INTRODUCTION

Today, as in the past, the triad, family, school, and community, is formed by institutions, in which a system of values should be built in order to give legitimacy and viability to the Nation. The school, with its own teaching nature is, without a doubt, the one in charge of guiding the axiological route that allows society to cohesion and build responsible citizens, ready to face the challenges that social, economic, cultural and political changes have brought, and that their participation would be to guarantee a prosperous, pacific and certainly happy country.

The objective of this book oneducating with values, proposed by Tamaulipas Integral Family Development (Sistema para el Desarrollo Integral de la Familia de Tamaulipas, DIF, for its initials in Spanish)is to complement the Tamaulipas Education Ministry’s program of civic education and ethics (SET,for its initials in Spanish). To contribute to the reinforcement school, family and society through education with values is one of the most important tasks of DIF Tamaulipas. School,because of its essence and vocation, because of its function and influence, and because of the time students spend there, becomes the perfect place to reinforce learning values among students, not only in its ethical approach, but also in preparing them as future active citizens participating in their duties with their Nation.

Two dimensions regarding educational systems

There are two dimensions regarding contemporary educational systems that give legitimacy and importance to the formation and preservation of the institutions in society, and to the incorporation of the following generations for their development. The first dimension is stated as the one having the function of transmitting knowledge through appropriate educational models where teaching is the main purpose the second dimension refers to accomplishing the complex process of forming students to integrate them to society as responsible peopleby educating them with values as a unique way of teaching, which prepare them for life, in their development as human beingsand to actively participate in the perfection of their own society.

For both dimensions, teaching and formation, there exists paradoxical situations, which some how limit their application. When teaching, not only does pertinent criteria complicate its functionality, but also –paradoxically- the increasing amount of knowledge that the geniuses of the scientific-technologic revolution constantly generate, and the frequent development of theories on society, culture, economy and politics, which encourages and renews social practice, to the point that school time available for teaching becomes limited. For formation, not only the available time is reduced, but because of its exceptional nature, its teaching becomes somewhat complex, due to the fact that it cannot separate the person who is learning from what has to be learnt, as it happens with other subjects in the curriculum, such as Physics, Chemistry, Biology, etc.

In other words, the aspects of subjectivity, emotions, affections, sensitivity and personal experiences need a different approach from the one who is solely transmitting knowledge. Because of the scarcity of time, it becomes necessary for the student to learn actively, to search for knowledge in available sources: libraries, Internet, cultural sections in the newspaper or magazines, and audiovisual aids from movies, television and theater.

It is clear that a world in constant change needs that the subjects of education become active. The main objective is to encourage and develop own learning, and to develop cognitive (motivational) skills, which prepare them for continuous learning. Simple repetition and memorization, encyclopedic teaching, discipline and textbook centered teaching are not sufficient to achieve new knowledge. This requires knowledge comprehension, giving importance to the significance of processes,students’ organization forms based in self-management of knowledge, the role of libraries as a teaching resource, the qualitative evaluations as well as the quantitative ones, and the careful use of new information technologies in the quest for knowledge.

The formation as an educational dimension doesn’t mean that it is a purely intuitive or reflexive approach. It must rely, the same as other aspects of learning on a group of systematic procedures that could take it to the continuation of a learnt event.

When we talk about the training of students with values, particularly in the first stages of learning, we are referring, not only to the acquisition of certain positive behaviors, butalso to the internalization of a group of values which shall guide them in their life and interactions in all the social areas where they have to be included and participate.

The problem of how to trigger this learning process of values, that becomes affected by the influence of multiple sociocultural behavioral models which are presented to the students on a regular basis, this fact takes us to consider a special way of teaching, that allows us to focus on what must be learnt, and could give them a certain autonomy against the perverse stimuli from other behavioral models. This way of teaching has been explained as learning through competencies.

In the same way that the students will have to learn a number of competencies to obtain a relevant, appropriate and useful education for their lives and their community participation, we must be aware that the teacher must be able to master competencesas well to educate the students with values. This implies the acquisition of a new role as a teacher, that must be not only as a mentor, but also as an adviser, counselor, tutor, friend, and partner in the knowledge construction of students, of course, without trying to replace their learning.

The objective of this book is precisely, not only giving the teacher a group of resources to improve the education with values, but also, to let the teacher work in personal achievement of the group of competencies that are necessary for teaching.

It is evident that the school has been transformed, and together with it, the knowledge that has to be taught to students. The most important actors have changed their roles, some of them for good, and others for worse. However, the school as an institution is still the citizens’ favorite, and also one of the most demanded by them. Its mission of being the place where knowledge is expected to acquirea better position, and opportunities of development within society, all this makes it vulnerable to all the critical situations of the same society. People expect too much from school, and in correspondence, not always has enough resources to satisfy all the demands that education imposes in this new era we are currently living.

Contemporary society imposes growing challenges to educational institutions and to those who are part of them, whether they are principals, teachers, students, or employees. Nevertheless, it keeps on being a niche where the new generations learn how to be part of the change and development of society. To summarize, we could say, that education with values allows us to discover who we are, how to improve, to whom and for whom we do it.

“Tell me which values you have and I will tell you who you are”, as the Stagirite philosopher would say.

The importance of values facing the challenges of contemporary Tamaulipas’ society

Tamaulipas’ society is not isolated from the changes that are happening in all societies in the world. These changes have deeply affected the lifestyles of its inhabitants, their costumes, traditions and rules for living. Having a territory that connects with the United States has brought not only some complications, but economic opportunities as well.

The changes brought by globalization, and particularly by the North America Free Trade Agreement, signed by the United States, Mexico and Canada, caused industrialization to widely develop and social, economic and demographic characteristics of this region radically change. Tamaulipas became a point of attraction to the people in southern Mexico, and also to people in other nations. Its population grew in a way that it affected its previous and well-balanced distribution in its main cities, becoming, an attractive point for employment and economic development. In the south, is the conurbation of Altamira, Tampico and Ciudad Madero, as an effect of the consolidation of oil extraction and petro chemistry industry, as well as for having two of the most important seaports in Mexico. In the north, the bordering region attracted most of the migration motivated by the national and international manufacturing industry implanted there or seeking an opportunity of migrating to the United States.

The speeding process of change in the Tamaulipas’ population to an industrial and service society had noticeable consequences. All this change was not entirely positive. It could be summarized in a relative crisis of values and mistrust towards many of the institutions that regulate daily life.

Education with values is not a simple task. The school has to face the competence of many social agents whose influence is out of proportion because of the resources they have. The media and entertainment have invaded almost all the leisure time of children, teenagers, youth and adults, which contribute to the deterioration of many values and to their extreme relativity. They tend to show habits, costumes and norms that are prone to convert the audience into subjects of consumption, addicts to violent shows, and to the exposition to models of behaviors that are not legally accepted, or they weaken the consolidation of personal social networks.

It is not enough to simply mention that certain examples given in the media, or in neighborhood living, or even in the same family are negative, in order forstudents to avoid them. It is another approach that must be used. The exercise of this axiological teaching proposed covers the need of generating meaningful experiences, involving conditions, necessary reflections, and productive dialogues that result in a conscience of actions and a rationale of their consequences. No one can learn from someone else’s experience. That is, the students have to be able to “make it conscious”, to incorporate it not only to their knowledge background, but also to their everyday behavior when they are faced with conflicts presented in their lives.

Educational investigation has developed several procedures to make more efficient what we can design as complex learning; especially those that can be applied to various vital situations. From this class of transversal learning, values are conformed. Because of this, to make values beunderstood, it is necessary that they are interiorized and become part of the internal norms that control the actions of the person. Techniques that represent relatively complex environments are required, but within a scale that is manageable by the school and classroom environments.

Scenarios have the most versatility, adequacy, and adaptability to accomplish the objectives of an education with values.It is because of this characteristic that this technique has been selected, due to the fact that it allows a process of immersion of students in meaningful situations, in which they can activelysolve problems, dilemmas, and conditions, generating and building their own and shared learning.

The people of Tamaulipas and values.

In a recent study, sponsored by DIF Tamaulipas, onthe values of its states’ population, it was found that persons from Tamaulipas show a strong social orientation to ward traditionalism, which enforces the problems of gender inequality, family violence, child abuse, paternalism, authoritarianism and low civic participation (Moreno Álvarez, 2004).

It was found in other studies from the main cities in Tamaulipas (Cappello, 1993, 1995 y 1996) that the people from this state tend to be passive in their social relationships; in their jobs’ activities, a significant percentage tends to be undisciplined; it is frequent that they avoid making decisions and assuming personal responsibilities. A big part of the population shows a tendency towards magical thoughts, and they blame destiny or bad luck for the failure of their actions. Regarding authority, most of the population shows certain ambivalence, because on one hand, they seem to be submissive in their presence, and on the other, they express hostility when they exercise authority over their subordinates.

They show fear and uncertainty towards the process of change. Their attitude about religion is positive, but often negative concerning church authorities. They love free time, and even though they like to enjoy nature, they don’t show respect for it. In a study conducted in Tamaulipas (Cappello, 1999), the people surveyed surprisingly considered that environmental pollution and destruction of green areas in the state were the least problematic issues.

However, they showed a positive attitude towards industrialization, commerce, and education. They expressed a strong concern about social violence, drug addiction, and organized crime. In general, they grant a low value to personal health.They expose their physical well being to conducts that will surely hurt them, and consider that tobacco, alcohol, and other addictions will cause them relative harm. Preventive health care is not common in many men. Women showed more concern, particularly associated with their roles as mothers, but personally, they consider that loss of health could be fatal.

Referring to ethical universal values, their orientation tends to relativism, where the majority of the population gives them little attention. It seems they are not worried about them.

Education in values must be differenced from teaching of values. In the first case, when students are educated in values, the judgment about men and his nature is the most important thing. We refer to the topics and teaching techniques that are required for the students to be able to systematically guide their behavior with the orientations that society consider as valuable. The teaching of values is focused on the instruction of conceptual, informative, and disciplinary aspects.

With the results of the investigations about values in Tamaulipas, it is seriously considered that education with values should be oriented in a very incisive way towards the formative aspect. It must be focused on the relationship between values and behavior, contextualizing the most conspicuous problems that communities, families, and individuals face.

I. FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATION IN VALUES BASED ON COMPETENCIES

School, education, and values.

Education and values have been considered as an obligated relationship to school since the former doesn’t finish its job in simple transmission of knowledge, but assumes the formation of students as one of its main functions, so that they can successfully face their lives, and maturely participate in a society that will demand from them as committed citizens.

The main aspect of this formation is the learning of values, from individual to collective, which reach their maximum significancefor exercising democratic coexistence.

Concept of values

From a Humanistic perspective, the supreme value is manhood –humanity- and the basic moral foundation of human society is its preservation, development, and perfection. Respect for life would be the value related with that preservation, emanating, extending and transferring to a complex group of facts, experiences, and behaviors pertaining to life, as peace preservation, health, environment, and public safety.

While responsibility to comply norms and obligations that improve the relationships of coexistence, institutions, and jobs, respond to the value of social and material development – the whole society- the quest for a fair and equitable society – in all dimensions of human existence: social, economic, cultural and political- would lead to perfecting human beings as citizens.

The conception of aaxiological pillar, considering the human being as a moral base, lies in three basic dimensions: Respect for life; Vocation for development, and Perfection achievement- Equity and Justice- that allow how to identify the way these values are expressed in different stages of educational development of the individual and society.

The “experienciation” is not achieved with the simple systematic exposition from concepts that integrate the value as a public and specific event represented on a cognitive category. The students should be incorporated with everything involving emotions and affections, in order to experiment what the value means. Education must start from emotions provoked by specific situations when students face dilemmas that offer experiencing values in personal and social life.

Education with values presents serious challenges for the teacher in different school levels. The management of students’ sensitivity implies the comprehension of the degree of emotional and cognitive maturity in the different ages of the students.

During development, children, teenagers and youth, besides absorbing knowledge from everywhere –formal and informal education- have a growing ability to get vital experiences that come from family role models, media, friends and surrounding community, reproducing the behavior of the observed models – consciously and unconsciously- whether good or bad, and interiorizing them as part of their identity and character. Therefore, the simple exposition as a vehicle to model axiological behaviors are insufficient. There must be another way of teaching, and another way of integrating themto the students’ curriculum.

Clyde Kluckhohn (1957), regarding values, considers that the inappropriate conceptions of the relationship between normative and existential propositions come from the disproportioned vision from existing differences and similarities among them. Lepley (1959), rejecting the emphasis that tends to exist between judgment of value and judgment of facts, claims it isa mere extrinsic distinction. According to Thorndike (1932), the judgment of value refers to the consequences of factual situations; and therefore, they are from the same type. The distinction between judgment of value and judgment of facts has a classifying nature; object of the former are the relationships via-end, and the latter, cause and effect relationships.

