity is a behavior originated in this acknowledgment.

    Commonly, respect is known by the endeavor of recognizing others, or himself/herself; a certain dignity that is required to be protected.

    Respect is the consideration that someone has a value in itself and is set to reciprocity, mutual respect and mutual recognition.

    Responsibility: It is the virtue or habitual disposition to assume the consequences of people’s own decisions, responding for them. It is the ability to respond for their own acts. It is all that concerns me in an exclusive way and that I can’t humanly reject.

    Solidarity: The root refers to conduct in-solidum, that is, that the destinies of two or more people join. Therefore, to show solidarity is not only to help, but involves a commitment to that to which you are given the solidarity. In the most basic sense, solidarity is supposed to be practiced without distinction of gender, race, nationality, religion, or political affiliation. Solidarity is moved only by the conviction of justice and equality.

    Tolerance: Respect for the ideas, beliefs or practices of others, when they are different, or contrary to the ones we have.

    Values: Principles that allow us to guide our behavior in function of self-realization. They are fundamental beliefs that help us prefer, appreciate and choose some things instead of others, or one behavior instead of another. They are also a source of satisfaction.

    Truth: It comes from the Latin veritas. It is the validity or effectiveness of cognitive processes. By means truth generally the quality by which a cognitive procedure is effective or any succeeds. Truth, in general, is understood as the quality through which a cognitive procedure is efficient or successful.

    Virtue: Designates any capability or Excellency that belongs to any thing or being. Its specific meanings could be reduced to three: 1)general capability or potential, 2) Capability or Human potential; 3) Capability or potential, of moral nature.

    Appendix 2

    Resources to learn more about education in values
    Bindé, J. (2004). ¿Hacia dónde se dirigen los valores?, México, Fondo de Cultura Económica

    Currently, there is a weakening and a crisis of values, which has been mainly produced by globalization only worried by technical progress; which in essence, has led to an increased materialism that has proven to be incapable of guiding actions and remains indifferent to the strength of values. This value crisis is manifested in the use of terms such as “nihilism”, “loss of meaning”, “values’ disappearance”, or “civilization shock” and values which are supposedly irreducible.

    Cappello, H. (2004). El caso de los Congresos Internacionales sobre la Familia del DIF Tamaulipas: Construcción de políticas sociales, identidad colectiva y ciudadanía, Tamaulipas, DIF Tamaulipas

    Analyzes the case of International Conferencesof DIF TamaulipasFamily, explaining how the institutions in the State-Nation are a fundamental part of the process to create a common collective identity, a civic-political consistent character and an awareness of the most important problems and virtues in the community.

    Chávez, M. (2010). Formación cívica y ética. Oferta de actualización para maestros, México, Instituto Nacional de Evaluación Educativa (INNE)

    Document that presents the conceptual frame and the results of the documental analysis of the course materials, workshops and strategy notebooks for teachers of civic and ethical formation. The study was conducted with the purpose of exploring at what extent these materials satisfy the needs of teaching formation to teach that subject. http://www.inee.edu.mx/archivosbuscador/2009/04/INEE200904118-formacioncivicayeticacompleto.pdf

    Cortés, M. (2004). Una mirada psicoeducativa a los valores, España, Prensas Universitarias de Zaragoza

    Theoretical and practical contents about moral development and its educational side that are seeking empowering personal, moral andethical growth in students and, at certain point, to point out criteria and ethical education strategies for the professional development in the educational environment with the new technologies.

    Education in values and Education for Development.

    International organization dedicated to education with values. Multiple educational resources (videos, documents) in human rights education, for the citizenship, for peace, among other key topics linked to education with values is offered in website. http://www.educacionenvalores. org/spip.php?rubrique8

    Hoyos, G. et al. (2001). La educación en valores en Iberoamérica, Madrid, Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos (OEI)

    Different Latin American experts present their perspectives about education with values. Among the analyzed topics, the role of education with values for the construction of democratic societies facing the society of knowledge, are the highlighted topics; in addition, it makes an interesting introduction of some teaching strategies and specific evaluation of education with values.

    Luengo, F. y Moya, J. (2008). Escuela, familia, comunidad: Claves para la acción, España, Wolters Kluwer España, S.A.

    Democratic education is not the onlysole responsibility and competence of the teachers; but involves all citizens in different levels and with complementary activities: education professionals, family, municipalities, civic associations, trade unions and democratic schools.

    This work gathers ideas, resources and experiences that have been used to fight for that final objective since project Atlántida: close collaboration betweenschool, family and society, all together.

    Martín, X. y Puig, J.M. (2007). Las siete competencias básicas para educar en valores, Barcelona, Graó

    To educate with values, we need certain domain in seven competencies; to be one-self; to recognize others, to facilitate dialogue, to regulate participation, to work in teams, to form a school community and to work in a network. The work proposes that education with values is an essential occupation that teachers suggestfor mastering certain competencies.