The integration of values in a system, a major factor in the characterization of particular structures (person, family, institutions), it becomes a necessary condition for the integration of motivations in a determined motivational system, which at the same time acts as a factor of identification of personality.

Finally, integration that forms personality, insofar it confers regularity tosocial behaviors and becomes predictable; becomes a necessary condition for role expectations to be formed around the social actors in interaction. Value integration in the personality system is made by a process of internalization that transforms value in a supplementary motivation of the action. Because of this, we must complement the approach of Kluckhohm with the interpretation that Moscovici gives to this process in the Theory of Social Representations (1986).

In most of contemporary educational systems, the so called values are the ones that are included for learning. And these values are the ones considered to support the proposal of education with the values that we present here.

The program of education with values, while taken in a general way by the educational institutions,isconsidered a triple axis –Organism, Ethics, and Environment- sometimes adding a module on civics. The program here in develops special treatments designed to address typical problems such as citizen morality -civic participation-, family and child violence -, problems in the environment- pollution, destruction of natural habitat, public gardens, recreational centers, forests, rivers, and coasts-, and public health problems and prevention- diseases, body hygiene, and collective health-, and finally, aspects of social and economic change in current circumstances: employment,business, efficiency, support, science and technology, personal development and collective progress. “Experience, contextualization, and active participation are the means for an education with values”. In other words, to incorporate the values to our behavior we must live by them, feel them, and get excited with them, as an intimate and external experience.

The school’s role in promoting values

The school in the 21st century has been transformed like all other institutions that are part of our current society. It is no longer an isolated element that allowed certain isolation from society problems, so a student, calmly, under the direction of the teacher, could learn norms for the reproduction of culture, for preparation, and complying society’s demands outside of school, as well as, adapting to the conditions that family and community impose.

The current school has moved from its initial isolation to the growing demands of a society moving towards post modernism, to the scientific-technological revolution, to the empire of massmedia, to the diversity of cultures, the socio economic ending of national borders, the growing demand of new roles, the cosmopolitanism of costumes, and to the expanding markets of globalization.

The school is involved in a constant demand. It is no longer a guarantee of school education, but has become somewhat a substitution of the family’s responsibility in forming students with values. School is demanded to be a center of knowledge and acceptance of external institutions to the preceding role, like the ones dedicated to healthcare, justice, politics, environment and new values appearing from the society’s internalization processes.

As Gilbert (2001) has said,student centered education, the integrated curriculum from preschool through high school, the construction of knowledge, the heterogeneous grouping, the cooperative study groups, the school as a community, the recognition of diversity, critical thinking, are all important, but, above all these aspects, education is a process of life.

On the other hand, school must instruct students for a democratic life. Gutmann (2001) advises that all the students must be prepared to participate as politically equal citizens, in the deliberate configuration of the future of society.

To sum up, we can say that students must be instructed in critical reflection. Rollano (2004) claims that school, in education with values must form human beings able to acquire those cognitive and affective skills that, in harmony, could help them coexist with the necessary balance and understanding to integrate themas individuals who belong to society, and also as a unique human being in the world surrounding him/her. We can consider that people and the whole society are in the middle of a crisis, and that, evidently, we are suffering a serious value crisis. This causes schoolto emerge with a very important role as a rescuer.

Ten approaches to develop education with values

In the educational environment and among experts in education with values, it is recognized that they are most frequently acquired through example ratherthan through recommendations, admonitions, punishments and rewards or by mere school instruction. There are several conditions that must be fulfilled by an effective education with values. Also, we have to consider the students’ experience, their context, and the events’ familiarity that are used to reach an axiological education. Outside their direct experience, their everyday context, and unusual conditions, or outside family perceptions, all education with values will have as a result undefiled achievements.

There are no written or specific rules to develop a strategy for education with values. However, we could present, as useful suggestions, a group of approaches that the teacher needs to take into account to teach education with values.

The first approach is to consider that it is not an easy or simple task; so, we have to accept that it is a complex task, of totalizing processes, of rich and diverse situations.

The second approach is to consider that education with values responds to a conception of “integrality” (forgive the neologism). In other words, a value could not be conceptualized as a divisible structure. No one could be considered half honest, or thirty percent honest. You are honest, or you are not honest.

The third approach is the consideration that values have the property of being transversal. This is, they could be applied to a great different number of facts, situations, objects and conditions.

The fourth approach refers to multidimensionality. Values possess the characteristic that, regardless the place where they were learnt, they could be applied to different areas of social interaction. The counter-values also have this characteristic, and that’s why they are considered dangerous.

The fifth approach considers the correspondence between universal and relative as a characteristic of values. This refers to the appropriate areas of application, the same application, and adequacy, and also the interpretation in the sociocultural diversity. For example, tolerance is considered as a universal value, but is restricted by what guides it. It is evident that, even in the culture of a racist group, this cannot be tolerated because it threatens the ethical implications of the same value.

The sixth approach refers to the fact that education with values takes as a foundation the “reality as educational space”. We educate with values, not for a purely abstract instance, but taking into account the real problems that the students face. Because of this, this kind of education goes beyond the purely scholar environments, and seeks to influence the family and proximal and broader community.

The seventh approach emphasizes that education with values must consider the relationship between the students and their development, in the double conception of growth and development skills of the person, and the development of the person as an intelligent, and ethical human being.

Private and public aspects are the main topics of the eighth approach that has to be considered. We can say that education allows the development of an individual personality with an individual values’ system, it is true that the limits between private and public are so narrow, because their relationship with the community is always close, and, each individual fact transcends to public life. That’s the reason why education is interested in preparing students as citizens.

The ninth approach refers to the idea that values are products of learning, but they are influenced by the students’ particularities, their social vocations, and their preferences about knowledge. This has to be considered as a triad of components: personality, vocation, and knowledge.

The tenth approach considers personal life, social realities, and citizenship. This implies knowing who the student is (his/her social reality, existing implications in training him/her to fully exercise his citizenship). An education with values is not complete if these three components are not contemplated, because, eventually, teachers need to consider these factors.

The concept of competencies in education with values.
What are competencies?

The didactic that allows with greater certainty this special type of learning, education with values, is the establishment of competencies.

From this point of view, what could we understand as a competency? The term is a product from formative models initially used in working environments, and, later on, in the world of schooling education, under the idea that it sets an alternative to satisfy the productive requirements in the job and the demands of life.

We are searching, with this procedure, that human actions become more efficient, but at the same time, we look for defining its components based on structures, and characteristics. This takes us to find different definitions that make us wonder, according to Zavala and Arnau (2007): What are competencies good for? Which is their field of involvement? In which situations should they be applied? And also ask: Are they aptitudes or skills? In any of these aspects are there other components? Also, to make clear the difference between competency and competent acting.

Let’s see some definitions about “competence”, and “competency” that let us recognize its basic components, in semantic and structural terms.

In the working area, McClelland (1973) defined competency as “that element that really causes a superior performance in a specific job”. As we can infer,this author implied quality in the results of the work.

Lloyd McLeary (Cepeda, 2005) defines it as “the presence of characteristics, or the absence of aptitudes that make a person qualified to perform a specific task, or to assume a definite role”. As we can observe, this definition pointsto manifested conditions: the existence or absence of aptitudes that make a person qualified to perform a specific task, or to assume a different role.

The Working International Organization (2004) defines competence as “the effective capacity to successfully accomplish a job activity completely identified”. It adds up to the former definitions, the terms of effective and successful capacity.

The Ministry of the Labor and Social Affairs of the Spanish Government (1995) defines competence as: “the capacity to apply knowledge, skills and attitudes to the performance of the correspondent task, including the capacity of response to unexpected problems, autonomy, flexibility, collaboration with the professional environment, and with the job’s organization”. As we can see, this definition adds onto the explicative area of competence, in addition to “applying knowledge, skills, and attitudes to the performance of the correspondent task”. Besides, it increases the capacity of response to unexpected problems, autonomy, and flexibility. This means, that it goes beyond mere semantics to a certain evaluative approach.

In the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2008)), ccompetence is defined as the ability to do something well, meanwhile, it also points out a difference with the word (competency) as an important ability required to perform a job. This suggests that in English, we have two words for two activities that may seem similar, but they refer to two levels of application of ability: to do something well, anything, and the required ability to perform a “task” well. This means, that rules are necessary, to perform a “task”. This second meaning is used in the definition of “competency” in the school processes, and in the external ones as well.

The Larousse Dictionary (2004) also defines competency by the application to commercial and industrial aspects, considering it as “the set of knowledge, qualities, aptitudes and aptitudes that allow to discuss, consult and decide everything concerning a task”. The definition becomes a broad explanation, and considers that the competency has a group of diverse structures whereby is defined what could be demanded in a job, implying that the knowledge could be applied, more than just theoretical.

The Organization for Cooperation and Development (OCDE, its initials in Spanish), which our country is a member, in its project, “Definition and Selection of Competencies” (2002) for the transformation of educational institutions, and educational programs, it explains competencies as “the ability to successfully accomplish the complex demands, through mobilization of psychosocial prerequisite. In this way, the results that the individual gets through his/her actions, selection or behavior according to the demands, are emphasized".

This definition is complemented with the following addition: “each competency is the combination of practical abilities, knowledge (including tacit knowledge), motivation, ethical values, attitudes, emotions, and other social and behavioral components that can be mobilized together so the action in a determined situation could be successful”. (Zavala y Arnau, 2007).

The presented definitions of competencies for educational and working environments have in common two aspects, they refer to three specific components: psychosocial properties of the person (attitudes, abilities, skills, values, etc.), qualitative orientation (success) towards a specific practice, and forms of action and performance procedures which are adequate to the performed task (efficiency and efficacy).

However, we can observe that the definitions and components attributed to “competency”, to the extent that they serve as parameters to accomplish more complex tasks, they become somewhat broader and lose certain specificity.

Actually, it is important not to forget that competency is a person’s attribute, because he/she is the receiver of the competency, the one who has to be competent. This person is the one who then acts following norms and specifications regarding the appointed task. Thus, we could say that in general terms, we could define competency as the possession of a group of abilities, knowledge, and aptitudes to develop a specific task with quality and efficiency, a specialized activity, or a required job subject to defined norms.

The aptitudes could refer to psychosocial aspects suchas attitudes, values, or skills. In educational terms, the competency implies the successful management of knowledge, aptitudes, attitudes and procedures to acquire a clearly specified learning in terms of applicability to problems, and real situations, or the practical accomplishment of the topics in a given curriculum.

When the subject to be learned -in this case, values- specifies competencies that are related with very abstract aspects, the teaching procedure gains more relevance, because it is the fundamental constitution, which should have the ability to facilitate the most generalization of what was learned. Thus, the technique of "scenarios" has been suggested.

Learning competencies through scenarios.

As we have previously mentioned, the challenge of educating with values not only implies the adoption of a theoretical and evaluative approach, but also, implies the didactic strategies from which is intended to form the students.

In this sense, several authors have manifested the suitability of “scenarios” as a teaching strategy to educate with values, due to its versatility, emulation of real situations close to the students’ lives; high motivational level that stimulates sensitivity, and the ability to propitiate the students’ engagement. (Brady, 2011; Noguera et al., 2000)

Therefore, a scenario connotes the use of a space where an action takes place, and an interaction of characters, representing a group of events, and physical and abstract components that grant meaning and certain limits to the events that happen within it, everything joined by a central argument.

Likewise, in its simplest expression, scenarios require from the performance of competencies that mobilize a group of knowledge, procedures and values, for decision making, and resolution of problematic situations that require value’s judgment and ethical reasoning.

It is worth noting that regarding the attitudinal component of competencies, the solutions to said problems, not only promote learning of a specific value, but also present an interrelationship between values due to the complex web of factors, situations, conditions, people, and groups of various interests that are conflicted in each scenario’s resolution.

Consequently, scenarios provide the participants with numerous resources to derive senses and meanings that allow them to understand the values and their importance in human and collective life, thanks to the immersion of mnemonic processes of reconstruction, recollection, evoking, and recognition of values, that facilitate their learning and transference to wider daily lifecontexts (Cappello, 2006).

Building upon the former principles, scenarios propose learning situations according to the students’ social, cognitive and moral level of development, being pre-school level the simplest and superior levels more complex.

Therefore, the topics that are brought up through scenarios have the characteristic of integrating arguments obtained from families’, schools’ and communities’ daily life’s experience.

Finally, it is convenient to point out that the teachers could introduce variations, changes or adjustments in the application of scenarios, depending on the schools’ conditions, the characteristics ofthe students and the group, the degree of participation of their parents, and the community context, as well as, the formation necessities established in the course syllabus. (Cappello, 2006).

Teaching competencies for the teachers when educating with values.

Likewise students, we believe that who intends educating with values should master a number of competencies. This becomes particularly relevant, because the subject that the students should learn does not refer to material aspects or accessible knowledge that could be easily transmitted through an instructional methodology. The teacher must have certain competencies to allow him/her educate with values effectively.

Which competencies are the ones the teacher must have when educating with values? These, according to various authors (García y Puig, 2007:8), are a group of personal and professional attributes whose level of knowledge is improvable. Educating with values presents certain paradox to the teacher. Whoever he/she is and which ever educational level he/she has, as a human being and a citizen, he/she should be prepared for educating with values.

New ways of teaching advocate not for a selective orientation without foundations, but a mostly inclusive ways of teaching, assuringa trueequity of opportunities for everybody. This doesn’t mean stopping the efforts of the students in their academic responsibilities, but to guiding education to a closer teaching that allows teaching adaptation to the students’ characteristics.

This leads us to annul, in the educational community, prejudices against gender, culture, and socioeconomic class. Within the many competencies that the teacher must possess, there will always be seven basic competencies that the teacher must have when educating with values:

  • 1. To have a conscience that it is required a firm and broad education with values as a parallel to an educational revolution.
  • 2. To be himself/herself.
  • 3. To be able to recognize others.
  • 4. To facilitate dialogue.
  • 5. To regulate participation.
  • 6. To work in teams.
  • 7. To contribute to improve the school.

It is important for teachers have in mind that learning through competencies is a clear advance in teaching. However, we must understand that its application requires from a careful analysis, not only of what must be learned, but also, about its nature and components. In as much aswe get closer to topics that involve aspects with psychological and subjective dimensions, we will need a broader teaching demand, and the construction of learning based on more complex competencies. Definitely, when educating with values, success will be related to the level of competencies that the teachers have to form students in the complex world of values.

Evaluation of civic and ethical competencies: principles and instruments.

How do we evaluate the civic and ethical competencies that students learn and develop from the participation in educational processes when educating with values through scenarios?

Without a doubt, answering this question implies, on one hand, to have the characteristics of competencies’ assessment completely clear, and, on the other, to dispose of certain domain of the instruments that can be used to teach it.

In this sense, the strategy of education with values presented here assumes six key principles about the characteristics of evaluation of civic and ethical competencies, considering the orientation that are provided by the current official educational programs in our country, and supported by specialized literature. (Bolívar, 1998; San Martí, 2007; Zabala y Arnau, 2007).

1. Evaluating competencies inside problematic situations.

Learning civic and ethical competencies must be assessed byplacing the students in scenarios which show problematic situations more or less similar to those they can face in real life, that force them to analyze value choices, to perform ethical reasoning, and make decisions about the behavioral schemes more appropriate to solve those situations. That is, it is required to make a contextualized assessment from the experience of attitudes and values.

2. Evaluating competencies from the expected learning outcomes.

Each scenario establishes a group of expected learning outcomes and tasks constituting in the referents that the teachers could use to determine appropriate products and activities to obtain evidence, as well as the types of instruments and indicators of achievement. The foregoing, with the objective of aligning the teaching–learning–evaluating processes, performed in each scenario.

3. Evaluating competencies clearly defining the assessment activities.

This means that the teachers must define the products or evidences that they consider the most appropriate to observe the learning achieved by the students from their performance in each scenario. The assessment activities of competencies could be diverse, depending of the educational level, including written and graphic productions, collective projects, scripts, documentary investigations, records and attitude schemes of students, among others, that could be compiled in portfolios, or activity notebooks on an individual, team, or group level.

4. Evaluating competencies according to the type of knowledge.

Competencies consist of conceptual, procedural and attitudinal knowledge. Therefore, the teachers must specify the type and degree of knowledge they expect studentsto obtain from each of them. Considering that the manner each component learned is different, the teacher must evaluate them through activities and specific instruments, that allow observation and evaluation in the most integrated way possible, that informs of the knowledge students were capable of learning and mobilize in a specific scenario, or context where the performance of competencies are realized.

5. Evaluating competencies through instruments of formative and alternative assessment.

First of all, the assessment of competencies must be a formative evaluation that guides students in their process of learning and gradual development of certain competencies. Onthe other hand, it must be an alternative evaluation, understood as a compilation of evidences on how students process and complete real tasks in a given topic, like in the case of scenarios.

Unlike traditional assessment, alternative assessment allows teachers to perform four important evaluation activities: 1.To inform students of competencies to be evaluated. 2. To document the students’ progress at a certain time, instead of comparing them with others. 3. To obtain information to adopt decisions on how to enablea learning environment that contributes in a greater manner developing competencies, attitudes and values, instead of punishing the civic, ethical and moral behavior of students. 4. To use instruments with explicit indicators of achievement and also share them with students, teachers, and parents.

Besides, competencies and values assessment must be placed in agreement with the system of values of the school and social communities in which students participate, trying to observe the consequences in the communities, depending on the way that values are applied and practiced.

6. Evaluating competencies implies assuming that learning and development are different in each student.

This requires understanding that students are not human beings that passively receive the environmental influences just like that; on the contrary, they are social agents that actively construct knowledge, attitudes, and values that are considered important to orientate their behavior.

This means that, at present, students build up their personal biographies beyond the institutionalized rules, through complex processes that allow them to set their own system of values, including values, norms, and roles that are offered by family, school, community, and media. Evidently, this process of construction varies depending on the different ages; on the first years it is focused on habits and norms, and in the teenage years it is based on the acquisition of a more complex ethical and moral reasoning.

Instruments to evaluate by competencies

According to Lopez and Hinojosa (2001), the evaluation of competencies is commonly made through two types of instruments of alternative assessment: observation techniques, and performance evaluation techniques. In our case teachers could perform the evaluation of the established competencies in the scenarios mainly through three observation instruments: comparison list, attitude scale, and rubric.

Here after, are presented, in an orientated mode, definitions, examples and general recommendations, to give some general guidance about the instruments that teachers could use to evaluate students’ competencies in each scenario implemented in class.

Check list

It consists of a list or words, phrases or sentences that, as indicators, allow the teacher to identify expected behaviors in the students’ performance in certain areas.

Such indicators must be based on knowledge, procedures, and attitudes that teachers intend to evaluate in the scenario, and must be written on the record sheet judgment, that will allow the assessment of the observed competencies. The phrases in the checklist must specify the sequence of indicators is considered fundamental for the assessment judgment. In front of each phrase,word or sentence, two value columns are included – Yes/No; Achieved/Not Achieved; Competent/Not Competent; etc – in which the observer will take note of everything addressed there, performed or not, by the observed student or group.

Example of check list; group observation

Recommendations to elaborate a checklist:

  • To identify each knowledge and behavior to be observed and make a list of them.
  • To organize the behaviors in the sequence that they are expected to occur.
  • To have a simple procedure to check what was observed.

Scale of assessment

Even though it is similar to the check list, the appreciation scale allows to detect the extent an individual shows each evaluated trait, from its absence or scarcity to the maximum possibility or certain attitude or behavior through a graphical, categorical, or numerical scale, where grading is polytomous. In other words,it is important that the instrument has a separate scale for each trait, attitude, or behavior that will be evaluated.

Example scale of assessment


Recommendations for elaborating a scale of assessment:

  • To determine the trait to be evaluated.
  • To define the trait.
  • To elaborate indicators – clearly observable – from the elaborated definition.
  • To specify the order or sequence of the indicators (if applicable).
  • To validate the logical relationship between the definition of the trait and the elaborated indicators through an expert’s judgments (content validation).
  • To select the type of scale to evaluate each indicator. The appreciation scales must be polytomous, rather numerical, categorical, or graphical.
  • To diagram the instrument.

Rubric

The rubric is an evaluation instrument based on a criteria scale and performance levels that allow determining the quality of students’ performance on specific tasks.

Regarding format or design, the rubric is characterized by three key elements that are placed on the left side; performance levels, in the upper side, and values or scores by level of performance in each evaluated criteria.

It is important to point out that rubric is an evaluation instrument designed among teachers and students, where in a negotiated and explicit manner, are established criteria and levels of performance that will be useful to evaluate the success of students in each criterion.

Example of rubric, bulletin board.


Recommendations for elaborating a rubric:

  • To select the objectives supporting the task or job that has to be completed.
  • To identify all the possible criteria to represent the behaviors or performances expected from the students while completing the task.
  • To organize criteria by levels of effectiveness.
  • To assign a numeric value according to the level of performance.
  • Each level must have behaviors or performance expected from the students, described.
  • Students should know in anticipation the evaluation criteria. Self-assessment using the rubric is recommended to the student.

II. DIDACTIC AND CURRICULAR ORGANIZATION IN THE SCENARIOS BASED ON CIVIC AND ETHICAL COMPETENCIES

The Program Education with Values, based on competencies supported by the Preschool Education Program, 2004 (SEP, 2004), is structured in three main sections. In the first one, the scenarios curricular organization is explained in the formation of civic and ethical competencies in preschool education. In the second is presented the teaching strategy suggested for working in classroom scenarios. Finally, the thematic organization of scenarios is presented, according to competencies and the fundamental purposesfor preschool education.

Curricular organization of scenarios for the formation of competencies and values.

Scenarios are organized according to three different criteria:

Organization criterion 1: Gradual development of competencies

Scenarios are organized according to the criteria of the gradual development of competencies that expresses the Preschool Education Program 2004, specially, the ones which conformthe formative areas of personal and social development, exploration and knowledge of the world, language and communication, meeting the aspects of personal identuty and autonomy, interpersonal relations, nature, culture and social life, and oral language. However, providing various learning experiences, other competencies will gradually develop in a dinamic and interrelational manner.

Organization criterion 2.Selection of values according to the fundamental purposes of preschool education

Scenarios promote the formation of children that will fulfill the fundamental proposals of preschool education, specially the ones referring that children will be able:

  • To develop a positive sense of themselves, express their feelings, begin to behave with autonomy, control their emotions, show willingness to learn and become aware of their achievements as they carry out individual and collaborative activities.

  • To assume diferent roles when playing and when doing other activities, to work in teams, to rely on peers, to solve conflicts through dialogue and to recognize and respect social rules in the classroom, in and outside of school.

  • To appropriate values and principles necessary for life in community, acting on the basis of respect for the rights of others, the exercise of responsibilities, justice and tolerance, recognition and appreciation of linguistic diversity, cultural, ethnic and gender.

  • To gain confidence to express themselves, talk and converse in their native language, improve their listening skills, expand their vocabulary and enrich their oral language to communicate in different situations.

  • To recognize that people have different cultural traits: languages, traditions, ways of being and living.

  • To be interested in the observation of natural phenomena and participate in experimental situations that provide opportunities to ask, predict, compare, record, produce explanations and exchange views on transformation processes of natural and social immediate world, and acquire positive attitudes towards caring and preservation of the environment.

Likewise competencies, these fundamental goals are closely related, and when developing scenarios and teaching suggestions that are mentioned here, they will be favored in an interdisciplinary manner (SEP, 2004).

The importance of promoting other values, such as respect for human dignity, justice, freedom, equality, equity, solidarity, honesty, and appreciation and respect for cultural and natural diversity (SEP, 2009:225) is also emphasized.

According to the Integral Education Axiological Model proposed by Gervilla (2000), these values would become part of a larger set of values, with their anti-values, ranked from five dimensions of the person, such as body values, intellectual, emotional, individual, aesthetic, moral, social, economic and religious-instrumental (see also Seijo, 2009). According to this classification, we can understand, for example, that freedom is regarded as an individual or liberating value, while tolerance and justice are regarded as moral values.

Categorización de valores basada en el Modelo Axiológico de Educación Integral de Gervilla (2000)

Organization Criterion 3. Development of organizational values in response to the pedagogical principles underlying the Preschool Education Program.

The scenarios are designed considering assisting the pedagogical principles underlying the Preschool Education Program, so that working with children in a daily basis when Teaching with values may take place in an atmosphere conducive to learning and under consistent practice of these principles: a) children's characteristics and learning processes, b) diversity and equity and c) educational intervention (SEP, 2004: 31).

These principles have been taken into account as the axis when working with values in scenarios, so if you takea closer look, you can see the importance given to the following aspects: girls and boys come to school with knowledge which are the basis for further learning; the role of an educator is to motivate children to learn; girls and boys learn in interaction with their peers; games promote development and learning; school, as a socialization space should lead the equal rights among children; the successful results of educational intervention require flexible planning, taking competencies and the objectives marked by the Preschool Education Program (SEP, 2004).

Teaching structure of scenarios

The didactic structure of the scenarios used for the formation of competencies, civic and ethical values is based on key elements concentrated on Scenarios by Competencies Table, expecting that these could guide and facilitate its application to the teachers of the corresponding grades and blocks. This structure is now presented.

Description of scenario

It describes in general terms the group of topics and activities that students should complete through the scenario, and it is useful, therefore, to guide the teacher’s job.