    Moreno, A. y Méndez, P. (2004). Familia y sociedad: Un estudio sobre los valores de los tamaulipecos, Tamaulipas, DIF Tamaulipas

    The prevalent Cosmo-vision in the state of Tamaulipas is analyzed and interpreted, as well as the social manifestations that will be more common in the upcoming years. It reflects ideas, attitudes and values of Tamaulipas’ people in a way that these are known, appreciated and prepared for facing a new century.

    Mota, G. (2006). Educación cívica y ciudadana: una visión global, México, Santillana

    Proposes the need of strengthening dignity, identity and indispensable civil participation in the social construction of new democratic societies, based on jointly agreed upon and informed decisions. Because of the importance of this topic, this is a book of interest for the teachers of any level and also for scholars, academic, researchers and concerned citizens andbetter said, busy, with the development and consolidation of democratic life, that each day is more rooted in our country and some other Hispanic ones.

    Navarro, G. (2000). El diálogo. Procedimientos para la educación en valores, España, Desclée de Brouwer, S.A.

    Adolescence is a critical stage in the formation of adult personality and in morality consolidation. It is the critical moment when the individual discovers rationality and autonomy, but at the same time, s/he uses this wonderful capability of thinking by him/herself against traditional thinking, authority and morality. This often results in a crisis of values, whose uncertain culmination could leave their personality and moral judgment rooted in mere conventionalism void of principles. For them, it becomes necessary to elaborate strategies that propitiate and develop the fondness for rational thinking as a means to elaborate norms and discover values to facilitate coexistence and the solution of conflicts through dialogue.

    Ochoa, A. (2010). La formación del docente para la asignatura de Formación Cívica y Ética: el caso de Querétaro, México, Congreso Iberoamericano de Educación, Metas 2021

    The article reports the opinion of the teachers on the formation to teach the subject Civic and Ethical Formation and it points out some suggestions from the same teachers to improve these processes of formation. http://www.chubut.edu.ar/descargas/secundaria/congreso/DOCENTES/R1223_Ochoa.pdf

    Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos (OEI), Valores

    This is a web site with several publications of investigations, programs and educational resources on education with values, developed in Latin America. http://www.oei.es/valores.php

    Rollano, D. (2004). Educación en valores. Teoría y práctica para los docentes, España, Ideas Propias

    It gives a guide about the basic contents of education with values and mentions the very important role values have in the personal and social development of the individual. It presents an approach for education with values and it also covers the need for an integral education.

    SEP (2011). Encuentro Educación y Valores para la Convivencia en el siglo XXI, 4-9 abril, México

    Experts and international leaders encounter with the Mexican educational community to analyze in a critical way the civic and ethical values required for the Mexican citizen formation in the XXI century. The website grants access to the interesting lectures of the conferences’ keynote speakers and the different panels of discussions and forums analyzingwhat has been made. http://www.educacionyvalores. mx/estructura/actividades-academicas

    UNESCO, Valores para vivir

    International initiative supported by UNESCO, dedicated to the promotion of education with values. The web page in Spanish contains references to the programs, educational materials and formation courses. http://www.valoresparavivir.org/ index.php?lang=spanish

    References

    Bolívar, A. (1998). Educar en valores. Una educación para la ciudadanía, España, Consejería de Educación y Ciencia de la Junta de Andalucía.

    Brady, L. (2011). “Teacher Values and Relationship: Factors in Values Education”, Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 36(2):56-66.

    Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2008). Cambridge University Press.

    Cappello, H.M. (1993). “Variaciones de la identidad nacional. Un estudio empírico de la identidad y el carácter en seis regiones de la nación mexicana”, Pensar es Cultura, CONACULTA, México.

    —— (1995). “Processes of Change in the Civic-Political Identity and Character of Two Cities from the Northeast of Mexico –Revisiting the Theory”, International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, SOCIOTAM, Vol. 5. N. 1:9-55.

    —— (1996). “Los procesos de globalización, la cultura política e identidad y carácter nacionales en México”, en: D. Mato, M. Montero, E. Amodio (Coords.), América Latina en tiempos de globalización – Procesos culturales y transformaciones sociopolíticas, U. C. V., Asociación Latinoamericana de Sociología, UNESCO, Venezuela.

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    Diccionario Enciclopédico Larousse (2004). España.

    García, X.M. y Puig, R.J.M. (2007). Las siete competencias básicas para educar en valores, Barcelona, Graó.

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    Gilbert, S. (2001). “John Dewey: filósofo de la educación democrática”, Sincronía, Universidad de Guadalajara, consultado en el sitio web: http: sincronía.cucsh. udg.mx/gilbert3.htm

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    Table of Contents

    Book of Values

    VALUE EDUCATION | Third Grade Preeschool 25