Field

It specifies the name of the field corresponding with the scenario.

Competencies

It details the main and related competencies, whose acquisition is promoted through the scenario.

Expected learning

Enlists the expected learning from the scenario, associated to the expected learning of the field.

Values

Enlists the values in which the scenario is focused on.

Scenario

It consists in dilemmatic situations that students must actively solve, and with the help of teachers, relatives or community members, and who facilitate the construction of their own and shared meaningful learning about certain values. In other words, scenarios consist in problematic situations about personal and social life, in which students have to make decisions involving an ethical position, or a value judgment, through the development and application of civic and ethical specific competencies.

Teaching strategy

The teaching strategy offers a detailed sequence of the initial, developing and closing activities, that, as a suggestion, the teacher could use to implement the scenario in the classroom, including more activities for the practice of competencies in scenarios in school life, and in everyday life of students. The activities are designed to facilitate the evaluation of the conceptual, procedural, and attitud in all learning expected from them, implied ineach scenario. It is important to remember that these activities could be adjusted, according to the teacher’s experience, the contextual conditions and situations of the school and the formative needs of the classroom, with the aim that the scenario be sufficiently flexible for the effective teaching of values.

The teaching strategy of scenario in terms of beginning, developing and closingis designed to be implemented in the classroom lasting approximately 45 minutes; however, the school activities or everyday activities must be completed and checked in later sessions of the same subject of Civic and Ethical Formation, or in other subjects, through transversal job.

Evaluation

The evaluation of civic and ethical competencies learning is made in a formative way through the compilation of evidences related to activities and products such as:

  • The individual participation of students in the starting activities and the developing of the scenario.

  • The production of written exercises derived from the closing exercises of the scenario, both individual and team activities.

  • Products, activities, and individual or collective products established in the scenarios applying the civic and ethical competencies in school or everyday life of students. These products must be evaluated through rubrics or checklists designed by the teacher according to the indicators of performance, or performance criteria depending on their school grade and individual development. Through these rubrics, or checklists, the teacher will be able to determine the necessary concepts, procedures, and values to evaluate the civic and ethical competencies in each scenario.

  • For the follow up and control of group and individual evaluations, the teacher could use the evidence portfolio of each student, and could have a class portfolio, where the teacher gathers the products generated from team and group activities.
Topic organization of scenarios

In general terms, educational scenarios in values for preschool pretend to form students in the competencies for life, ethical behavior and responsible citizenship. To fulfill this, the proposed scenarios for preschool revolve around gender equity, public services, responsibility, children’s rights, respect for the environment, health habits, reject physical aggression and insults, and accomplishment motivation.

These topics are adapted to the purposes and contents established in the preschool education program and the competencies that intend to favor students, and were chosen with the objective of facilitating the implementation of these scenarios in a vinculated form and complementary to the develpoment of the formative areas, following the pedagogical principles which sustain this program. In this sense, it is necessary to point out that for the realization of this educational modelin values, the teacher has the freedom to apply scenarios in a flexible manner, adapting, or creating formative activities or procedures different from the ones presented in the teaching strategysection, considering the characteristics of the group, the conditions of the classroom, the timing, and the students’ material resources, and the school, among other conditions.

In the Table of Scenarios by Competencies teachers are provided with a quick and global overview of the formative fields, themes, values and expected learning for the gradual work of a certain competence in preschool education.

Learning assessment

Working with values with preschool children requires, just as in other learning processes, an assessment that allows determining the children’s degree of progress and development, regarding to competencies and defined purposes of education with values, and the education program of the educational level that corresponds.

Nevertheless, to achieve a successful assessment of working with values, the teacher must clearly understand the objectives and function of preschool evaluation. In this regard, it is acknowledged that “learning assessment is a process consisting in comparing or qualifying what children know and can do, their competencies regarding a situation at the beginning of the school period, a work period, or a sequence of activities, and concerning the goals or established purposes in the program of each educational level. It is a judgment based on the information gathered by the teacher, organized and interpreted in different moments during daily work and throughout the school year” (SEP, 2004).

There by, assessment will constitute the base for the teacher to analyze the work with values, in a systematic way, from the scenarios’ implementation, and may make considered and informed decisions about the necessary changes in his/her teaching behavior, so the children keep progressing in the development of competencies.

It will be veryimportant that the teacher keeps in mind that the Preschool Education Program 2004 proposes a formative qualitative assessment, which implies thorough observation, in order to register the attitudes and reactions of children permanently recorded and described in their journal when working with the scenarios and the suggested activities, to be able to identify some strengths and weaknesses in their teacher’s intervention that could be improving, or obstructing the work with values. This would allow modifying and adjusting to develop the activities according to the students’ characteristics, their previous knowledge and interests, and at the same time, to meet the learning necessities shown by preschoolstudents.

The teacher, when evaluating, should have to focus her attention in the daily development of competencies that are indicated in the scenarios, attentively observing and recording the job done, and the dialogue they have between peers, and also the manifestation of attitudes that are being promoted. In this way, it would be possible to evaluate the development of competencies in the children, fulfilling, at the same time, the basic purposes that preschool education indicates.

Parents, and specially the children, are important participants in the assessment process, because their point of view when developing scenarios and the suggested activities will be of great help to the teacher when collecting valuable information, which allows him/her to have a more complete vision of the children’s advances, in education with values.


  • Grade:

    Preschool 2

  • Field:

    Personal and social development.

  • Aspect:

    Interpersonal relationships.

  • Competencies:

    Accept peersjust as they are and understand they all have the same rights and that there are responsibilities they must assume.

  • Values:

    Respect, Tolerance, Equity, Friendship.

  • Learning outcomes:

    Learn that boys and girls can live together and perform different activities.

    Learn the importance of respect for each other regardless their genderand recognize that boys and girls have the same opportunities.

    Accept to play different roles, regardless of their gender.

Scenario 1

Playing together

Description

From different experiences, preschool children will understand that all persons have the same opportunities and possibilities to perform different activities, regardless oftheir gender.

Scenario

It was a brand new day when Luis arrived very early to school. As the bell rang, Luis observed how all his classmates were having fun playing. Then he approachedsome girls who were on the swings with the intention of making new friends, he told them:

“Hi, I’m Luis; I’m in preschool 2 group A, Can I play with you?”.

One of the girls answered: “No! Can’t you see there are only girls here? Go play with the boys!”.

Luis, looking very sad, turned around and went to find the place where the boys were, but they did not let him play with them, because they had already started a car competition.

  • Favored Competencies:
  • Oral language:

    - Listens and tells literary stories that are part of oral tradition.
    - Obtains and shares information through different forms of oral expression.

  • Interpersonal relationship:

    - Acceptspeersjust as they are and understand they all have the same rights, and becomes aware of responsibilities s/he must assume.

    - Learns about the importance of friendship and understandsthe value thattrust, honesty and mutual support have.

  • Culture and social life:

    Recognizes that human beings are different, that everyone is important and hasabilities to participate in society.

Luis sat on a bench outside the classroom, and Lolita came up to him and asked, “Why are you sad?”

Luis answered, “No one wants to play with me... I just remembered, I have a ball in my backpack, “Would you like to play with me?”

Lolita replied, “Of course I want to play with you!”

Then theystarted playing in the schoolyard, and they began to draw the attention of the other kids, who were walking over little by little, and asked Luis if they could play with him…

What do you think Luis answered the kids when they asked if they could play with him and Lolita?


Didactic strategies

Opening:

Before approachingthe scenario, ask students:

Has anyone ever heard about thevalues of equity or equality?
Do you think that boys and girls could do the same things?
Why?

Application:

  • Invite the children to listen to Scenario “Playing together”.
  • Ask the children questions about the scenario, encouraging reflection and dialogue between them:

    Do you think that it was right that the girls did not allow Luis to play with them in the swings? Was the boys’ attitude correct when they told Luis he could not play because they had already started the car competition?

    What would you have done in that situation? What do you think Luis will do with the kids who came to see Lolita and him playing with the ball? Will he invite them to play? Why? Do you think it is important that boys and girls play together? Why? Is it important for boys and girls to respect each other and support one another to do things together?

  • Personal identity and autonomy:

    Recognize their qualities and capabilities and those of their classmates.


  • Written language:

    Express graphically the ideas they want to communicate and verbalize them to elaborate a written text with the help of someone.


  • Look in magazines and show pictures concerning some activities that can be done by boys and girls (men and women), for example: a chef cooking, a boxer jumping rope, girls playing soccer, a gymnast, among others.
  • Invitethe children to make a circle and talk about some activities that can be done by both boys and girls in the classroom.
  • Invite the children to play the game “We have fun together”. To do this, the teacher will ask the boys and girls to stand up and go somewhere in the classroom. The teacher will begin to sing the following verses clapping a rhythm with his/her hands:

    We are different
    but equal as well,
    take a partner
    and play back to back…

    Meanwhile, the children will clap their hands to the teacher’s rhythm, and walk around the classroom in different directions. At the end of the song, they will run and find a partner from the opposite sex and hold hands facing each other or back to back; to encourage the interaction between boys and girls. The children without apartner, will be encouraged by their classmates to look for one and achieve the task. After playing the game several times, the teacher will suggestonce they have a partner to mention the activities they and the opposite sex can do as well, for example, girls playing with cars or videogames, boys making beds, etc.

Closing:

  • The children will do the activity “We all can do different activities” in their workbook. They will complete the silhouette of the boy or girl so be the case, next to it, they will draw a classmate of the opposite sex, who they spend time with every day (it could be the one they chose in the game). They will write their name with the help of the teacher, and represent with drawings or pictures the things their friend can do the same as them.
  • “Boys and girls can do things together and we are capable of doing the same things; therefore, we have he same opportunities”.

For example: Luis draws his friend Lolita playing soccer or running fast, Lolita draws Luis playing on the swings or arranging the classroom material.

  • To end, the boys and girls will comment on the importance of doing different activities regardless their gender, get along, support and respect each other.

Evaluation

- Observe and register if the children talk about the importance of boys and girls being able to do different activities regardless the gender.

- Identify if boys and girls spend time together respectfully in the different games and activities.

- Observe if the children in different situations, accept to play diverse roles, regardless the gender.



Supporting material

- Pictures concerning different activities that can be done by boys and girls.

- Workbook.



Compilation of evidence for the portfolio

- Pictures of the Game “We have fun together”.

- Pictures and cut outs where the children identified different roles that men and women can perform.

- Select some assignments from the workbooks.

  • Grade:

    Preschool 2

  • Field:

    Exploration and world knowledge.

  • Aspect:

    Culture and social life.

  • Competencies:

    Recognize and understand the importance of human efforts to improve family life, at school and in the community.

  • Values:

    Responsibility, care for their environment, respect for the services provided in the community.

  • Learning outcomes:

    Learn the importance of the public services provided in the community.

    Talk with others about the importance and the use of some public services in the community.

    Respect and make good use of public services in the community.

Scenario 2

Saving energy

Description

From different experiences, preschool students will understand the importance of taking care of public services offered in their community. Besides, they will commentand think about their proper use.

Scenario

Sofia went to visit her cousin Cesar. It was a quiet afternoon, and they began to get bored. Cesar was a mischievous and some what restless boy, so he decided to play with the TV turning it on and off many times, and he did the same with the bedroom lights, a game he found to be very amusing.

Once he got tired of doing that, he went to the yard and began to throw rockson a metal box with power cables. When Sofia heard his laughter, she decided to go and checkwhat was causing so much fun to her cousin, and when she realized what he was doing, she was surprised. Cesar invited Sofia to join him in the game and she, excitably, decided to participate.

  • Favored competencies:
  • Oral language:

    Get and share information through different means of oral expression.

  • Dramatic expression and plastic appreciation

    Communicate and creatively express their ideas through plastic arts, using diverse materials and techniques.

The kids were laughing so hard that their mothers went to see what they were doing.

Suddenly, a loud sound was heard. Everyone was surprised because the power went off inthe house and in the neighborhood.

What do you think Sofia and Cesar did to fix this problem?


Didactic strategies

Opening:

  • Ask children to investigate at home, with their parents or neighbors, which public services are offered in the community and their importance. Suggest bringing pictures or drawings about the topic, especially electrical service.
  • Discuss with children about the public services that they investigated. For this, they can show pictures and drawings they brought from home. Ask students:

    Has anyone heard about public services? Which public services are there in our community? What are they for? Have you heard about electricity? How does electricity help people have a better life? How can we take care of electricity and other services in the community?

Application :

  • Invite children to listen to the scenario “Taking care of electricity”.
  • Ask the children questions about the scenario, encouraging reflection and dialogue between them:

    Do you think that Cesar’s attitude was correct? If you were Sofia, would you have played with Cesar? Why? Do you consider important to care of public services that we have at home and in the neighborhood? Why? What would you say to Cesar and Sofia so they can understand

  • “Public services are for everyone; it is important to take care of them and to make good use of them”.

    the importance of caring forelectricity in the community. What can we do to take care of public services that we have at home, in school or in the community?

  • Give children costumes and other props that allow them to act outa representation ofthe public services that exist in the community. Emphasize on electricity, its importance in people’s lives, and the care it should be given.
  • Invite the children to play “Lets take care of public services”. For this, distribute construction paper to the children to form teams according to the public services mentioned above. On the board, place different pictures of the public services that there are in the community, each one has a different color. Show the picture to the children, for example, “electricity” (in green). The team with that color will have to agree and talk about the importance of electricity in people’s lives and give suggestions on how to take care of it.
  • Encourage children to play many times, in order for all teams to participate and think about the importance of taking care of the public services offered in the community.

Closing:

  • To end, the children will make a representation using pictures, cut outs, paint and markers in their notebooks, where they express the importance of the public services in people’s life and the way they should be cared for.
  • Children will discuss the work they did, mentioning the public service represented.

Optional activities: Invite an expert of the Federal Electricity Commission to school to talk about the importance of this public service and the functions of the institution.

Evaluation

- Observe and register if the children talk about the public services that they have in their community.

- Evaluate with the help of the family if children discuss in different games and situations the importance of the public services in people’s lives and the proper use they must be given.

- Evaluate in the representation if the children mention the importance of the public services, and why it is important to respect and take care of them, making a good use of them.

- Evaluate with help of the family if in everyday situations children make good use of the public services that there are in the community.

- Observe the children`s graphic representation to check if they identify some public services, such as electricity, their importance and the action that should be made for their care.



Supporting Material

- Colored construction paper.

- Color pencils, markers or paints.

- Scissors, glue and magazines.

- Drawings and illustrations about public services.

- Costumes of official workers and props to help the performance.



Compilation of evidence for the Portfolio

- Collect some investigations made by the children.

- Compile some graphic representations made by the children about public services.

- Take pictures or video of the children’s performance.

  • Grade:

    Preschool 2

  • Field:

    Personal and social development.

  • Aspect:

    Personal identity and autonomy.

  • Competencies:

    Gradually acquires greater autonomy.

  • Values:

    Responsibility, discipline, perseverance, collaboration, commitment with oneself and others.

  • Learning outcomes:

    Learn and talk about the importance of responsibility.

    Accept, assumeand share responsibilities in and out of the classroom.

    Constantly perform tasks that are assigned in the classroom.

Scenario 3

The most responsible group

Description

Through the next learning experience children will understand the importance of the responsibility and will commit in the fulfillment of the tasks promoting their autonomy from their personal initiative.

Scenario

The school day had started. The principal was walking by the classrooms to see how the kids were working with their teachers, she felt satisfied as she watched how the groups worked in order. However, Miss Tere’s group excelled because everyone was participating from their places, the materials were neat on the shelves and the trash was in its place.

Suddenly, she perceived in shock, that Miss Rosy’s classroom was different from the others; only a few kids were working, some others ran around the classroom, materials were lying on the floor, some children weren’twearing a uniform and others had their uniforms dirty… She also saw the chairs

  • Favored competencies:
  • Oral language:

    - Listens and tells literary stories that are part of tradition.

    - Gets and shares information through different forms of oral expression..

  • Personal identity and autonomy:

    Gradually acquires greater autonomy.

  • Written language:

    Expresses graphically the ideas they want to communicate and verbalize them to elaborate a written text with the help of someone.

  • Mathematical thinking:

    Collects information about the agreed criteria, graphs and interpretsthe information it.

out of place and the children were stepping on the trash as they walked since it was scattered everywhere.

Then, the principal thought on doing a contest to see which group was the most responsible in school…

What do you think Miss Rosy did to win the prize for the most responsible group?

How do you think this story ended?


Didactic strategies

Opening:

  • Ask children about the value of the responsibility:

    Have you heard about responsibility? What do you do to be responsible? Do you have responsibilities at home? Which ones? Have you acted with responsibility? When? How? Where? Is it important to be responsible? Why?

Application:

  • Invite children to listen to the scenario “The most responsible group”.
  • Ask children about the scenario “The most responsible group”, encouraging reflection and dialogue between them:

    Which was the most responsible group inschool? When? Do you think that Miss Rosy’s group was responsible? Why? What are some responsibilities we have in the classroom? Is it important to be responsible? Why? What would you say to Miss Rosy’s class so they can be the most responsible classroom?

  • Invite the children to play “The chores”. The game consists in organizing children into small groups and give them certain tasks. Miss organizes four teams that
    will be responsible for keeping the classroom in order during the school year. The following tasks will be done daily at the end of the morning in order to have children acquire the value of responsibility, this value develops like other values, if it’s practiced in day-to-day situations.
  • Team a will be responsible for ordering the material used; team B will be responsible for picking up the trash left in the classroom at the end of the morning and take out the trash can; team C will be responsible for arranging tables and chairs when the class ends; team D will be responsible for maintaining the order of tables during the class.
  • When carrying out the activities, the teacher will watch all children participate in teams and he/she will encourage or support the ones that have a difficult time integrating.
  • Children will make a poster where they describe the team’s name and the assigned responsibility, to have at sight; also, they will cut out or draw pictures that help children identify the tasks that correspond to each team.
  • The teacher may assign these responsibilities for a week’s period of time, so children will change roles and keep the expectations about the following assigned tasks.
  • To check the fulfillment of the commissions, the teacher and children will implement the “Tasks Chart” that is in the workbook, where they write down the team’s name, its members and the days of the week, they will record through stamps, stickers or sign, the fulfillment of such activities.

Closing:

  • Encourage reflection between children from their participation. For that, the teacher can work with the following questions: Did the children complete their chores? Which teams were those who carried out successfully and enthusiastically their chores every day? How did the classroom look while the tasks were carried out? What could happen if someone did not carry out their responsibilities? How did they feel when they completed the chores? What should we do to act responsibly?
  • “If we act in a responsible way, we can get along better”.

Optional activities:

Work on the board with the help of the teacher, make a list of responsibilities that children can have at home. Children copy the list on a sheet, and put a drawing or picture of each assigned task, so the child can identify them at home. Children take home their list and put it in a visible place. They will record daily if they complete their tasks during a week. At the end, children bring back the list and the record. In the classroom expose how they felt completing their tasks. The length of the activity is flexible.

Evaluation

- Observe, listen and record the children’s conversations about the importance of being responsible.

- Observe if children can identify the differences between being or not responsible. Observe if children assume and carry out with their chores inside and outside the classroom.

- Value if children are responsible in different situations that occur in the classroom: carrying out their activities, ordering the material, in fulfilling their tasks and taking care of their belongings.

- Grade the children’s graphics and the records of the achieved chores, as well as the attitude expressed in the fulfillment of them.

- Identify with the help of the family if the child participates with pleasure and is constant in the chores at home, such as taking out the trash, ordering his/her toys, arranging his/her clothes, among others, and if it has become a habit.



Support resources

- Student’s workbook.

- Brown or bond paper.

- Magazines, markers, colors, stickers.



Compilation of evidence for the portfolio

- Poster with the team’s records and assigned chores.

- Pictures of the children carrying out the chores.

- Keep some lists of records of responsibilities carried out in the classroom.

  • Grade:

    Preschool 2

  • Field:

    Explore and understand the world.

  • Aspect:

    Culture and social life.

  • Competencies:

    Recognize that human beings are different, that everyone is important and has capabilities to participate in society.

  • Values:

    Respect for oneself and others, Love, Justice, and Social Responsibility.

  • Learning outcomes:

    Getting to know the rights of children, especially those who live in the family, and express their ideas about them

    Identifieswhen their rights are not being respected.

    Expresses his/her needs so that his/her rights are respected.

Scenario 4

The children’s rights

Description

From the didactic situations proposed in this scenario, the preschool students will know and value some rights of boys and girls, especially those who live in a family. They will express their ideas about rights and their feelings when these are not respected.

Scenario

It was late when Regina went out to play at the park with her aunt Sonia. Regina was a very restless girl who lived in a little house with her family, consisting of her mother, her brother Mario and her aunt Sonia.

Regina was a very smart and perceptive girl; she realized that in the park there was always a lonely boy selling chewing gum, so Regina asked her aunt Sonia whythe boy was in that condition.

Aunt Sonia answered Regina that probably the boy sold chewing gum to help his family, that maybe they didn’t have enough money to buy food.

  • Favored competencies:
  • Oral language:

    Listens and tells literary stories that are part of tradition. Gets and shares information through different forms of oral expression.

  • Culture and social life:

    Recognizes that humans are different, that everyone is important and has capabilities to participate in society.

  • Written language:

    Expresses graphically the ideas they want to communicate and verbalize them to elaborate a written text with the help of someone.

“Is that good or bad?” Regina asked her aunt Sonia.

“It is good for children to help their parents at home, but is not right to leave them alone out on the street, because it is dangerous. Besides, children have rights that their families must provide them” aunt Sonia responded.

“What are those rights you talk about, aunt?” Regina asked surprised.

“Well, children’s rights are many, for example, have a house to live in, be cared by an adult and protected from danger, attend school, be treated with love, to be taken to the doctor when they are sick, in addition to many other very important rights. It does not matter if you are a boy or a girl, or the country where they live. Children should be treated with love and care because they are small”, replied Aunt Sonia.

What must children do to help their parents? Asked Regina.

“Well, being good, learning at school, helping with homework, and loving them, too” replied Aunt Sonia

What other things should children do to help their family and have those rights?

What do you think Regina can do so children know their rights?


Teaching Suggestions

Opening:

  • Invite the children to research about “children’s rights”, especially those practiced in the family. In advance, ask for a family photo.

    Ask children about the “children’s rights”. Has anyone heard about children’s rights? Do you know what these rights are? What do you think about the fact that children have rights?

  • Dramatic expression and theatrical appreciation:

    Represent characters and real or imaginary situations through games and dramatic expressions.

  • Culture and social life:

    Recognize that humans are different, that everyone is important and has capabilities to take part in society.

Application:

  • Invite the children to listen the “Children’s rights” scenario.
  • Ask the children questions about “The rights of the children” scenario, encouraging the reflection and dialogue between them:

    Why do you think having a home is a children’s right? Is it important that all children have the right tofood, care and protection? Why? What other rights do we have at home? What can we do for all children to know their rights? What should children do to earn these rights? Where can we go or with whom can we talk if we do not have these rights in the family?

  • Invite the children to say some of their rights, according to what they researched and identified in the scenario. Write them on ablack cardboard paper using colored chalks and put an image in front of them so children identify them more easily. Place the poster in a visible place.
  • Invite the children to make a circle. Previously, the teacher places in the classroom two boxes with clothes, accessories, costumes or objects that will allow children to act out some of their rights: to a home, to food and receive love.
  • The children will be asked to choose the material needed to play “The rights in my family” and given a task. This consist of children representing their family members and the attitudes that show their affection, as well as the actions they do to take care of them (such as rights to:food, shelter, affection, and be taken to a doctor).
  • The teacher will invite the children to play “The rights in my family”, then the teacher will take the children’s family photos and place them face down on the table (the ones who did not bring a photo, can draw a picture of their family, the teacher could also bring pictures of families so the children canchoose one that represents their family). When everyone is ready, they will turn over a picture and observe it, everyone will identify their own, when they have it they will mention a right they have at home.

Closing:

  • To end, the children will take their workbooks and paste the picture they worked in class within the section “The rights
  • “All children have the right to a family that loves, cares for and protects them”.

    in my family” and will write with the teacher’s help a right they have at home.

  • End the reflection with the children, encouraging them to express what they learnt with the activity and propose other rights that children must have.




Evaluation

- Observe and record if children make comments about their rights.

- Observe if children identify rights that should be thought in the family.

- Observe if children value their rights to “have a family”, “a place to live”, “receive love and care”.



Support resources

- Photos of the children’s family,paper and colors.

- Pictures of children’s rights..

- Clothes, accessories, costumes and objects that represent a family.

- Glue and crayons.



Compilation of evidence for the portfolio

- Keep some photos of the children with their families.

- Photos or videos of the game or the representation, where the children’s show the rights they have in their families.

- Gather evidences taken from the workbook of some students where they wrote the rights they identify in their families.

  • Grade:

    Preschool 2

  • Field:

    Exploring and understanding the world.

  • Aspect:

    The natural world.

  • Competencies:

    Participate in the conservation of the environment and propose actions for its preservation.

  • Values:

    Responsibility, Respect and care for the environment, Care of the surroundings.

  • Learning outcomes:

    Understand they are part of an environment they must care and respect.

    Practice and propose actions to care for the natural environment.

    Understand the importance of putting the trash in its corresponding place.

    Classify waste in organic and inorganic.

Scenario 5

Waste in place

Description

From the development of the next didactic situations, children will recognize the importance of taking care of their environment, practice some actions to take care of it and learn how to classify waste as a measure of care and respect for their immediate surroundings.

Scenario

It was a beautiful spring day, thesky and sun were shining, the trees showed their bright green color, different kinds of flowers had sprouted, butterflies were flying, and the singing of the birds could be heard from a distance. Some people exercised in the parks and others walked their pets. It was early when Carla arrived at the school.

Carla and her grandmother Diana were very happy observing everything they saw around them. As they went by some streets, Carla started seeing different things: there was a lot of trash on the ground: dirty diapers, soda cans, store flyers, cookie wrappings and

  • Favored competencies:
  • Oral language:

    - Listens and tells literary stories that are part oforal tradition.

    - Gets and sharesinformation through different forms of oral expression.

  • Culture and social life:

    Takes part in the conservation of the natural environment and proposemeasures for its preservation.

garbage bags piled against streetlights torn by dogs.

Carla asked her grandmother Diana why were the streets in those conditions and the grandmother replied:

“It’s because some people throw the trash without thinking, they are not responsible, because they don’t respect or care for our environment”.

Carla remained thoughtful and asked her grandmother.

“Hey, Grandma Diana, what can children do to take care of their environment and make these streets look clean?”

What do you think Carla’s grandmother responded?

Teaching suggestions

Opening:

  • Prior to, request an investigation to the children about the garbage in the house and in the community, as well as its classification: organic and inorganic. Bring illustrations and brief information.
  • Begin by, asking the children about the topic:

    Do you know what garbage is? What happens if we leave the garbage on the ground or in the classroom? What kind of garbage do we throw away in the house or in the classroom? What can we do to reduce the amount of garbage that we have in the house or in school?

Application:

  • Invite the children to listen to the scenario “Waste in place”.
  • Make questions to the children about the scenario “Waste in place”, encouraging reflection and dialogue between them:

    What do you think Carla’s grandmother answered? Have you seen places full of trash like the one Carla saw on her way to school? Which places? Why do you think that these places have so much trash? Do you think it is important to respect and care for the environment that surrounds us? How can we do it?

  • Make a circle in the classroom and invite the children to retake the research on trash? Ask questions to the children: Does anyone know if waste can be classified? How is it classified? How does it help to classify the garbage in different containers? How would our environment look if we placed the trash in its place?
  • The teacher will complement the information of the children clarifying doubts and the importance of classifying the garbage in different places (it is suggested to support with illustrations).
  • Invite the children to play “Waste in place”. For that, the teacher will have collected in advance different types of waste, such as chip wraps, milk cartons, cans, leftover food (cookies, tortillas, etc.). The game consists in placing, at one end of the classroom, two tables with the garbage collected, andon the other end, two medium plastic bins, one labeled “organic” and the other “inorganic”.
  • Organize two teams, standing one in front of each table. Ask the children to observe and explore the trash that is on the tables; after that, they will be told to place the trash in the corresponding bins. The teams will celebrate when they correctly finish the activity. Time does not matter, what does is the correct classification therefore; the team that achieves the task wins.
  • The children they will check the classifications done in the trash bins. If they find mistakes, they will place the garbage in the correct bin and explain why they made the changes.
  • The children will be asked to comment about the importance of classify the garbage, on how this action helps to reduce pollution and about the importance of respecting and keeping clean the places that surround them (house, streets and school).

Closing:

  • To end, the children will perform the activity “Waste in place” in their workbook, in which there appears three trash cans, Invite the children to write, with the help of the teacher, the name of the type of waste in each of the cans, organic, inorganic or toxic in order to identify them; cut out from magazines, supermarket
  • “Caring for and respecting the environment is our responsibility. Put the trash in its place”.

    flyers, and other printed materials, different products and/or garbage and paste them in the corresponding trash can.

  • Ask the children to talk in the class about the importance of classifying the trash at home and in school. Ask them: What would happen if we threw trash everywhere? What can we do in the community so our neighbors classify their garbage as well? How does this help reduce waste? What else can we do to care for our environment?

Optional activities:

Make trash can set home and decorate them with the help of their parents to be located in school and/or in the community to promote the care and respect for the environment from the classification of the trash. Take photos for the portfolio.

Evaluation

-Observe and record if the children talk about the importance of picking up the trash and classify it.

- Observe if the child is capable of identifying organic and inorganic waste.

- Evaluate, with the help of their family, if the child is capable to classify the waste in daily activities in school or at home, like recess, lunch, a trip, etc.

- Observe if the children show attitudes of respect to the environment in general: avoid throwing trash, talks about the care of the environment, puts the trash in the appropriate places, etc.



Support resources

- Pictures or drawings of organic and inorganic wastes.

- Two medium plastic bins (labeled).

- Magazines, brochures, supermarket flyers, printed materials that have illustrations of food, groceries and/or trash.

- Colors, crayons.



Compilation of evidence for the portfolio

- Keep some investigations done at home.

- Take pictures of the game “Waste in place”.

- Collect evidence from the workbook of some students where they classified waste.

- Photos of the containers made at home with their parents.

  • Grade:

    Preschool 2

  • Field:

    Physical development and health.

  • Aspect:

    Health promotion.

  • Competencies:

    Practice basic preventive and safety actions to protect your health, as well as to prevent accidents and risks, in and outside of school.

  • Values:

    Care for oneself, responsibility.

  • Learning outcomes:

    Learn the importance of being healthy.

    Identify healthy food.

    Learn the importance of drinking water on a daily basis and doing physical activities to maintain good health.

    Learn basic actions to takecare of your health.

Scenario 6

Being healthy is fun

Description

While working on this scenario and some activities that are suggested here, preschoolers will understand the importance of doing activities to promote their health. Especially, they will identify healthy food, water and physical exercise as acentral aspect to maintain good health.

Scenario

It was a very nice day when the students were happily taking their Physical Education class. There is Toño, a healthy boy, who likes to eat fruits and vegetables; he loves to exercisein class, besides playing soccer with his friends in the afternoons. There is also Juan, but he doesn’t like Physical Education class, he tires easily, he doesn’t like sports not to mention eating fruits and vegetables, because he says they don’t taste good.

When the bell rang for recess, Toño and Juan ran into each other, they decided to have lunch together. Toño took out a delicious and healthy lunch his mother had prepared from his backpack. Juan was surprised by the content of his lunch and asked:

  • Favored competencies:
  • Oral language:

    - Listens and tells literary stories that are part of oral tradition.
    - Gets and shares information through different forms of oral expression.

  • Health promotion:

    Practices basic preventive and safety measures to preserve health, as well as to avoid accidents and risks inside and outside of school.

  • The natural world:

    Experiments with several elements, objects and materials that are not harmful to find solutions and answers to problems in the natural world.

“Hey! Why do you have all that? Will you eat it alone? You will get very fat!” Meanwhile, he took out from his backpack only a soda and chips.

Toño answered, “Yes! I will eat it all by myself and I won’t get fat like you say. Everything you see here is healthy food. I have a ham sandwich, a bottle of natural water and an apple. My mother explained to me that in order to grow healthy and strong we must follow three fun steps”.

Steps? What are those steps?” asked Juan.

“Look, they are so easy” replied Toño “pay attention”:

Step 1. Drink water.
Step 2. Eat fruit and vegetables.
Step 3. Exercise.

Juan surprised about everything Pablo was saying responded:

“Mmmm, I didn’t know that, and neither does my mom, because I always have a soda and chips in my backpack, and at home I watch cartoons all afternoon … Is that bad, Toño?”

What do you think Toño answered Juan?

  • Coordination, strength and balance:

    Keep the balance and control of movements that involve force, resistance, flexibility and impulse, in games and activities of physical exercise.

  • Dramatic expression and theatrical appreciation:

    Perform characters and situations, real or imaginary, through games and dramatic expression.

Teaching Suggestions

Opening:

  • Ask the children about their health habits: Does someone know why isit important to have good health? How can we be healthy?

Application:

  • Invite the children to listen to the scenario “Being healthy is fun”.
  • Ask the children questions about the scenario “Being healthy is fun”, encouraging reflection and dialogue between them:

    How can we help Juan to have better health? What do you think we should do to grow as healthy and strong as Toño? Is it important to exercise? Why? What would you do to be healthy?

  • The teacher will organize three work corners to address the issue “Being healthy is fun”. These consist in organizing small groups of children (three in this case) that will work simultaneously with activities and materials concerning the activities that the teacher proposes to each team, in order to know about the actions to be healthy.
  • Invite three parents to participate in the activity “Being healthy is fun”, so each one coordinates a work corner in the classroom with the children.
  • Corner 1: “Water is healthy”. In this corner, the teacher sets tables, pitchers, glasses, spoons, lemons, cucumber, pineapple and material with which children can prepare natural fruit drinks and taste them. Here, thechildren talk about the importance of water to be healthy and the need to drink water daily, besides the advantages to drink water instead of soda or bottled juices.
  • Corner 2: “Exercise is healthy”. This corner will occupy most of the classroom, it could even be done outside, in a green area or in the playground; theteacher will place a CD player with the right music for children, a melody that invites them to dance; the parent will prepare an exercise routine for all children to participate (can use objects like hoops, balls, ropes,
  • “Being healthy is fun, you just have to drink water, watch your diet and exercise daily ”.

    inclusively they can organize games where the children can run, shout, etc.). Here, the children will be invited to talk about the importance of exercising, being healthy and how physical activity helps maintain good health.

  • Corner 3: “Food is healthy”. Inthis corner the teacher will prepare two tables, in advance, where the teacher will put play food like plastic fruits and vegetables, bottles of water, food wrapping, food in good condition, so the children can prepare food (junk food can be included so the child can make comparisons and distinguish between those that are healthy and those that are not). Here,invite the children to show and talk about the food that is nutritious, the ones they consume at home and the ones they can prepare to be healthy.
  • The corners will work simultaneously (each for 20 minutes approximately) the children will rotate until all teams have worked in each corner.
  • Parents and teacher will coordinate and support the children with their work, as well as encourage there flection in each one; for this reason the teacher will invite parents in advance, and explain the educational purpose of the corners, their function within these and the materials they can bring.
  • After having gone through the three corners, the children and parents will make a circle. The teacher will turn around and will start clapping; meanwhile, the children and parents pass around a plastic fruit. When the teacher stops clapping, they will stop passing the fruit, the one who has it, will say something they can do to be healthy.

Closing:

  • To end, the children will represent using drawings, cuts outs or other materials, in their workbook “Food is healthy”, three steps to being healthy. Invite them to show their work.
  • Concluding with the reflection: What do you propose so you and your family implement these three steps?

Evaluation

- Observe and record if children talk about the importance to be healthy.

- Evaluate, with the help of the family, if the children in daily situations (especially at recess or in lunch time) change their eating habits, drink water daily and practice physical activities.



Support resources

- Glasses, pitchers, spoons and fruits.

- Plastic fruits and vegetables, food in good condition, wrappers.

- CD player, CDs with music for dancing.

- Magazines, colors,colorpencils, markers, paint.



Gathering evidences for the portfolio

- Take photos of the three work corners.

- Gather evidences of some students’ workbook.

  • Grade:

    Preschool 2

  • Field:

    Personal and social development. Exploring and understanding the world.

  • Aspect:

    Personal identity and autonomy. Culture and social life.

  • Competencies:

    Gradually internalize the rules of relationship and behavior based on equity and respect.

    Become aware of its’ own necessities, points of view and feelings. Develop sensitivity to the needs, points of view and feelings of others.

    Recognize that human beings are different, that we are all important and we have the capability to participate in society.

  • Values:

    Respect, Friendship, Harmony, Peace, Tolerance, Patience, Love.

Scenario 7

Respect is the best solution

Description

In developing this scenario and the teaching suggestions proposed here, preschool children will understand the importance of respect as a life attitude to improve their personal development, and will understand that dialogue is the best way to understand and relate to others.

Scenario

To develop this scenario and the didactic strategies proposed here, preschool children will understand the importance of respect as a life attitude to improve his/her personal development, and will understand that dialogue is the best way to understand and relate with others.

Carlos, somewhat of a bully, asked the teacher:

Why will Enrique hand out the material Miss? He is very slow, and always does things wrong! He looks like a dwarf, he looks like a baby!”

“Ha, ha, ha!” the children laughed and Enrique sat down and became very quiet.

  • Learning outcomes:

    Understand the importance of respect to classmates and others.

    Know some values that allow a better coexistence: respect, honesty and tolerance.

    Express their feelings and gradually controls impulsive behaviors that affect others.

    Consider the consequences of their words and actions to themselves and others.

    Prevent physical and verbal aggression to classmates and others.

They started to work. They were talking, laughing, making questions and mixing up the materials. Everything was going very well in the classroom, until Carlos stood up and went where Enrique’s team was. He looked at his experiment and said:

“That is wrong Enrique, everything your team is doing is awful! You do it like a baby. Those are not the materials, and you don’t know anything!” He pushed Enrique, who began to cry.

When the teacher noticed that, she came and asked: “Kids, what is going on here? Why are you fighting?”

“I wanted to hand out the material; I didn’t want Enrique to do it!” replied Carlos, crying.

“What do you think if we talk about what you feel and what you think? If we agree, you can also hand out the material… and then other classmates!” said the teacher.

“Yes! I agree Miss” replied Carlos, a bit more calm.

“But first you should understand something”

“What Miss?” asked Carlos.

“We all are friends and we must talk before getting angry. We should respect each other”, said the teacher.

“I think you are right Miss!” said Carlos embarrassed. He felt bad and ashamed for what he had done.

“Now, the correct thing to do is to fix things with Enrique, and become friends again” said the teacher.

“I think so too, Miss but, what could I do?” replied Carlos in alively manner.

What do you think Carlos did to fix things with Enrique?

  • Favored competencies:
  • Personal identity and autonomy:

    Becomes aware of own needs, points of view and feelings, to develop sensitivity of the needs, points of view and feeling of others.

  • Culture and social life:

    Recognizes that human beings are different, that we are all important and we have capabilities to participate in society.

  • Written language:

    Expresses graphically the ideas wanted to communicate and verbalize them to create a written text with the help of someone.

  • Interpersonal relationship:

    Gradually internalizes the rules of relationship and behavior based on equity and respect.

Didactic strategies

Opening:

  • Ask the children to talk to their parents or relatives about the value of respect and the actions they must take to respect others. Invite them to bring drawings, pictures or large cut outs that represent these actions.
  • Ask the children questions to stimulate their previous knowledge:

    What is respect? What do respectful people? Is it important to respect others? Why? What are insults? Is it ok to insult others? Why? Is it ok that people yell, hit and insult when they get angry? Why? What do you do when you get angry? How can we express our anger in a proper manner? What can we do to solve a problem with others without offending anyone?

Application:

  • Invite the children to listen the scenario “Respect is the best solution”.
  • Ask the children about the scenario “Respect is the best solution”, in order to encourage reflection and dialogue between them:

    Why was Carlos angry? Do you think it was ok for him to insult and push Enrique? Why? How would you feel if you had been Enrique? Why? What should Carlos have done if he was angry because he was not chosen to distribute the material? What should Carlos do to clarify things between him and Enrique? When you get angry, what do you do? How do you solve your problems when someone makes you angry? Why is it important to respect others? How can we express our anger without offending others?

  • Invite the children to play “Respecting others”. For this, they will put on clothes, accessories and materials that will help them perform the story of Carlos and Enrique, but changing the plot, encouraging the children to show respect among the characters in the story. The teacher will help students in the performance.
  • “Respect is a very important value. It makes you good-hearted and permits a good relationship with others”.

  • The teacher and children will write on large colored cards different actions that we can do to respect rather than to insulteach other, such as to dialogue, to say please when you ask for things, to say thank you, to say what we feel and think without hurting others, to avoid shouting and so on. They will put some adhesive tape on the cards, to be placed on the board.
  • Choose between the drawings and pictures brought by thechildren that better represent these actions. The teacher can bring others that will help thechildren to do this activity. In the same way, they will place adhesive tape to tape them on the board.
  • Invite the children to play “Respecting others”, the teacher will place on the tables happy and sad faces made out of cardboard (they could paste them on tongue depressorfor better handling). The game consists of the teacher will mention some of the phrases or drawings made by the children, for example: “I solve problems throw dialogue”, and when the teacher mentions the phrase, thechildren willraise a happy or sad face depending if it represents respect or lack of respect for others. To encourage reflection, the teacher will add other pictures and/or phrases that represent actions opposite to the respect ones, for example: “I solve problems hitting others”. All children will discuss why they raise the happy or sad face, i.e., they expose their ideas about why that action is a good or bad strategy to solve appropriately any situation.
  • Closing:

    • To end, thechildren will be asked to think about or remember some situations like Carlos’ and Enrique’s, that they had faced with a classmate, friend or neighbor, and talk about what happened. Encourage reflection on what you could do to solve or remedy that situation.
    • Invite the children to make the “The respect card”, that is in the workbook, where they express signs of affection or apology phrases towards aperson. They can decorate them with different materials. Make them reflect about the importance of respecting others, using dialogue as a way to solve a problem and take actions to mediate situations of conflict experienced in the classroom or anywhere. Invite the children to send the cards.

    Evaluation

    - Observe and record if the children talk about the importance of respecting others.

    - Observe if the children respect their classmates in daily situations.

    - Observe during the performance if the children are capable of handling situations where they show respect to others.

    - Identify if the children recognize in the game, situations and pictures that imply respecting others.

    - Evaluate in the children attitudes that express tolerance and patience to others.

    - Observe ifthe children are capable of recognizing dialogue to solve problems in the classroom, and if they use it as astrategy for the solution.

    - Listen to the children’s comments when they are elaborating the respect card, and if they rescue the importance of respecting others and take actions to mediate situations of conflict.



    Support resources

    - Pictures or drawings illustrating respect.

    - Pictures or drawings that reflect the lack of respect to others.

    - Colorpaper and markers.

    - Adhesive tape or glue.

    - Happy and sad faces made with cardboardpaper.

    - Tongue depressor.

    - Scissors, crayons, fabric, foamy, glitter, buttons, etc.



    Gathering evidences for the portfolio

    - Photos or video recording of the performance.

    - Photos of the game.

    - Paste on a bond sheet the pictures of the game “Respecting others” and paste on the side the happy or sad faces, according to the relation the children made.

    - Save some respect cards or photocopy them.

    • Grade:

      Preschool 2

    • Field:

      Personal and social development.

    • Aspect:

      Personal identity and autonomy

    • Competencies:

      Recognize qualities and capabilities and those of classmates.

    • Values:

      Effort, Perseverance, Responsibility, Love for oneself and others.

    • Learning outcomes:

      Identify the characteristics and capabilities that a person has.

      Recognize the value of effort as a means to achieve the proposed goals.

    Scenario 8

    I am able to do great things

    Description

    The next scenario will allow preschool children to develop experiences to identify capabilities and qualities they have as a person, and recognize the value of effort as ameans to achieve goals or activities proposed.

    Scenario

    Physical Education class was just starting when teacher Alejandro told the students there was going to be a sport olympics in the school district, so they would form a baseball team. They would choose the most capable boys, those who played better,who always made an effort to do things better and who were enthusiastic and responsible, those were the boys he was looking to be part of the team.

    When they heard the invitation, the boys got excited, especially Roberto, because he liked baseball and had abilities for that sport.

    When Roberto arrived home, he talked about the invitation made by teacher Alejandro and everyone in his family encouraged him.

    • Favored competencies:
    • Oral language:

      - Listen and tell literary stories that form part of oral tradition.

      - Get and share information through different forms of oral expression.

    • Personal identity and autonomy:

      Recognize their characteristics and capabilities and those of their classmates.

    • Dramatic expression and plastic appreciation:

      Communicate and express creatively their ideas through a plastic arts representation, using varied techniques and materials.

    But his cousin Lulu told him: “Don’t even dream about it, Roberto, you are too slow and I don’t think the teacher will choose you to be part of the School team”.

    Roberto felt a little discouraged, but he knew that he was very good at playing baseball, so everyone encouraged him and told him:

    “It doesn’t matter Roberto. What matters is that you play very well and you can strive to achieve it!” his father told him.

    Roberto cheered up a little and decided to train very hard to be chosen and be part of the school team.

    hey, grandma Diana, What can we do to take care children and our environment these streets look clean?

    Throughout that week, when he arrived home, he ate and did his homework, and instead of watching TV or playing with his neighbors, he went to the park to train with his father. He practiced the plays over and over again. If he did them wrong, he tried again.

    The following week, at school, the Physical Education teacher arrived and took the children to play and choose who would be on the team. Roberto was the firstto start, since he knew he had trained a lot to make it.

    The teacher, seeing Roberto’s attitude and skills, told him “Roberto, you surprised me. I can see you like to play baseball and you do it very well! You are chosen; you are part of the school baseball team!

    What do you think answered Carla's grandma?

    Didactic strategies

    Opening:

    • Ask thechildren about how important we are as a person and what we are able to do if we strive:

      Do you think people can achieve what they propose? What do you think we need to achieve what we want?

    • Application:

      • Ask thechildren about the scenario “I am able to do great things”

    • Ask thechildren about the scenario “I am able to do great things”, in order to encourage reflection and dialogue among them:

      What was Roberto good at? What did he want to achieve? What did he do to achieve it, although he knew he played very well? What would have happened if Roberto does not strive and he does not prepare to be in the team? What can you do? What would you like to achieve in school or when you grow up? What do you think you need, to achieve it? Do you think you can achieve what you want? What do you need?

    • Invite the children to play “I able to…” To develop this game, the teacher will ask the children to think about thing that they can do by themselves or with someone’s help, taking into consideration that a virtue is something that we have since we are born, and an ability is something that we can learnand do well. The teacher can help the children giving examples and standing out the characteristics and capabilities that he/she finds in his/her students, guiding them to choose one.
    • The teacher will invite the children to make a circle in the middle of the classroom, she will put lively music and they will pass a ball around. When the music stops, the one who has the ball will say a characteristic or capability that he/she has and will tell what he/she can achieve with it if he/she strives, for example: “I’m good atpainting and if I strive I can became a great painter like my uncle”, if it is difficult for them, their classmates can help them choose the characteristic that they perceive from them or what they can achieve if they strive. Organize the activity in such a way that all students have a chance to participate.
    • In advance, the teacher will take some insignia as an acknowledgment of the qualities and capabilities of the children, such as a foamy bracelet saying “You can do many things”; she will have them in a box and as the children participate and recognize a quality, she will put one on them; at the end, all the children will have earned a bracelet, being careful that the activity does not become a competition, only a motivation for their achievement.
    • In this activity, the teachers’ help will be very important so the children discover and recognize themselves as a valuable and important person that can achieve what they propose with permanent effort.
    • “I am able to do great things; I only need to try harder”.

    Closing:

    • To end, the children will draw themselves on their workbook, emphasizing their own characteristics and capabilities and what they can achieve with them if they strive constantly. To do the drawing they can use different materials that support this representation: paint, cut outs, fabrics, among others.
    • They will reflect on the importance of making efforts to reach what they want to achieve with some examples: what can you do if you want to be the best student? What can you do if you want to be the best soccer player?


    Evaluation

    - Observe and record if the child expresses satisfactory when he/she realizeshis/her achievements in a certain activity in school.

    - Observe, if in the game, the child identifies and talks about his/her characteristics and capabilities, and what he/sheisable to achieve.

    - Listen to the children’s comments that they make in different situations regarding to the necessity of striving to achieve something.

    - Observe if thechildren strive and show perseverance in what they do.



    Support resources

    - A ball.

    - CD player and CD with music for kids.

    - Crayons, markers, paint, brushes, clay, cut outs, colored sheets of paper, etc.



    Gathering evidences for the portfolio

    - Photos or videos in the activities where children talk about their qualities and capabilities.

    - Keep an insignia with which the children were motived.

    - Keep some drawings made by the children.

    Appendix 1

    Glossary for education in values

    Citizenship: It comes from the Latin voice civitas. It is defined in terms of responsibility, in the sense of corresponsabilization.

    Citizenship is the belonging to a political community and it is constituted in several terms in different societies. It is linked to freedom (taken as a part of natural right, in other words, universal), or justice, or one and the other, and in this sense, it is identified with the exercise of three classes of human rights.

    • 1. Civil rights. For example: to life, to expression, to property.
    • 2. Political rights. For example: to electoral decision, to political party and union association.
    • 3. Social rights. For example: to work, to education, to health.

    Currently, the idea of citizenship covers rights and duties/obligations: considered as coessential for being members of a community. More precisely, we could say that the new citizenship gathers the rights of freedom and equality, with the rights of solidarity. In this sense, the concept of citizenship joins the one of democracy andis characterized by the need of reconciling the demands of participation, on one side and on the other, the ones of justice with the ones of the market.

    Civic: Respectful behavior of citizens about the norms of public coexistence.

    Competency: Ability to successfully achieve the complex demands through mobilization of the psychosocial prerequisites, in a way that the individual results, reached through action, selection, or behavior according to the demands, are emphasized. Similarly, we can say that it refers to a successful intervention in a concrete problem-situation through actions in which attitudinal, procedural and conceptual actions are mobilized.

    Democracy: It is derived from the Greek word demos, which means “town” and kratos that means “town’s government and authority”. Nowadays, the concept of democracy is not limited to a determined form of government; it refers to a set of norms for social and political coexistence

    Democracy as a lifestyle is a form of life based on the respect to human dignity, freedom and rights of each and all of the members of a community.

    Democracy as a form of government implies the participation of the people ingovernment action through suffrage and the exercised control over what is done by the State.

    Human rights: Set of prerogatives, which are inherent to a person’s nature, indispensablefor the integral development of an individual who lives in a society legally organized. These rights, established in the constitution and laws, must be recognized and guaranteed by the State.

    We are all obligated to the respect human rights of others. However, according to the constitutional mandate, the ones with greater responsibility in this sense are the government authorities, that is, men and women in public office. The duty of protecting human rights represents for the State, the demand of providing and maintaining the necessary conditions, in justice, peace and freedom, so that people could really enjoy all their rights. The common welfare supposes that public power must do everything it takes to, gradually, overcome inequality, poverty and discrimination.

    Dialogue: It comes from the Latinso dialogues and the Greek διάλογος. Currently, it still has an eminent normative value. The dialogue implies to talk, discuss, ask and answer between associated people in a common interest of investigation. The principle of dialogue implies philosophical and religious tolerance, in a positive and active sense and therefore, not the kind of tolerance where different points of view exist, but the one where equal legitimacy and good will to understand reasons. A growing appreciation of dialogue is accompanied by a growing appreciation and thanks to in that atmosphere- dialogue concretely lives and persists.

    Human dignity: "The principle of human dignity" enunciated by Kant means the requirement as a second formula of the categorical imperative: "Act so as to treat humanity, whether in your person or in the person of another, always as an end and never merely as a means".

    Education with values: Process to induce civic education in scholars, based on the active participation of their insertion in the social, cultural, political and economical contexts of their community, their province (states) and their nation.

    Values education must be understood, from the constructivist perspective, as a set of natural situations and scenarios, assisted by the experience of teachers, allowing students to build their civic personality in interaction with their peers, their teachers and own sociocultural context of the institution and the social group they belong to.

    Equity:It comes from the Latin aequitas, from aequus, equal; from the Greek επιεικεία, virtue of justice in a concrete case.

    Habitual meekness. to be guided, to fail, by a sense of duty or consciousness, rather than by the strict requirements of justice or by the final text of the law.

    The appeal to justice because it is addressed to correct the law in which justice is expressed. The very nature of equity is the rectification of the law when it proves to be insufficient for its universal character. The law necessarily has general character and, therefore, sometimes proves to be imperfect or difficult to apply to particular cases. In such cases, equity intervenes to judge, not from the law but from justice that the law itself is directed to perform. Justice and equity is not the same; equity is superior, not to what is just per se, but what is just, formulated in a law, because of its universality, it is subject to error.

    Ethics: Science of behavior. There are two fundamental concepts of this science, namely: 1) the considered end science directed to behavior of mankind and the means to achieve and to deduce such end, both end and means of mankind's nature; 2) the considered impulse science of human behavior and intends to determine it with the aim to direct or discipline behavior itself.

    Honesty: Attribute of human quality that consists in behaving and expressing with sincerity and coherence (tell the truth) according to the values of truth and justice.

    Identity: It comes from the Latin identitas.Set of traits of an individual or a community.These characteristics differentiate the individual (or groups of individuals) from each other. Identity is also linked toconsciousness that a person has about himself.

    National identity is manifestedmainly through language, traditions and customs, common history, general values, aspirations as a people, the ethnic composition of the population, the specific culture they have generated, etc.

    Equality: Principle that grants all citizens equal rights.

    You can describe the moral and legal equality as that by which an individual who is subject to certain conditions or privileges has the same possibilities as another in the same conditions.

    Justice: It originates from the Latin termiustitia and allows denominating one of the four cardinal virtues, one inclined to give everyone his belongings.

    It is a value determined by society. It was born from the necessity of keeping peace among the members of a community. It is the group of rules that establish an appropriate frame for people and institutions, authorizing, prohibiting and allowing specific actions in individual and institutional interactions.

    Moral: Pertaining or related to the actions or characters of a person, from the perspective of good and evil.

    Libertad: Comes from the Latin libertas, -atis, of equal meaning. Capability mankindpossess to act according to own will, throughout life; therefore, responsible for own actions.

    Reciprocity: It comes from the Latin reciprocitas and it refers to the mutual correspondence of a person or thing with another. It is the principle of universal relationship of things in the world, principle by which a community is formed, an organized whole.

    Respect: From the Latin respectus, it means attention, consideration. The term refers to moral and ethical issues. The recognition of self dignity or someone else’s dignity is a behavior originated in this acknowledgment.

    Commonly, respect is known by the endeavor of recognizing others, or himself/herself; a certain dignity that is required to be protected.

    Respect is the consideration that someone has a value in itself and is set to reciprocity, mutual respect and mutual recognition.

    Responsibility: It is the virtue or habitual disposition to assume the consequences of people’s own decisions, responding for them. It is the ability to respond for their own acts. It is all that concerns me in an exclusive way and that I can’t humanly reject.

    Solidarity: The root refers to conduct in-solidum, that is, that the destinies of two or more people join. Therefore, to show solidarity is not only to help, but involves a commitment to that to which you are given the solidarity. In the most basic sense, solidarity is supposed to be practiced without distinction of gender, race, nationality, religion, or political affiliation. Solidarity is moved only by the conviction of justice and equality.

    Tolerance: Respect for the ideas, beliefs or practices of others, when they are different, or contrary to the ones we have.

    Values: Principles that allow us to guide our behavior in function of self-realization. They are fundamental beliefs that help us prefer, appreciate and choose some things instead of others, or one behavior instead of another. They are also a source of satisfaction.

    Truth: It comes from the Latin veritas. It is the validity or effectiveness of cognitive processes. By means truth generally the quality by which a cognitive procedure is effective or any succeeds. Truth, in general, is understood as the quality through which a cognitive procedure is efficient or successful.

    Virtue: Designates any capability or Excellency that belongs to any thing or being. Its specific meanings could be reduced to three: 1)general capability or potential, 2) Capability or Human potential; 3) Capability or potential, of moral nature.

    Appendix 2

    Resources to learn more about education in values
    Bindé, J. (2004). ¿Hacia dónde se dirigen los valores?, México, Fondo de Cultura Económica

    Currently, there is a weakening and a crisis of values, which has been mainly produced by globalization only worried by technical progress; which in essence, has led to an increased materialism that has proven to be incapable of guiding actions and remains indifferent to the strength of values. This value crisis is manifested in the use of terms such as “nihilism”, “loss of meaning”, “values’ disappearance”, or “civilization shock” and values which are supposedly irreducible.

    Cappello, H. (2004). El caso de los Congresos Internacionales sobre la Familia del DIF Tamaulipas: Construcción de políticas sociales, identidad colectiva y ciudadanía, Tamaulipas, DIF Tamaulipas

    If we analyze the case of International Congresses about Family of DIF Tamaulipas, explaining how the institutions in the State-Nation are a fundamental part of the process to create a common collective identity a civic-political consistent character, and an awareness about problems and virtues which are more important in the community.

    Chávez, M. (2010). Formación cívica y ética. Oferta de actualización para maestros, México, Instituto Nacional de Evaluación Educativa (INNE)

    It is a document that presents the conceptual frame and the results of the documental analysis of the course materials, workshops, and strategy notebooks for teachers of civic and ethical formation. The study was conducted with the purpose of exploring at what extent these materials satisfy the needs of teaching formation to teach that subject. http://www.inee.edu.mx/archivosbuscador/2009/04/INEE200904118-formacioncivicayeticacompleto.pdf

    Cortés, M. (2004). Una mirada psicoeducativa a los valores, España, Prensas Universitarias de Zaragoza

    Theoretical and practical contents about moral development and its educational side that are seeking empowering personal, moral andethical growth in students and, at certain point, to point out criteria and ethical education strategies for the professional development in the educational environment with the new technologies.

    Education in values and Education for Development.

    International organization dedicated to education in values. In its website it offers multiple educational resources (videos, documents) about education in human rights, for the citizenship, for the peace, among other key topics linked to education in values. http://www.educacionenvalores. org/spip.php?rubrique8

    Hoyos, G. et al. (2001). La educación en valores en Iberoamérica, Madrid, Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos (OEI)

    Different Latin American experts present their perspectives about education with values. Among the analyzed topics, the role of education with values for the construction of democratic societies facing the society of knowledge, are the highlighted topics; in addition, it makes an interesting introduction of some teaching strategies and specific evaluation of education with values.

    Luengo, F. y Moya, J. (2008). Escuela, familia, comunidad: Claves para la acción, España, Wolters Kluwer España, S.A.

    Democratic education is not only a competency and exclusive responsibility of the teachers; it implies all the citizenship in different levels and with complementary actions: Education professionals, family, cities, civic associations, unions, and democratic schools.

    This work gathers ideas, resources and experiences that have been used to fight for that final objective since project Atlántida: close collaboration betweenschool, family and society, all together.

    Martín, X. y Puig, J.M. (2007). Las siete competencias básicas para educar en valores, Barcelona, Graó

    To educate with values, we need certain domain in seven competencies; to be one-self; to recognize others, to facilitate dialogue, to regulate participation, to work in teams, to form a school community and to work in a network. The work proposes that education with values is an essential occupation that teachers suggestfor mastering certain competencies.

    Moreno, A. y Méndez, P. (2004). Familia y sociedad: Un estudio sobre los valores de los tamaulipecos, Tamaulipas, DIF Tamaulipas

    The prevalent Cosmo visions in the state of Tamaulipas are analyzed and interpreted, and also the social manifestations that will be more common in the upcoming years. It reflects ideas, attitudes, and values of Tamaulipas’ people in a way that these are known, appreciated and prepared for facing a new century.

    Mota, G. (2006). Educación cívica y ciudadana: una visión global, México, Santillana

    It proposes the need of strengthening the dignity, identity and the indispensable civil participation in the social construction of new democratic societies, based on jointly agreed upon and informed decisions. Because of the importance of this topic, this is a book of interest for the teachers of any level, and also for scholars, academic, researchers, and concerned citizens, and also busy with the development and consolidation of the democratic life, that each day is more rooted in our country, and some other Hispanic ones.

    Navarro, G. (2000). El diálogo. Procedimientos para la educación en valores, España, Desclée de Brouwer, S.A.

    Adolescence is a critical stage in the formation of adult personality and in morality consolidation. It is the critical moment when the individual discovers rationality and autonomy, but at the same time, s/he uses this wonderful capability of thinking by him/herself against traditional thinking, authority and morality. This often results in a crisis of values, whose uncertain culmination could leave their personality and moral judgment rooted in mere conventionalism void of principles. For them, it becomes necessary to elaborate strategies that propitiate and develop the fondness for rational thinking as a means to elaborate norms and discover values to facilitate coexistence and the solution of conflicts through dialogue.

    Ochoa, A. (2010). La formación del docente para la asignatura de Formación Cívica y Ética: el caso de Querétaro, México, Congreso Iberoamericano de Educación, Metas 2021

    EThe article reports the opinion of the teachers about the formation to teach the subject Civic and Ethical Formation, and it points out some suggestions of the same teachers to improve these processes of formation. http://www.chubut.edu.ar/descargas/secundaria/congreso/DOCENTES/R1223_Ochoa.pdf

    Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos (OEI), Valores

    This is a web site with several publishings of investigations, programs and educational resources about education in values, developed in Iberoamerica. http://www.oei.es/valores.php

    Rollano, D. (2004). Educación en valores. Teoría y práctica para los docentes, España, Ideas Propias

    It gives a guide about the basic contents of education in values, and mentions the very important role of values in the personal and social development of the individual. It presents an approach for education in values, and it also covers the need for an integral education.

    SEP (2011). Encuentro Educación y Valores para la Convivencia en el siglo XXI, 4-9 abril, México

    Experts and international leaders encounter with the Mexican educational community to analyze in a critical way the civic and ethical values required for the Mexican citizen formation in the XXI century. The website grants access to the interesting lectures of the conferences’ keynote speakers and the different panels of discussions and forums analyzingwhat has been made. http://www.educacionyvalores. mx/estructura/actividades-academicas

    UNESCO, Valores para vivir

    International initiative supported by UNESCO, dedicated to the promotion of education in values. The webpage in Spanish contains references to the programs, educational materials, and formation courses. http://www.valoresparavivir.org/ index.php?lang=spanish

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    Bolívar, A. (1998). Educar en valores. Una educación para la ciudadanía, España, Consejería de Educación y Ciencia de la Junta de Andalucía.

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    Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2008). Cambridge University Press.

    Cappello, H.M. (1993). “Variaciones de la identidad nacional. Un estudio empírico de la identidad y el carácter en seis regiones de la nación mexicana”, Pensar es Cultura, CONACULTA, México.

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    Table of Contents

    Book of Values

    VALUE EDUCATION | Second Grade Preeschool 25